Chapter 1.
Definitions of
“Abnormal”
Definitions of “abnormal”
 Difficulty in coping as perceived by the individual.
 Difficulty in coping as perceived by ot...
Markers of abnormality
Behavior
Feelings or affect
Thought or cognitive process
Physiological responses
External situ...
A Working Definition of “Abnormal Behavior”
Abnormal behavior is maladaptive behavior--any
behavior that does not facilita...
The Vulnerability Model
Vulnerability
(biological, psychological,
and social)
Stressor
Processes
(Biological, psychologica...
Epidemiological Perspectives
Prevalence--the rate of both new & existing cases
Point prevalence - the proportion of people...
 Psychologist
 Psychiatrist
 Social worker
 Psychiatric nurse (also R.N., Clinical Nurse Specialist)
 Occupational th...
A Brief History of
Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Demonological
Medical/ biological model
Environmental/ social model
Psychogenic model
Vulnerability model--biopsychos...
Historical Highlights
Stone Age; trephination, religious accounts of abnormal behavior
Early Chinese, Hebrews, Greeks
Hipp...
Historical Highlights- continued
Dark Ages (200 A.D. to the Renaissance).
European Middle Ages
Throughout this period, the...
Saint Catherine Exorcising a Possessed Woman (by Girolamo Di Benvenuto)
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2...
Historical Highlights- continued
•Establishment of Mental Hospitals or Asylums
•E.g. St. Mary’s of Bethlehem- 1547
•Reform...
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Historical Highlights- continued
•Middle to late 1800s: Emergence of psychiatry
(primarily medical model)
•Early diagnosis...
Research Methods
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Steps in Research
 
1. Specify the topic as clearly & precisely as possible.
2. Review the relevant literature.
3. Define ...
Types of Research- I
Case studies--Usually detailed clinical description of a single
subject--can provide important ideas ...
Correlational
Patterns
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Types of Research- II
Epidemiological designs ↔
Cross-sectional studies– done at a specific point in time, with
specific i...
Types of Research- III
Experimental studies--usually use inferential statistics. Two major
types:
1. Hypothesis-testing ex...
Hypothesis testing
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
The results of a (hypothetical) true experiment
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Pre-
treatment
Post-
treatment
6- month
follow-up...
A hypothetical N = 1 design
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Self-reported
anxiety
Observed
avoidan...
Research Design, Statistical Analysis & Inference
Internal validity--are the results of the study attributable to the mani...
Who your participants are matters!
Population
Sampling:
- Random sampling
- Stratified sampling
Representative
sample
Expe...
Ethics of Research
There are strict standards for human and animal research have been
set by professional groups (e.g. Ame...
Ethics of Research
Key issues include:
1. Informed consent
2. Competence to provide consent
3. Lack of coercion/ voluntary...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sarason11 ch01

429 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
429
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sarason11 ch01

