Digestive System


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Digestive System

  1. 1. Digestive System
  2. 2. Digestive System
  3. 3. Functions of The Digestive System All the food you eat goes through a process with four steps — ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.
  4. 4. Functions of The Digestive System • Food is INGESTED. Ingestion is the act of eating, or putting food in your mouth. • Food is DIGESTED. Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into small particles and molecules that your body can absorb and use. • Nutrients and water in the food are absorbed, or taken in, by cells. ABSORPTION occurs when the cells of the digestive system take in small molecules of digested food. • Undigested food is eliminated. ELIMINATION is the removal of undigested food and other wastes from your body.
  5. 5. Types of Digestion • Before your body can absorb nutrients from food, the food must be broken into small molecules by digestion. • There are TWO types of digestion: MECHANICAL CHEMICAL
  6. 6. Types of Digestion • In mechanical digestion, food is physically broken into smaller pieces. • Mechanical digestion happens when you chew, mash, and grind food with your teeth and tongue. • Smaller pieces of food are easier to swallow and have more surface area than larger pieces. This helps with chemical digestion. • In chemical digestion, chemical reactions break down pieces of food into small molecules.
  7. 7. Types of Digestion - Enzymes • Chemical digestion cannot occur without substances called ENZYMES. • Enzymes are proteins that help break down larger molecules into smaller molecules. • Enzymes also speed up, or catalyze, the rate of chemical reactions. • Without enzymes, some chemical reactions would be too slow or would not occur at all. • There are many kinds of enzymes. Each one is specialized to help break down a specific molecule at a specific location.
  8. 8. • Nutrients in food are made of different molecules, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Many of these molecules are too large for your body to use. • But, because these large molecules are made of long chains of smaller molecules joined together, they can be broken down into smaller pieces. The Role of enzymes in Digestion
  9. 9. • The digestive system produces enzymes that are specialized to help break down each type of food molecule. • The enzyme AMYLASE helps break down carbohydrates. • The enzymes PEPSIN and PAPAIN help break down proteins. • Fats are broken down with the help of the enzyme LIPASE. The Role of enzymes in Digestion
  10. 10. The Role of enzymes in Digestion • Notice that the food molecule breaks apart, but the enzyme does not change. Therefore, the enzyme can immediately be used to break down another food molecule.
  11. 11. Organs of the digestive system • There are TWO parts to your digestive system: the digestive tract and the other organs that help the body break down and absorb food. • The digestive track extends from the mouth to the anus. It has different organs that are connected by tubelike structures. Each of these organs is specialized for a certain function. • The other organs, include the tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
  12. 12. Mouth • Mechanical digestion of food begins in your mouth. • Your teeth and tongue mechanically digest food as you chew. • But even before chewing begins, your salivary glands produce saliva at the thought of food. • They produce more than 1 L of saliva every day. Saliva contains an enzyme that helps break down carbohydrates. • It also contains substances that neutralize acidic foods and a slippery substance that makes food easier to swallow.
  13. 13. Esophagus • When you swallow a bite of food, it enters your esophagus. • The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. • Food moves through the esophagus and the rest of the digestive tract by waves of muscle contractions called peristalsis. • Muscles in the esophagus contract and relax. This action pushes partially digested food down the esophagus and into the stomach.
  14. 14. Esophagus
  15. 15. Esophagus
  16. 16. Stomach • Partially digested food leaves the esophagus and enters the stomach. • The stomach is a large, hollow organ. • One function of the stomach is to store food. This allows you to go many hours between meals. • The stomach is like a balloon. It can stretch when filled. • An adult stomach can hold about 2 L of food and liquid.
  17. 17. Stomach • The stomach also helps with chemical digestion. • The walls of the stomach are extremely folded. These folds enable the stomach to expand and hold large amounts of food. • The cells in these folds produce chemicals that help break down proteins.
  18. 18. Stomach • The stomach contains an acidic fluid called gastric juice. • Gastric juice makes the stomach acidic. Acid helps break down some of the structures that hold plant and animal cells together. • Gastric juice also contains pepsin. Pepsin is an enzyme that helps break down the proteins in foods into amino acids. • Food and gastric juices mix as muscles in the stomach contract through peristalsis. As food mixes with gastric juice in the stomach, it forms a thin, watery liquid called CHYME.
  19. 19. Stomach
  20. 20. Small Intestine • Chemical digestion begins in the mouth and the stomach. But most chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine. • The small intestine is a long tube that is connected to the stomach. • Chemical digestion and nutrient absorption take place in the small intestine. • The small intestine is named for its small diameter — about 2.5 cm. The small intestine is about 7 m long.
  21. 21. Small Intestine • Chemical digestion takes place in the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. • The remainder of the small intestine absorbs nutrients from food.
  22. 22. Small Intestine • Like the stomach, the wall of the intestine has many folds. These fingerlike projections called villi. • Each villus contains small blood vessels. Nutrients in the small intestine diffuse into the blood through these blood vessels.
  23. 23. Small IntestineIF YOU WERE TO STRETCH OUT THE VILLI OF THE SMALL INTESTINE THEY WOULD COVER...... ...a tennis court!!!!
  24. 24. Pancreas and Liver • The pancreas and liver produce substances that enter the small intestine and help with chemical digestion.
  25. 25. Pancreas and Liver • The pancreas produces the enzyme amylase and a substance that neutralizes stomach acid. The enzyme amylase helps break down carbohydrates.
  26. 26. Pancreas and Liver • The liver produces bile. Bile makes it easier to digest fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.
  27. 27. Small Intestine
  28. 28. Large Intestine • Any food that is not absorbed in the small intestine moves by peristalsis into the large intestine. • The large intestine is also called the colon. • The large intestine has a larger diameter (about 5 cm) than the small intestine. It is much shorter than the small intestine, however. It is only about 1.5 m long.
  29. 29. Large Intestine • Most of the water in ingested foods and liquids is absorbed in the small intestine. As food travels through the large intestine, even more water is absorbed. • Materials that pass through the large intestine are the waste products of digestion.
  30. 30. Large Intestine • The waste products become more solid as even more water is absorbed. • Peristalsis continues to force the semisolid waste into the rectum, the last section of the large intestine. • Muscles in the rectum and anus control the release of this semisolid waste, called feces.
  31. 31. Bacteria and Digestion • You might think that all bacteria are harmful. However, some bacteria have an important role in the digestive system. • Bacteria in the intestines digest food and produce important vitamins and amino acids. • Bacteria in the intestines are necessary for proper digestion. Without these bacteria, food would not be digested well.
  32. 32. Homeostasis and the Digestion System • Recall that nutrients from food are absorbed in the small intestine. The digestive system must be functioning properly for this absorption to occur. • The nutrients that are absorbed are needed for other body systems to maintain homeostasis. • For example, the blood in the circulatory system absorbs the products of digestion. The blood carries the nutrients to all other body systems, providing them with materials that contain energy.