Chemistry 1.2

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Chemistry 1.2

  1. 1. Chemistry Chapter 1 - Section 2 How Elements Bond Monday, July 9, 2012
  2. 2. BondingMonday, July 9, 2012
  3. 3. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  4. 4. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds.Monday, July 9, 2012
  5. 5. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds. 1.by losing electronsMonday, July 9, 2012
  6. 6. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds. 1.by losing electrons 2.by gaining electronsMonday, July 9, 2012
  7. 7. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds. 1.by losing electrons 2.by gaining electrons 3.by pooling electronsMonday, July 9, 2012
  8. 8. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds. 1.by losing electrons 2.by gaining electrons 3.by pooling electrons 4.by sharing electrons with another elementMonday, July 9, 2012
  9. 9. Bonding ✦Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. ✦Atoms have four ways to do form bonds. 1.by losing electrons 2.by gaining electrons 3.by pooling electrons 4.by sharing electrons with another element ✦We will be studying each of these in Section 2.Monday, July 9, 2012
  10. 10. 1 & 2. Gaining and Losing Electrons Monday, July 9, 2012
  11. 11. Sodium and ChlorineMonday, July 9, 2012
  12. 12. Sodium and Chlorine Sodium is a soft, silvery metal.Monday, July 9, 2012
  13. 13. Sodium and Chlorine Sodium is a soft, silvery metal.  It can react violently when added to water or to chlorine.What makes sodium so reactive?Monday, July 9, 2012
  14. 14. Sodium and Chlorine Sodium is a soft, silvery metal.  It can react violently when added to water or to chlorine.What makes sodium so reactive?  Sodium has only one electron in its outer level. Removing this electron empties this level and leaves the completed level below. Sodium is then stable.Monday, July 9, 2012
  15. 15. Sodium and Chlorine Sodium is a soft, silvery metal.  It can react violently when added to water or to chlorine.What makes sodium so reactive?  Sodium has only one electron in its outer level. Removing this electron empties this level and leaves the completed level below. Sodium is then stable. Chlorine forms bonds in a way that is the opposite of sodium—it gains one electron. When chlorine accepts an electron, its electron configuration becomes stable.Monday, July 9, 2012
  16. 16. Monday, July 9, 2012
  17. 17. Forming IonsMonday, July 9, 2012
  18. 18. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.Monday, July 9, 2012
  19. 19. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes.Monday, July 9, 2012
  20. 20. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes.Monday, July 9, 2012
  21. 21. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. =Monday, July 9, 2012
  22. 22. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. = 11 protons 11 electrons (neutral)Monday, July 9, 2012
  23. 23. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. = 11 protons 11 electrons (neutral) butMonday, July 9, 2012
  24. 24. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. = 11 protons 11 electrons (neutral) but after losing one electronMonday, July 9, 2012
  25. 25. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. = 11 protons 11 electrons (neutral) but after losing 11 protons one electron 10 electrons (positively charged)Monday, July 9, 2012
  26. 26. Forming Ions  As sodium atoms lose an electron they become more stable.  But by losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. = 11 protons 11 electrons (neutral) but after losing 11 protons one electron 10 electrons (positively charged)  Sodium becomes a positively charged ion because there is now one fewer electron than there are protons in the nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  27. 27. Monday, July 9, 2012
  28. 28. Forming IonsMonday, July 9, 2012
  29. 29. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron.Monday, July 9, 2012
  30. 30. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron.Monday, July 9, 2012
  31. 31. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. =Monday, July 9, 2012
  32. 32. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. = 17 protons 17 electrons (neutral)Monday, July 9, 2012
  33. 33. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. = 17 protons 17 electrons (neutral) butMonday, July 9, 2012
  34. 34. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. = 17 protons 17 electrons (neutral) after gaining but one electronMonday, July 9, 2012
  35. 35. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. = 17 protons 17 electrons (neutral) after gaining 17 protons but one electron 18 electrons (negatively charged)Monday, July 9, 2012
  36. 36. Forming Ions  In contrast, chlorine becomes an ion by gaining an electron. = 17 protons 17 electrons (neutral) after gaining 17 protons but one electron 18 electrons (negatively charged)  It becomes negatively charged because there is one more electron than there are protons in the nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  37. 37. Monday, July 9, 2012
  38. 38. Forming IonsMonday, July 9, 2012
