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Simple Carbon Chemistry

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Simple Carbon Chemistry

  1. 1. ChemistryChapter 4 - Section 1 Simple Organic Compounds 
  2. 2. Did you know thatthe Earth’s crust is less than 1%carbon, but...ALL living things onEarth are made ofcarbon-containing compounds.
  3. 3. Carbon can bond easily andtherefore, formsmany compounds.An element thatoften bonds with carbon is Hydrogen.
  4. 4. Organic Compounds? 4
  5. 5. many compounds that contain carbon 5
  6. 6. Most living things contain carbon. 6
  7. 7. Hydrocarbons? 7
  8. 8. A compound containing onlyhydrogen and carbon. 8
  9. 9. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane.9
  10. 10. If you remove one hydrogen from amethane molecule, the result will be a methyl group, -CH3. 11
  11. 11. The methyl group can form a singlebond with anothermethyl group, which makes.....13
  12. 12. ....Ethane
  13. 13. Saturated Hydrocarbons? 15
  14. 14. A hydrocarbon molecule in which all the bonds are single bonds. 16
  15. 15. But what are the saturated with? 17
  16. 16. But what are the saturated with? Hydrogen!! The carbon atoms aresaturated with hydrogen. 18
  17. 17. Saturated Hydrocarbons
  18. 18. Notice that the ending of each name are -ane. Another name for these hydrocarbons are called alkanes.
  19. 19. 21
  20. 20. •These short hydrocarbon chains have lowboiling points, so they evaporate and burneasily. 21
  21. 21. •These short hydrocarbon chains have lowboiling points, so they evaporate and burneasily.•That makes them a good fuel for yourstove furnaces, grills, or lanterns. 21
  22. 22. •These short hydrocarbon chains have lowboiling points, so they evaporate and burneasily.•That makes them a good fuel for yourstove furnaces, grills, or lanterns.•Longer hydrocarbons are found in oils andwaxes. 21
  23. 23. •These short hydrocarbon chains have lowboiling points, so they evaporate and burneasily.•That makes them a good fuel for yourstove furnaces, grills, or lanterns.•Longer hydrocarbons are found in oils andwaxes.•Carbon can form chains of 100s or 1000sof carbon atoms. WOW! 21
  24. 24. •These short hydrocarbon chains have lowboiling points, so they evaporate and burneasily.•That makes them a good fuel for yourstove furnaces, grills, or lanterns.•Longer hydrocarbons are found in oils andwaxes.•Carbon can form chains of 100s or 1000sof carbon atoms. WOW!•These long chains make up many of theplastics that you use. 21
  25. 25. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons? 22
  26. 26. Hydrocarbons that containdouble or triple bonds. The carbon are notsaturated with hydrogens. 23
  27. 27. In a double bond, two pairs of electrons are sharedbetween two atoms, and in a triple bond, 3 pairs of electrons are shared. 24
  28. 28. Unsaturated HydrocarbonsEthene is the simplest hydrocarbon.
  29. 29. ethene propene butene C2H4 C3H6 C4H8
  30. 30. ethene propene butene C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 Notice that the endings are -ene. Theseunsaturated hydrocarbons are also called alkenes.
  31. 31. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also have triple bonds.
  32. 32. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also have triple bonds. ethyne C2H2
  33. 33. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also have triple bonds. ethyne C2H2 propyne C3H4
  34. 34. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also have triple bonds. ethyne C2H2 propyne C3H4 butyne C4H6
  35. 35. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can also have triple bonds. Ethyne is used for welding because it produces high heat as it burns.The unsaturated hydrocarbons are called alkynes.
  36. 36. Isomers? 30
  37. 37. Compounds that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements are called isomers. 31
  38. 38. The atoms in an organic compounds canhave different arrangements but still have the same molecular formula. 32
  39. 39. IsomersH H H
  40. 40. Hydrocarbons in RingsSome molecules contain rings. The carbonatoms of hexane bond together to form a closed ring containing six carbons. Each carbon atom still has four bonds.
  41. 41. Hydrocarbons in RingsThe prefix cyclo- in their names tells you that the molecules are cyclic, or ring shaped. Ring structures can contain one or more double bonds.
  42. 42. Hydrocarbons in Rings Ring structures are not uncommon in chemical compounds. Many natural substances such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose are ring structures.
  43. 43. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound.
  44. 44. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  45. 45. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  46. 46. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  47. 47. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  48. 48. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  49. 49. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  50. 50. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  51. 51. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  52. 52. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  53. 53. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  54. 54. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  55. 55. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  56. 56. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  57. 57. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  58. 58. Naming Hydrocarbons This word tells how many carbon atoms areROOT found in the longest continuous carbonWORDS chain in the compound. Carbon Root Atoms Word 1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but 5 pent 6 hex 7 hept 8 oct 9 non 10 dec
  59. 59. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms.
  60. 60. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  61. 61. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  62. 62. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  63. 63. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  64. 64. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  65. 65. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  66. 66. Naming Hydrocarbons The suffix (at end of word) indicates theSUFFIXES kind of covalent bonds joining the compound’s carbon atoms. Bond Suffix single -ane double -ene triple -yne
  67. 67. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged.
  68. 68. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged. Arrangement Prefix circle cyclo- same chemical formula, but iso- different arrangement
  69. 69. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged. Arrangement Prefix circle cyclo- same chemical formula, but iso- different arrangement
  70. 70. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged. Arrangement Prefix circle cyclo- same chemical formula, but iso- different arrangement
  71. 71. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged. Arrangement Prefix circle cyclo- same chemical formula, but iso- different arrangement
  72. 72. Naming Hydrocarbons The prefix of the name for an organicPREFIXES compound describes how the carbon atoms in the compound are arranged. Arrangement Prefix circle cyclo- same chemical formula, but iso- different arrangement

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