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Insulin

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Presentation on basic information on insulin

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Insulin

  1. 1. PRoTein: Insulin Biology 185 PJ LeBLanc MeLissa Lim Sonny PaTeL DaN MiRau
  2. 2. <ul><li>Organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Large complex molecule made up of 1 or more chains of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Perform wide variety of activities in cell </li></ul>PRoTein
  3. 3. discovery insuLin discovery <ul><li>1869: Paul Langerhans studied structure of pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noticed unidentified cells in exocrine tissue (Islets of Langerhans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1889: Oscar Minkowski removed pancreas from dog & found sugar in dog’s urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated relationship between pancreas & diabetes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1901: Eugene Opie discovered link between Islets of Langerhans & diabetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus… is caused by destruction of the islets of LAngerhans and occurs only when these bodies are in part of wholly destroyed . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1922: VICTORY ! Insulin officially discovered by Frederick Banting & Charles Best </li></ul>insuLin discovery
  5. 5. <ul><li>After digestion, when blood is filled with glucose, pancreas releases insulin into bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>If blood is extremely saturated with glucose, insulin inside liver stores excess glucose as glycogen </li></ul>insuLin function
  6. 6. <ul><li>After digestion, when blood is filled with glucose, pancreas releases insulin into bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>If blood is extremely saturated with glucose, insulin inside liver stores excess glucose as glycogen </li></ul>insuLin function
  7. 7. <ul><li>Increased production of fatty acids – forces adipose tissue to make fats from fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased proteinolysis – reduction of protein degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased lipolysis – reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids </li></ul>insuLin function
  8. 8. <ul><li>Controls degradation of proteins in cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates cells to absorb amino acids circulating in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of DNA replication & protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake </li></ul>insuLin function
  9. 9. <ul><li>Secreted in beta cells </li></ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas, located in abdomen </li></ul>insuLin location
  10. 10. <ul><li>Two polypeptide chains: alpha chain & beta chain </li></ul>insuLin structure <ul><li>21 amino acids long </li></ul><ul><li>30 amino acids long </li></ul><ul><li>Connected by 2 disulfide bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming globular shape </li></ul></ul>alpha chain beta chain
  11. 11. <ul><li>Amino acid sequence differs slightly between vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows pig or bovine insulin to be injected into humans & still function normally </li></ul></ul>insuLin structure
  12. 12. <ul><li>Binds to plasma membrane of adipose, muscle, & other cells </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers other subunit of receptor to signal vesicles with GLUT-4 glucose transporters to fuse with membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Transporters recognize & bind to glucose molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate selective intake of glucose </li></ul></ul>insuLin structure
  13. 13. <ul><li>Type 1 Diabetes: produce no natural insulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on insulin shots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type 2 Diabetes: body cells react sluggishly to insulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood sugar levels rise dramatically after meals </li></ul></ul>insuLin diabetes
  14. 14. <ul><li>http://www.endocrineweb.com/diabetes/2insulin.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin#Discovery_and_characterization </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/insulin_struct.html </li></ul>insuLin works cited

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