  39. 39. Forming Ions  An atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained an electron is called an ion.Monday, July 9, 2012
  40. 40. Forming Ions  An atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained an electron is called an ion.  Sodium ion is represented by the symbol Na+Monday, July 9, 2012
  41. 41. Forming Ions  An atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained an electron is called an ion.  Sodium ion is represented by the symbol Na+  A chloride ion is represented by the symbol Cl-Monday, July 9, 2012
  42. 42. Bond FormationMonday, July 9, 2012
  43. 43. Bond Formation  The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other.Monday, July 9, 2012
  44. 44. Bond Formation  The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other.  This attraction, which holds the ions close together, is a type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  45. 45. Bond Formation  The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other.  This attraction, which holds the ions close together, is a type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  46. 46. Bond FormationMonday, July 9, 2012
  47. 47. Bond Formation  Sodium and chloride ions form an ionic bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  48. 48. Bond Formation  Sodium and chloride ions form an ionic bond.  The compound sodium chloride, or table salt, is formed. A compound is a pure substance containing two or more elements that are chemically bonded.Monday, July 9, 2012
  49. 49. Bond Formation  Sodium and chloride ions form an ionic bond.  The compound sodium chloride, or table salt, is formed. A compound is a pure substance containing two or more elements that are chemically bonded.Monday, July 9, 2012
  50. 50. Monday, July 9, 2012
  51. 51. Monday, July 9, 2012
  52. 52. More Gains and LosesMonday, July 9, 2012
  53. 53. More Gains and Loses  Can elements lose or gain more than one electron?Monday, July 9, 2012
  54. 54. More Gains and Loses  Can elements lose or gain more than one electron?  Yes!!Monday, July 9, 2012
  55. 55. More Gains and Loses  Can elements lose or gain more than one electron?  Yes!!  Magnesium, Mg, in Group 2 has two electrons in its outer energy level. Magnesium can lose these two electrons and achieve a completed energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  56. 56. More Gains and Loses  Can elements lose or gain more than one electron?  Yes!!  Magnesium, Mg, in Group 2 has two electrons in its outer energy level. Magnesium can lose these two electrons and achieve a completed energy level.  Oxygen, O, in Group 16 has six electrons in its outer energy level. Oxygen can gain two electrons and achieve a completed energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  57. 57. Monday, July 9, 2012
  58. 58. Monday, July 9, 2012
  59. 59.  The two electrons, in magnesiums outer energy level, can be gained by two chlorine atoms.Monday, July 9, 2012
  60. 60.  The two electrons, in magnesiums outer energy level, can be gained by two chlorine atoms.  The two negatively charged chloride ions are attracted to the positively charged magnesium ion forming ionic bonds.Monday, July 9, 2012
  61. 61.  The two electrons, in magnesiums outer energy level, can be gained by two chlorine atoms.  The two negatively charged chloride ions are attracted to the positively charged magnesium ion forming ionic bonds.  The compound magnesium chloride (MgCl2) is produced.Monday, July 9, 2012
  62. 62.  The two electrons, in magnesiums outer energy level, can be gained by two chlorine atoms.  The two negatively charged chloride ions are attracted to the positively charged magnesium ion forming ionic bonds.  The compound magnesium chloride (MgCl2) is produced.Monday, July 9, 2012
  63. 63. 3. Pooling Electrons Monday, July 9, 2012
  64. 64. Swimming in a Pool of MetalMonday, July 9, 2012
  65. 65. Metallic Bonding - PoolingMonday, July 9, 2012
  66. 66. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  We have just looked at how metal atoms form ionic bonds with atoms of nonmetals.Monday, July 9, 2012
  67. 67. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  We have just looked at how metal atoms form ionic bonds with atoms of nonmetals.  Metals can form bonds with other metal atoms, but in a different way.Monday, July 9, 2012
  68. 68. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  We have just looked at how metal atoms form ionic bonds with atoms of nonmetals.  Metals can form bonds with other metal atoms, but in a different way.  In a metal, the electrons in the outer energy levels of the atoms are not held tightly to individual atoms. Instead, they move freely among all the ions in the metal, forming a shared pool of electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  69. 69. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  We have just looked at how metal atoms form ionic bonds with atoms of nonmetals.  Metals can form bonds with other metal atoms, but in a different way.  In a metal, the electrons in the outer energy levels of the atoms are not held tightly to individual atoms. Instead, they move freely among all the ions in the metal, forming a shared pool of electrons. Metallic bonds form when metal atoms share their pooled electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  70. 70. Metallic Bonding - PoolingMonday, July 9, 2012
