Observation Skills & Scientific Method

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  • Observation Skills & Scientific Method

    1. 1. A good Scientist is anObservant Scientist.
    2. 2. advertent, alive, attentive, bright, comprehending, considering,contemplating, deducing, detecting, discerning, discovering,discriminating, eager, interested, keen, mindful, observant, on ones toes,on the ball, perceptive, questioning, quick,searching, sharp, understanding, vigilant, wide- awake
    3. 3. How Observant Are You??
    4. 4. Write down all the objects you remember
    5. 5. Scientific Method
    6. 6. Scientific Method• Problem/Question
    7. 7. Scientific Method• Problem/Question• The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? And, in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.
    8. 8. Scientific Method
    9. 9. Scientific Method• Do Background Research:
    10. 10. Scientific Method• Do Background Research:• Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question, you want to be a savvy scientist using library and Internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you dont repeat mistakes from the past.
    11. 11. Scientific Method
    12. 12. Scientific Method• Construct a Hypothesis:
    13. 13. Scientific Method• Construct a Hypothesis:• A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work:
    14. 14. Scientific Method• Construct a Hypothesis:• A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work:• "If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen." You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.
    15. 15. Scientific Method
    16. 16. Scientific Method• Test Your Hypothesis with an Experiment:
    17. 17. Scientific Method• Test Your Hypothesis with an Experiment:• Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.
    18. 18. Scientific Method• Test Your Hypothesis with an Experiment:• Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.• You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results werent just an accident.
    19. 19. Scientific Method
    20. 20. Scientific Method• Whats an independent variable?
    21. 21. Scientific Method• Whats an independent variable? • it stands alone
    22. 22. Scientific Method• Whats an independent variable? • it stands alone • isnt changed by the other variables you are trying to measure
    23. 23. Scientific Method• Whats an independent variable? • it stands alone • isnt changed by the other variables you are trying to measure • Example: someones age might be an independent variable. Other factors (such as what they eat, how much they go to school, how much television they watch) arent going to change a persons age.
    24. 24. Scientific Method
    25. 25. Scientific Method• Whats a dependent variable?
    26. 26. Scientific Method• Whats a dependent variable?• Something that depends on other factors
    27. 27. Scientific Method• Whats a dependent variable?• Something that depends on other factors• Example: a test score could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you were when you took it.
    28. 28. Scientific Method• Whats a dependent variable?• Something that depends on other factors• Example: a test score could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you were when you took it.• Usually when you are looking for a relationship between two things you are trying to find out what makes the dependent variable change the way it does.
    29. 29. Scientific Method
    30. 30. Scientific Method• Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable.
    31. 31. Scientific Method• Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable.• An easy way to remember is to insert the names of the two variables you are using in this sentence in they way that makes the most sense. Then you can figure out which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable:
    32. 32. Scientific Method• Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable.• An easy way to remember is to insert the names of the two variables you are using in this sentence in they way that makes the most sense. Then you can figure out which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable:• (Independent variable) causes a change in (Dependent Variable) and it isnt possible that (Dependent Variable) could cause a change in(Independent Variable).
    33. 33. Scientific Method
    34. 34. Scientific Method• “Time Spent Studying” causes a change in “Test Score” and it isnt possible that “Test Score” could cause a change in “Time Spent Studying”.
    35. 35. Scientific Method• “Time Spent Studying” causes a change in “Test Score” and it isnt possible that “Test Score” could cause a change in “Time Spent Studying”.• "Time Spent Studying" - independent variable
    36. 36. Scientific Method• “Time Spent Studying” causes a change in “Test Score” and it isnt possible that “Test Score” could cause a change in “Time Spent Studying”.• "Time Spent Studying" - independent variable• "Test Score" - dependent variable because the
    37. 37. Scientific Method
    38. 38. Scientific Method• Controlled variables
    39. 39. Scientific Method• Controlled variables• Quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant, and he must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables.
    40. 40. Scientific Method• Controlled variables• Quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant, and he must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables.• Example: if we want to measure how much water flow increases when we open a faucet, it is important to make sure that the water pressure (the controlled variable) is held constant. Thats because both the water pressure and the opening of a faucet have an impact on how much water flows. If we change both of them at the same time, we cant be sure how much of the change in water flow is because of the faucet opening and how much because of the water pressure. In other words, it would not be a fair test.
    41. 41. Scientific Method
    42. 42. Scientific Method• Analyze Your Data & Draw a Conclusion:
    43. 43. Scientific Method• Analyze Your Data & Draw a Conclusion:• Once your experiment is complete, you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if your hypothesis is true or false.
    44. 44. Scientific Method• Analyze Your Data & Draw a Conclusion:• Once your experiment is complete, you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if your hypothesis is true or false.• Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again. Even if they find that their hypothesis was true, they may want to test it again in a new way.
    45. 45. Scientific Method
    46. 46. Scientific Method• Communicate Your Results:
    47. 47. Scientific Method• Communicate Your Results:• Scientists publish their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting.
    48. 48. http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078617677/164155/00044686.html

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