ChemistryChapter 4 - Section 3              Biological             Compounds                           
Polymer?
a molecule made up of many smallorganic molecules linked together     with covalent bonds to        form a long chain
Monomer?
small, organic molecules that link  together to form polymers
MonomerMonomer Monomer Monomer  Monomer  Monomer   Monomer   Monomer    Monomer    Monomer     Monomer     Monomer      Mo...
MonomerMonomer Monomer Monomer  Monomer  Monomer   Monomer   Monomer    Monomer    Monomer     Monomer     Monomer      Mo...
Natural Polymers produced      by living things   Synthetic Polymers    produced in a lab
monomer                 polymer           Polymerizationchemical reaction in which monomers are  bonded together to make a...
s! !        e in      otP   r
Proteins are polymers!!      A polymer that consistsof a chain of individual amino acids          linked together
Proteins✦The various functions in your body are performed by different proteins.✦Your body makes many of these proteins by...
Proteins✦Your body cannot function properly without proteins.✦Proteins in the form of enzymes serve as catalysts and speed...
Forming a protein
s!!                     t   e                  ra               yd         o   h      r bC a
Carbohydrates?
an organiccompound that contains only carbon, hydrogen, and          oxygen,  usually in a ratio of two  hydrogen atoms to...
In the body, carbohydrates    are broken down intosimple sugars that the body    can use for energy.
CarbohydrateSugar Cellulose Starch
Sugars?
Simple sugars are carbohydrates containingfive, six, or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring.
3 types of sugars areglucose, fructose and      sucrose.
These are isomers! Why???
Glucose is found in many naturally sweetfoods, such as grapes   and bananas.
Fructose is the sweetsubstance found in ripe fruit and honey. Itoften is found in corn        syrup.
The sugar you probably have in your sugar   bowl or use in  baking a cake is      sucrose.
glucose   fructose
sucrose
Sucrose✦In the body, sucrose cannot move through cell membranes.✦It must be broken down into glucose and fructose to enter...
Starches?
polymers ofglucose monomers in which hundreds or even thousands ofglucose molecules are   joined together
glucose glucose glucose glucose                                                  glucose glucose glucose                  ...
Each sugar molecule releases  energy when it is brokendown, starches are sources of  large amounts of energy.
Cellulose?
a polymer that consists of longchains of glucose units linked           together
glucose   glucose   glucose   glucose     glucoseglucose   glucose   glucose   glucose    glucoseglucose   glucose   gluco...
makes up the long, stiff fibersfound in the walls of plant cells, like the strands that pull off the celery                ...
Cellulose✦Although cellulose is a polymer of glucose, humans can’t use cellulose as a source of energy.✦The human digestiv...
Glycogen?
a polymer that alsocontains chains of glucose units, but the chains are     highly branched
co se                                         glu                     luc ose                                      glucose...
Glycogen✦Animals make glycogen and store it mainly in their muscles and liver as a ready source of glucos
s ! !   p i dL i
Lipids?
organic compound thatcontains the same elements as carbohydrates—carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but  in different proportions
Lipids are the products ofglycerol and three long- chain carboxylic acids       coming together.
long            carb    chaigl ycerol        oxy     n                     l gro                           up
long chaincarboxyl group  glycerol
Lipids✦Lipids are commonly called fats and oils, but they also are found in greases and waxes such as beeswax.✦Wax is a li...
Lipids✦Lipids store energy in their bonds, just as carbohydrates do, but they are a more concentrated source of energy tha...
Lipids can    also be Saturated     andUnsaturated
✦Saturated fats are solids because the straight chain molecules can pack together tightly.✦They are saturated with hydroge...
✦Unsaturated fats tend to be oils because their bent chains can’t get close together.✦They are not saturated with hydrogen...
Cholesterol?
a complex lipid that is          presentin foods that come from  animals, such as meat, butter, eggs, and cheese
Cholesterol✦Cholesterol is not a fat.✦Even if you don’t eat foods containing cholesterol, your body makes its own supply.✦...
Biological Compounds
Biological Compounds
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Biological Compounds