  71. 71. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  This bonding affects the properties of metals.Monday, July 9, 2012
  72. 72. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  This bonding affects the properties of metals.  For example, when a metal is hammered into sheets or drawn into a wire, it does not break. Instead, layers of atoms slide over one another.Monday, July 9, 2012
  73. 73. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  This bonding affects the properties of metals.  For example, when a metal is hammered into sheets or drawn into a wire, it does not break. Instead, layers of atoms slide over one another.  An ounce of gold can be stretched into a wire 50 miles long.Monday, July 9, 2012
  74. 74. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  This bonding affects the properties of metals.  For example, when a metal is hammered into sheets or drawn into a wire, it does not break. Instead, layers of atoms slide over one another.  An ounce of gold can be stretched into a wire 50 miles long.Monday, July 9, 2012
  75. 75. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  This bonding affects the properties of metals.  For example, when a metal is hammered into sheets or drawn into a wire, it does not break. Instead, layers of atoms slide over one another.  A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis  An ounce of gold can be court. stretched into a wire 50 miles long.Monday, July 9, 2012
  76. 76. Metallic Bonding - PoolingMonday, July 9, 2012
  77. 77. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  The pooled electrons tend to hold the atoms together.Monday, July 9, 2012
  78. 78. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  The pooled electrons tend to hold the atoms together.  Metallic bonding also is the reason that metals conduct electricity well.Monday, July 9, 2012
  79. 79. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  The pooled electrons tend to hold the atoms together.  Metallic bonding also is the reason that metals conduct electricity well.  The outer electrons in metal atoms readily move from one atom to the next to transmit current.Monday, July 9, 2012
  80. 80. Metallic Bonding - Pooling  The pooled electrons tend to hold the atoms together.  Metallic bonding also is the reason that metals conduct electricity well.  The outer electrons in metal atoms readily move from one atom to the next to transmit current.Monday, July 9, 2012
  81. 81. Monday, July 9, 2012
  82. 82. Monday, July 9, 2012
  83. 83. 4. Sharing Electrons Monday, July 9, 2012
  84. 84. Covalent Bonds - SharingMonday, July 9, 2012
  85. 85. Covalent Bonds - Sharing  Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.Monday, July 9, 2012
  86. 86. Covalent Bonds - Sharing  Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.  Carbon has six electrons, four of the six electrons are in its outer energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  87. 87. Covalent Bonds - Sharing  Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.  Carbon has six electrons, four of the six electrons are in its outer energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  88. 88. Covalent Bonds - Sharing  Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.  Carbon has six electrons, four of the six electrons are in its outer energy level.  To obtain a more stable structure, carbon would either have to gain or lose four electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  89. 89. Covalent Bonds - Sharing  Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.  Carbon has six electrons,  This is difficult four of the six electrons are in because gaining & its outer energy level. losing so many electrons takes  To obtain a more stable structure, carbon would either so much energy. have to gain or lose four The alternative is electrons. sharing electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  90. 90. The Covalent BondMonday, July 9, 2012
  91. 91. The Covalent Bond  The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  92. 92. The Covalent Bond  The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent bond.  Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms.Monday, July 9, 2012
  93. 93. The Covalent Bond  The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent bond.  Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms.  They move back and forth between the outer energy levels of each atom in the covalent bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  94. 94. The Covalent Bond  The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent bond.  Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms.  They move back and forth between the outer energy levels of each atom in the covalent bond.  Each atom has a stable outer energy level some of the time.Monday, July 9, 2012
