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Skeletal System


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Skeletal System

  1. 1. BONES, BONES, BONESChapter 1 Section 1
  2. 2. Bones are livingtissues, made ofcells.They take innutrients anduse energy.They are ALIVE!
  3. 3. Made up of all the bones in your body.SkeletalSystem
  4. 4. Functions Of Skeletal SystemGive body shape and supportProtect your internal organsThey serves as an attachment point formuscles, helping them to move.Blood cells are made in the centre of bonesCalcium and phosphorous compounds arestored in bones for later use. They also makebones hard.
  5. 5. Bone Structure•Bones are not smooth.•They have bumps, edges, roundends, rough spots, and many pitsand holes.
  6. 6. Bones Structure
  7. 7. Why the bumps and holes?•Muscles and ligaments attach to thebumps and pits.•Blood vessels and nerves enter andleave through the holes.
  8. 8. PeriosteumSurface of bone iscovered with a tough,tight-fitting membrane
  9. 9. PeriosteumSmall blood vessels in periosteum carrynutrients into the boneCells for growth and repair of bone arefound here alsoUnder the periosteum are two types ofbone - compact bone and spongy bone
  10. 10. Compact BoneDirectly under the periosteum.Compact bone is hard and strong.Gives bones strength.Contains calcium and phosphate.Contains bone cells and blood vesselsIt is living. It is keeps bones from being toorigid, brittle or easily broken
  11. 11. Spongy BonesLocated at the ends of your long bones, like ourthigh and upper arm bone.Have many small openings to keep the bonelightweightThe centers of long bones have a large openingcalled a cavity.These cavities are filled with marrow.Marrow is also in openings of the spongy bone
  12. 12. Spongy Bone
  13. 13. MARROWYellow marrow contains fat cellsRed marrow produces red blood cellsHow long does it take to produce 2-3million red blood cells?1 Second
  14. 14. CartilageThe ends of bones are covered with a smooth,slippery, thick layer of tissue called cartilageCartilage does not contain blood vessels ormineralsFlexibleAbsorbs shocks in jointsMakes movement easier, reduces frictionCan be damaged
  15. 15. No Bones Here
  16. 16. Bone Formation Beginning skeleton was made of cartilage. It gradually broke down and was replaced by bone. Osteoblasts (bone forming cells) deposited mineralscalcium and phosphorus in the bones, making thebone tissue hard. At birth you had 300 bones. You now have 206bones. How did you lose 94 bones?? Some fused, or grew together.
  17. 17. No Bones Here
  18. 18. Osteoblasts build up bone.Osteoclasts….…break down bone tissue.This is normal and healthy.Osteoclasts release calcium and phosphorusinto the blood stream, which are needed tokeep your body working properly, includingmoving your muscles.
  19. 19. JointsAny place where two or more bones cometogetherThe bones are separated by cartilage and areheld together by ligaments
  20. 20. ImmovableJointsExamples:Skull, Pelvis
  21. 21. PivotJointsExamples:arm, head
  22. 22. Ball andSocketExamples:Hip, Shoulder
  23. 23. HingeJointExampleselbows,knees, fingers
  24. 24. GlidingJointExampleswrists, anklesvertebrae
  25. 25. Joint Problems?