  1. 1. Chapter 1. Definitions of “Abnormal”
  2. 2. Definitions of “abnormal”  Difficulty in coping as perceived by the individual.  Difficulty in coping as perceived by others. Theoretical model.  Statistical deviation.  Cultural & social norms.  What is included in a diagnostic system (e.g. DSM-IV)  Deviancy depends upon the context or situation. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  3. 3. Markers of abnormality Behavior Feelings or affect Thought or cognitive process Physiological responses External situation Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  4. 4. A Working Definition of “Abnormal Behavior” Abnormal behavior is maladaptive behavior--any behavior that does not facilitate the ultimate well-being of the individual and/or the group. A behavior is abnormal if it keeps the individual from coping with the normal stresses of life. (Note that this definition begs the question of what the "normal” stresses of life are). Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  5. 5. The Vulnerability Model Vulnerability (biological, psychological, and social) Stressor Processes (Biological, psychological, and social) Outcome Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  6. 6. Epidemiological Perspectives Prevalence--the rate of both new & existing cases Point prevalence - the proportion of people who have a disorder at a specific time Lifetime prevalence -the proportion of people in the general population who have ever had a particular disorder Incidence--the rate of new cases during a defined period of time Risk factor--a specific characteristic or condition whose presence is associated with an increased likelihood that a specific disorder is present, or will develop at a later date. Resiliency factor- a specific characteristic or condition whose presence is associated with an decreased likelihood that a specific disorder is present, or will develop at a later date. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  7. 7.  Psychologist  Psychiatrist  Social worker  Psychiatric nurse (also R.N., Clinical Nurse Specialist)  Occupational therapist  Family Therapist Mental Health Professions Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  8. 8. A Brief History of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  9. 9. Demonological Medical/ biological model Environmental/ social model Psychogenic model Vulnerability model--biopsychosocial model To some degree, all of these models still prevail today. Models in Psychopathology Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  10. 10. Historical Highlights Stone Age; trephination, religious accounts of abnormal behavior Early Chinese, Hebrews, Greeks Hippocrates (470- 370 BC) - "humours" or bodily fluids: excess or too little of each led to problems, as follows. 1. Blood changeability 2. Black bile  melancholic 3. Yellow bile anxiety 4. Phlegm  sluggish Recognized disorders: 1) mania; 2) melancholia; 3) phrenitis or swelling of the brain. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  11. 11. Historical Highlights- continued Dark Ages (200 A.D. to the Renaissance). European Middle Ages Throughout this period, there was increased conflict between the church & witchcraft— Dancing Manias "Malleus Maleficarum” (The Witch Hammer) Salem Witch Trials Exorcism was a common treatment ↔ Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  12. 12. Saint Catherine Exorcising a Possessed Woman (by Girolamo Di Benvenuto) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  13. 13. Historical Highlights- continued •Establishment of Mental Hospitals or Asylums •E.g. St. Mary’s of Bethlehem- 1547 •Reform– P. Pinel (1745- 1815) • Benjamin Rush (1745- 1813)-- moral treatment. ↔ Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  14. 14. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  15. 15. Historical Highlights- continued •Middle to late 1800s: Emergence of psychiatry (primarily medical model) •Early diagnosis: E. Kraepelin (1856-1926) •Psychological Theories & Causes (Freud, Jung, Adler) •Behavioral models (1920s) •The “Third Force”- humanistic models •Biological models (especially since 1950s and 60s) •Deinstitutionalization ↔ •Cognitive revolution in psychology (1970s and continuing) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  16. 16. Research Methods Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  17. 17. Steps in Research   1. Specify the topic as clearly & precisely as possible. 2. Review the relevant literature. 3. Define the variables: - Independent variables are conditions or factors that are being studied or manipulated - Dependent variables are what your observe as outcomes 4. Develop a specific hypothesis or hypotheses. 5. Select a research strategy--how will the hypothesis be tested? 6. Conduct the study. 7. Analysing the result, using descriptive and/or inferential statistics. The former describe the sample (e.g. means, s.d.) & the latter provide probabilistic judgments. 8. Report the findings. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  18. 18. Types of Research- I Case studies--Usually detailed clinical description of a single subject--can provide important ideas or hypotheses regarding a specific disorder, theory, etc. May be useful for rare disorders. Correlational studies--look at the relationships between variables or sets of variables--again, has limited utility, but can provide useful preliminary information. ↔ Assessment studies--use of objective, standardized assessment data on small or large groups of people. Essentially correlational in nature. Epidemiological studies of population disorders fall in this category. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  19. 19. Correlational Patterns Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  20. 20. Types of Research- II Epidemiological designs ↔ Cross-sectional studies– done at a specific point in time, with specific individuals. Longitudinal studies--assessment studies done over time, with the same group of individuals. Follow-up studies--follow-up of smaller, more specific group of individuals, usually shorter time period than longitudinal. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  21. 21. Types of Research- III Experimental studies--usually use inferential statistics. Two major types: 1. Hypothesis-testing experiment 2. Behavior-change experiment or N =1 designs(do the treatment methods impact the expected behavior change?). Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  22. 22. Hypothesis testing Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  23. 23. The results of a (hypothetical) true experiment 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Pre- treatment Post- treatment 6- month follow-up No treatment Drug therapy Behaviour Therapy The treatment of Panic Disorder; using self-reported anxiety as the outcome Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  24. 24. A hypothetical N = 1 design 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Self-reported anxiety Observed avoidance behaviour Pre-intervention Post-intervention The treatment of social anxiety using behavioral assignments Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  25. 25. Research Design, Statistical Analysis & Inference Internal validity--are the results of the study attributable to the manipulation of the I.V.? A well controlled study usually has good internal validity. External validity--do these results reflect any external reality? Is the manipulation in the lab related to "real life"? Descriptive & inferential statistics Confounding of results--an uncontrolled (& unknown) variable may affect the d.v. & mistakenly be attributed to the i.v. Reactivity--changes in behavior as a result of being studied or observed. E.g. the "Novelty" effect of being in an experiment. Demand characteristics--clues giving out to subjects as to how they are "supposed" to behave. Expectancy effects--similar to above, but has to do with experimenters, assessors' expectations of how the subjects should be responding. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  26. 26. Who your participants are matters! Population Sampling: - Random sampling - Stratified sampling Representative sample Experimental group Control group Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  27. 27. Ethics of Research There are strict standards for human and animal research have been set by professional groups (e.g. American Psychological Association) All research at universities must be approved prior to it being conducted & must follow the guidelines set by the federal granting agencies. Most institutions have research guidelines or requirements for research conducted in them (e.g. hospitals, community programs). All of the above have complaints procedures, and legal liabilities for failure to follow required standards. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  28. 28. Ethics of Research Key issues include: 1. Informed consent 2. Competence to provide consent 3. Lack of coercion/ voluntary consent 4. Identification of risks 5. Protection of vulnerable populations (e.g. children, mentally disordered) 6. Risk management and offset Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005

×