  95. 95. The Covalent Bond  The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent bond.  Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms.  They move back and forth between the outer energy levels of each atom in the covalent bond.  Each atom has a stable outer energy level some of the time.  Covalently bonded compounds are called molecular compounds.Monday, July 9, 2012
  96. 96. The Covalent BondMonday, July 9, 2012
  97. 97. The Covalent BondMonday, July 9, 2012
  98. 98. The Covalent Bond  The atoms in a covalent bond form a neutral particle.Monday, July 9, 2012
  99. 99. The Covalent Bond  The atoms in a covalent bond form a neutral particle.  The neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons is called a molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  100. 100. The Covalent Bond  The atoms in a covalent bond form a neutral particle.  The neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons is called a molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  101. 101. The Covalent Bond  The atoms in a covalent bond form a neutral particle.  The neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons is called a molecule.  No ions are involved in covalent bonding because no electrons are gained or lost. Ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), are not referred to as molecules, because their basic units are ions, not molecules.Monday, July 9, 2012
  102. 102. Monday, July 9, 2012
  103. 103. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  104. 104. Double and Triple Bonds  Sometimes an atom shares more than one electron with another atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  105. 105. Double and Triple Bonds  Sometimes an atom shares more than one electron with another atom.  When two pairs of electrons are involved in a covalent bond, the bond is called a double bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  106. 106. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  107. 107. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  108. 108. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  109. 109. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  110. 110. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  111. 111. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  112. 112. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  113. 113. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  114. 114. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  115. 115. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  116. 116. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  117. 117. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  118. 118. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  119. 119. Double and Triple BondsMonday, July 9, 2012
  120. 120. Double and Triple Bonds  Here is the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two nitrogen atoms in the nitrogen molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  121. 121. Double and Triple Bonds  Here is the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two nitrogen atoms in the nitrogen molecule.  When three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  122. 122. Double and Triple Bonds  Here is the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two nitrogen atoms in the nitrogen molecule.  When three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond.Monday, July 9, 2012
  123. 123. Monday, July 9, 2012
  124. 124. Ionic vs. CovalentMonday, July 9, 2012
  125. 125. Polar and Nonpolar MoleculesMonday, July 9, 2012
  126. 126. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Do atoms always share their electrons equally?Monday, July 9, 2012
  127. 127. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Do atoms always share their electrons equally?  The answer is no.Monday, July 9, 2012
  128. 128. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Do atoms always share their electrons equally?  The answer is no.  Some atoms have a greater attraction for electrons than others do.Monday, July 9, 2012
  129. 129. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Do atoms always share their electrons equally?  The answer is no.  Some atoms have a greater attraction for electrons than others do.  Why?????Monday, July 9, 2012
  130. 130. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Do atoms always share their electrons equally?  The answer is no.  Some atoms have a greater attraction for electrons than others do.  Why?????  Some atoms have more protons, therefore more positive pull on the electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  131. 131. Polar and Nonpolar MoleculesMonday, July 9, 2012
  132. 132. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Chlorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does.Monday, July 9, 2012
