Advances in Genetics (5.3)

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Advances in Genetics (5.3)

  1. 1. Advances in GeneticsHeredity - Section 5.3
  2. 2. Bizarre examples ofgenetic engineering
  3. 3. Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering is a laboratory technique used byscientists to change the DNA of living organisms.Where is genetic engineering used? To help produce large volumes of medicine. Change how cells perform their normal functions. Create plants that are resistant to disease
  4. 4. Recombinant DNAProducing recombinant DNA is one type of geneticengineering.Recombinant DNA is made by inserting a useful segmentof DNA from one organism into a bacterium.The bacterium then reproduces itself and also therecombinant DNA.This method is used to produce large quantities ofhuman insulin, human growth hormone, and otherchemicals by bacteria.
  5. 5. Recombinant DNADNA LOOP – A piece of double-stranded DNA. It carries genes thatare not essential to the bacteria, but can help a bacteria survive incertain circumstances.
  6. 6. Gene TherapyAnother form of genetic engineering is gene transfer(gene therapy).The goal is to replace abnormal genetic material withnormal genetic material.Gene therapy may help with genetic disorders, such acystic fibrosis.Normal DNA or RNA is placed in a virus, the virus thendelivers the normal DNA or RNA to target cells.
  7. 7. Gene Therapy
  8. 8. Gene Therapy
  9. 9. Gene Therapy learn.genetics.com Already completed Section 1 in 5.2 Do Section 2 and part of 3 together Students do Section 4 and 5 on own
  10. 10. Selective BreedingSelective breeding is the process of breeding plants andanimals for particular traits.
  11. 11. Selective BreedingA farmer wants to breed a variety of cow that produces a lot ofmilk, the farmer will then identify the cows that produce themost milk and allow them to breed with one another. Repeat theprocess as many times as necessary by allowing the offspring toreproduce with another until desired goal has been achieved.
  12. 12. Selective BreedingDogs are another good example of selective breeding.Gamekeepers who hunted birds for leisure in the 1800s wanteda dog that didn’t actually exist so they selectively breed amastiff and a bulldog to get the qualities that they wanted.Mastiffs were big and strong who were also good companionsbut they lacked in speed and aggression. The bulldog howeverwas aggressive and fast but lacked in strength. The selectivebreeding process eventually produced a bullmastiff which waslarge, quick, strong and aggressive.
  13. 13. Selective Breeding bulldog +mastiff = bullmastiff
  14. 14. Selective Breeding http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/engineer/select.html
  15. 15. Genetically engineeredBreeding http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/etc/video.html
  16. 16. Genetically EngineeredPlantsGenetic engineering can produce improvements in cropplants (corn, wheat, rice).You select a gene that produces a desired trait in oneplant and then insert that gene(s) into a differentplant.
  17. 17. Genetically EngineeredPlants
  18. 18. Genetically EngineeredPlants http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/coming/coming.html
  19. 19. Stem Cells learn.genetics.comThe Nature of Stem Cells video - watch togetherUnlocking the Stem Cell Potential - video - watch togetherGo, Go Stems Cells - students must choose 3 types of cells and answervarious questions (where are the stem cells located for this tissue?)Stem Cell Quick Reference - students do on own with worksheetThe Stem Cell Debate - students do on own with worksheet
  20. 20. Stem Cells
  21. 21. Stem Cells
  22. 22. Cloning learn.genetics.comClick and Clone - online lab - students do on ownIs it cloning or not - online quizWhy Clone - students do on own with worksheetWhat are the Risks of Cloning? - students do on own with worksheetWhat are some Issues in Cloning? - discuss as a class

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