Teaching Student with Language andCommunication Disabilities by S. Jay KuderChapter 2: The Elements of Language
Chapter Goals:After reading this chapter students should be able to: 1. Describe the basic elements of language. 2. Understand the terms “phoneme” and “morpheme” and how they differ from each other. 3. Understand the rules that underlie syntax. 4. Understand some of the challenges in developing rules for semantics. 5. Understand the concept of pragmatics and its application in communication.
Phonology: one PART of language Approximately 44 “sounds” in English PHONEME Smallest unit of sound which can “signal” a difference in meaning
What is phonology? Study of the “sound system” of language RULES for sounds and how they can be arranged
International Phonetic Alphabet As an example, the last name of actor Jake Gyllenhaal, written ˈdʒɪlənhɔːl in the IPA, might be written jĭl′·ən·hôl or jil -ən-hawl in a phonemic system, and Jill- in-hall in a non-phonemic system. (Wikipedia)
Experience the IPA!! Review IPA Chart (Handout) Group Quiz
Morphology: just ONE part of language Morphology: study of WORDS and how they are formed Morpheme: Smallest unit of “meaning” in a language
Examples of Morphemes: BASEMENT – How many morphemes? BASE – 1 MENT – 0 BASEBALL – How many morphemes? BASE – 1 BALL – 2
Further dividing “morphemes” Free vs. Bound Free morphemes stand ALONE Bound morphemes ONLY have meaning when attached to another morpheme Examples: “s”- plural, more than one “pre” – before, (prefix) “able” – capable of, (suffix)
SYNTAX: the third PART of language What is “syntax” – it is the study of the RULES which govern how words are put together to make phrases and sentences
Jabberwocky ExercisesComplete both exercises to turn in for credit: 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy and the Jabberwocky 2. Spell Check “Jabberwocky” and examine your findings…. Reflect in note-form 3 points related to syntax and the Jabberwocky.
Chomsky, grammar and ASD Transformational Grammar – Noam Chomsky theory defining TWO levels found in all languages 1. SURFACE vs. DEEP 2. What are some considerations special education teachers should address in this area of social skills/language acquisition?
Chomsky Phrase Structure examined: Correct syntax but no LITERAL meaning: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Furiously sleep ideas green colorless. Activity: Pick one phrase and one mode of explanation to share with the class Picture Mind Map
Semantics: the “Insides” of language Semantics is the study of the meaning of words TWO theories to keep in mind when determining the “content” of a sentence Semantic component theory – certain fundamental features of all words Selection restriction – rules which govern what words can appear together
Metaphor Skills… Pick one of the following metaphors: 1. Read it for understanding. 2. Explain your understanding in BOTH a sentence and drawing. 3. Create your own metaphor for the same idea expressed in your literature choice.
Metaphors – a semantic experience: Her tall black-suited body seemed to carve its way through the crowded room." (Josephine Hart, Damage, 1991) "Fear is a slinking cat I find Beneath the lilacs of my mind." (Sophie Tunnell, "Fear") The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough." (Ezra Pound, "In a Station of the Metro") "Those images that yet Fresh images beget, That dolphin-torn, that gong-tormented sea." (W.B. Yeats, "Byzantium")
Pragmatics: “Using” language “The use of language to express one’s intentions and to get things done in the world” – Gleason IndirectSpeech Acts Direct Speech Acts Relation Principle Quantity Quality Manner
Pragmatics… cases for misunderstanding? Edward Scissorhands - Table Manners Big Bang Theory - Counterfactuals