  133. 133. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  Chlorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does.  When hydrogen and chlorine covalently bond, the shared pair of electrons tends to spend more time near the chlorine atom than the hydrogen atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  134. 134. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules Chlorine - 17 protons Hydrogen - 1 proton  Chlorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does.  When hydrogen and chlorine covalently bond, the shared pair of electrons tends to spend more time near the chlorine atom than the hydrogen atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  135. 135. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules Chlorine - 17 protons Hydrogen - 1 proton  Chlorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does.  When hydrogen and chlorine covalently bond, the shared pair of electrons tends to spend more time near the chlorine atom than the hydrogen atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  136. 136. Polar and Nonpolar MoleculesMonday, July 9, 2012
  137. 137. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  The unequal sharing makes one side of the bond more negative than the other. Such bonds are called polar bonds.Monday, July 9, 2012
  138. 138. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  The unequal sharing makes one side of the bond more negative than the other. Such bonds are called polar bonds.  A polar bond is a bond in which electrons are shared unevenly.Monday, July 9, 2012
  139. 139. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules  The unequal sharing makes one side of the bond more negative than the other. Such bonds are called polar bonds.  A polar bond is a bond in which electrons are shared unevenly.Monday, July 9, 2012
  140. 140. Water  The bonds between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atoms in the water molecule are another example of polar bonds.Monday, July 9, 2012
  141. 141. “Get Away, Water!”Monday, July 9, 2012
  142. 142. “Get Away, Water!”  When water molecules are exposed to a negative charge, the water molecules line up like magnets with their positive ends facing the negative charge.  They are drawn to the negative charge on the balloon.  Water molecules also are attracted to each other. This attraction between water molecules accounts for many of the physical properties of water.Monday, July 9, 2012
  143. 143. “Get Away, Water!”Monday, July 9, 2012
  144. 144. “Get Away, Water!”  Molecules that do not have these uneven charges are called nonpolar molecules.Monday, July 9, 2012
  145. 145. “Get Away, Water!”  Molecules that do not have these uneven charges are called nonpolar molecules.  Because each element differs slightly in its ability to attract electrons, the only completely nonpolar bonds are bonds between atoms of the same element.Monday, July 9, 2012
  146. 146. “Get Away, Water!”  Molecules that do not have these uneven charges are called nonpolar molecules.  Because each element differs slightly in its ability to attract electrons, the only completely nonpolar bonds are bonds between atoms of the same element.  One example of a nonpolar bond is the triple bond in the nitrogen molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  147. 147. “Get Away, Water!”  Molecules that do not have these uneven charges are called nonpolar molecules.  Because each element differs slightly in its ability to attract electrons, the only completely nonpolar bonds are bonds between atoms of the same element.  One example of a nonpolar bond is the triple bond in the nitrogen molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  148. 148. Chemical Shorthand  In medieval times, alchemists were the first to explore the world of chemistry.  They used symbols to represent elements.Monday, July 9, 2012
  149. 149. Symbols for Atoms  Modern chemists also use symbols to represent elements.  The symbols are universal.  Each element is represented by a one letter-, two letter-, or three-letter symbol.  Many symbols are the first letters of the element’s name, such as H for hydrogen and C for carbon.  Others are the first letters of the element’s name in another language, such as K for potassium, which stands for kalium, the Latin word for potassium.Monday, July 9, 2012
  150. 150. Symbols for Compounds  Compounds can be described using element symbols and numbers. The figure below shows how two hydrogen atoms join together in a covalent bond.  The resulting hydrogen molecule is represented by the symbol H2. The subscript 2 means that two atoms of hydrogen are in the molecule.Monday, July 9, 2012
  151. 151. Don’t get confused! 2H H2 Monday, July 9, 2012
  152. 152. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one.Monday, July 9, 2012
  153. 153. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2SMonday, July 9, 2012
  154. 154. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2S Ag2SMonday, July 9, 2012
  155. 155. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2S Ag2S NH3Monday, July 9, 2012
  156. 156. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2S Ag2S NH3 H2SO4Monday, July 9, 2012
  157. 157. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2S Ag2S NH3 H2SO4 NaOHMonday, July 9, 2012
  158. 158. Chemical Formula  A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that shows which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present.  When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. H2S Ag2S NH3 H H2SO4 NaOHMonday, July 9, 2012

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