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Biological Compounds

  1. 1. ChemistryChapter 4 - Section 3 Biological Compounds 
  2. 2. Polymer?
  3. 3. a molecule made up of many smallorganic molecules linked together with covalent bonds to form a long chain
  4. 4. Monomer?
  5. 5. small, organic molecules that link together to form polymers
  6. 6. MonomerMonomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer
  7. 7. MonomerMonomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer MonomerPo Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer ly Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer m Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer er Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer
  8. 8. Natural Polymers produced by living things Synthetic Polymers produced in a lab
  9. 9. monomer polymer Polymerizationchemical reaction in which monomers are bonded together to make a polymer
  10. 10. s! ! e in otP r
  11. 11. Proteins are polymers!! A polymer that consistsof a chain of individual amino acids linked together
  12. 12. Proteins✦The various functions in your body are performed by different proteins.✦Your body makes many of these proteins by assembling 20 amino acids in different ways.✦Eight of the amino acids that are needed to make proteins cannot be produced by your body. These amino acids, which are called essential amino acids, must come from …✦the food you eat!! That’s why you need to eat a diet containing protein-rich foods, like…
  13. 13. Proteins✦Your body cannot function properly without proteins.✦Proteins in the form of enzymes serve as catalysts and speed up chemical reactions in cells.✦Some proteins make up the structural materials in ligaments, tendons, muscles, cartilage, hair, and fingernails.✦Hemoglobin, which carries oxygen through the blood, is a protein polymer, and all body cells contain proteins.
  14. 14. Forming a protein
  15. 15. s!! t e ra yd o h r bC a
  16. 16. Carbohydrates?
  17. 17. an organiccompound that contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in a ratio of two hydrogen atoms to one
  18. 18. In the body, carbohydrates are broken down intosimple sugars that the body can use for energy.
  19. 19. CarbohydrateSugar Cellulose Starch
  20. 20. Sugars?
  21. 21. Simple sugars are carbohydrates containingfive, six, or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring.
  22. 22. 3 types of sugars areglucose, fructose and sucrose.
  23. 23. These are isomers! Why???
  24. 24. Glucose is found in many naturally sweetfoods, such as grapes and bananas.
  25. 25. Fructose is the sweetsubstance found in ripe fruit and honey. Itoften is found in corn syrup.
  26. 26. The sugar you probably have in your sugar bowl or use in baking a cake is sucrose.
  27. 27. glucose fructose
  28. 28. sucrose
  29. 29. Sucrose✦In the body, sucrose cannot move through cell membranes.✦It must be broken down into glucose and fructose to enter cells.✦Inside the cells, these glucose and fructose are broken down further, releasing energy for cell functions.
  30. 30. Starches?
  31. 31. polymers ofglucose monomers in which hundreds or even thousands ofglucose molecules are joined together
  32. 32. glucose glucose glucose glucose glucose glucose glucose gluglucose glucose cos e g luco se lucose g glu cos glucose glucose glucose e
  33. 33. Each sugar molecule releases energy when it is brokendown, starches are sources of large amounts of energy.
  34. 34. Cellulose?
  35. 35. a polymer that consists of longchains of glucose units linked together
  36. 36. glucose glucose glucose glucose glucoseglucose glucose glucose glucose glucoseglucose glucose glucose glucose glucoseglucose glucose glucose glucose glucose
  37. 37. makes up the long, stiff fibersfound in the walls of plant cells, like the strands that pull off the celery stalk
  38. 38. Cellulose✦Although cellulose is a polymer of glucose, humans can’t use cellulose as a source of energy.✦The human digestive system can’t convert cellulose into sugars.✦Grazing animals, such as cows, have special digestive systems that allow them to break down cellulose into sugars.
  39. 39. Glycogen?
  40. 40. a polymer that alsocontains chains of glucose units, but the chains are highly branched
  41. 41. co se glu luc ose glucose e g cos e e cos cosglu glu gluglucose glucose glucose glucose glucose glu cos glu glu e c cos glucose glucose ose glu e glu cos e gluc gluco cos ose gluc e se gluco ose se
  42. 42. Glycogen✦Animals make glycogen and store it mainly in their muscles and liver as a ready source of glucos
  43. 43. s ! ! p i dL i
  44. 44. Lipids?
  45. 45. organic compound thatcontains the same elements as carbohydrates—carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but in different proportions
  46. 46. Lipids are the products ofglycerol and three long- chain carboxylic acids coming together.
  47. 47. long carb chaigl ycerol oxy n l gro up
  48. 48. long chaincarboxyl group glycerol
  49. 49. Lipids✦Lipids are commonly called fats and oils, but they also are found in greases and waxes such as beeswax.✦Wax is a lipid, but it is harder than fat because of its chemical composition.✦Bees secrete wax from a gland in the abdomen to form beeswax, which is part of the honeycomb.
  50. 50. Lipids✦Lipids store energy in their bonds, just as carbohydrates do, but they are a more concentrated source of energy than carbohydrates.✦The chemical reaction that produces lipids is endothermic.✦This means that energy is stored in the chemical bonds of lipids.✦When your body needs energy, the bonds are broken and energy is released.
  51. 51. Lipids can also be Saturated andUnsaturated
  52. 52. ✦Saturated fats are solids because the straight chain molecules can pack together tightly.✦They are saturated with hydrogen atoms; they have only single bonds.✦Bacon and butter contain the saturated fat.✦All animal fats are saturated fats.
  53. 53. ✦Unsaturated fats tend to be oils because their bent chains can’t get close together.✦They are not saturated with hydrogen atoms; they contain a double or triple bonds. The place where the bond occurs is bent.✦Olive oil and canola oil contain the unsaturated fat.✦Unsaturated fats come from plants.
  54. 54. Cholesterol?
  55. 55. a complex lipid that is presentin foods that come from animals, such as meat, butter, eggs, and cheese
  56. 56. Cholesterol✦Cholesterol is not a fat.✦Even if you don’t eat foods containing cholesterol, your body makes its own supply.✦Your body needs cholesterol for building cell membranes.✦Cholesterol is not found in plants, so oils derived from plants are free of cholesterol. However, the body can convert fats in these oils to cholesterol.

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