4.1 Cell Division and Mitosis

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  • 4.1 Cell Division and Mitosis

    1. 1. CELL DIVISION AND MITOSISCHAPTER 4 - CELL REPRODUCTION SECTION 1
    2. 2. WHY IS CELL DIVISION IMPORTANT?
    3. 3. WHY IS CELL DIVISION IMPORTANT?EVERY DAY _________________ OF RED BLOOD CELLS WEAROUT AND ARE REPLACED.
    4. 4. WHY IS CELL DIVISION IMPORTANT?EVERY DAY _________________ OF RED BLOOD CELLS WEAROUT AND ARE REPLACED.BILLIONS!!.............EVERYDAY!
    5. 5. WHY IS CELL DIVISION IMPORTANT?EVERY DAY _________________ OF RED BLOOD CELLS WEAROUT AND ARE REPLACED.BILLIONS!!.............EVERYDAY!CELL DIVISION IS HOW SINGLE CELL ORGANISMSREPRODUCE.
    6. 6. LIVING ORGANISMS HAVE A CYCLE
    7. 7. EVEN FROGS
    8. 8. SO DOES A CELL
    9. 9. LENGTH OF A CYCLE
    10. 10. LENGTH OF A CYCLETHE CELL CYCLE IS A SERIES OF EVENTS THATTAKES PLACE FROM ONE CELL DIVISION TO THENEXT.
    11. 11. LENGTH OF A CYCLETHE CELL CYCLE IS A SERIES OF EVENTS THATTAKES PLACE FROM ONE CELL DIVISION TO THENEXT.THE TIME IT TAKES TO COMPLETE A CELL CYCLE IS NOTTHE SAME IN ALL CELLS.
    12. 12. INTERPHASE
    13. 13. INTERPHASEMOST OF THE LIFE OF ANY EUKARYOTIC CELL—ACELL WITH A NUCLEUS—IS SPENT IN A PERIOD OFGROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CALLED INTERPHASE.
    14. 14. INTERPHASEMOST OF THE LIFE OF ANY EUKARYOTIC CELL—ACELL WITH A NUCLEUS—IS SPENT IN A PERIOD OFGROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CALLED INTERPHASE.CELLS IN YOUR BODY THAT NOLONGER DIVIDE,SUCH AS NERVE AND MUSCLE CELLS, ARE ALWAYS ININTERPHASE.
    15. 15. INTERPHASEMOST OF THE LIFE OF ANY EUKARYOTIC CELL—ACELL WITH A NUCLEUS—IS SPENT IN A PERIOD OFGROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CALLED INTERPHASE.CELLS IN YOUR BODY THAT NOLONGER DIVIDE,SUCH AS NERVE AND MUSCLE CELLS, ARE ALWAYS ININTERPHASE.AN ACTIVELY DIVIDING CELL, SUCH AS A SKINCELL, COPIES ITS HEREDITARY MATERIAL AND PREPARESFOR CELL DIVISION DURING INTERPHASE.
    16. 16. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO COPY ITSHEREDITARY INFORMATION BEFORE DIVIDING?
    17. 17. INTERPHASEA CHROMOSOME IS A STRUCTURE IN THE NUCLEUS THATCONTAINS HEREDITARY MATERIAL.
    18. 18. DURING INTERPHASE, EACH CHROMOSOME DUPLICATES.
    19. 19. DURING INTERPHASE, EACH CHROMOSOME DUPLICATES.WHEN THE NUCLEUS IS READY TO DIVIDE, EACHDUPLICATED CHROMOSOME COILS TIGHTLY INTO TWOTHICKENED, IDENTICAL STRANDS CALLED CHROMATIDS.
    20. 20. INTERPHASEANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
    21. 21. AFTER CELL DIVISION INTERPHASE BEGINS2 NEW CELLS NUCLEUS DIVIDES FORM CYTOPLASM SEPARATE
    22. 22. MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISION
    23. 23. MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISIONMITOSIS IS THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE NUCLEUSDIVIDES TO FORM TWO IDENTICAL NUCLEI
    24. 24. MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISIONMITOSIS IS THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE NUCLEUSDIVIDES TO FORM TWO IDENTICAL NUCLEIIDENTICAL
    25. 25. MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISIONMITOSIS IS THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE NUCLEUSDIVIDES TO FORM TWO IDENTICAL NUCLEIIDENTICALMITOSIS HAPPENS THROUGH A SERIES OF PHASES, ORSTEPS.
    26. 26. THE STEPS OF MITOSIS IN ORDER ARE: PROPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE
    27. 27. PROPHASE
    28. 28. PROPHASETHE PAIRS OF CHROMATIDS ARE FULLY VISIBLE WHENVIEWED UNDER A MICROSCOPE.
    29. 29. PROPHASETHE PAIRS OF CHROMATIDS ARE FULLY VISIBLE WHENVIEWED UNDER A MICROSCOPE.THE NUCLEOLUS AND THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANEDISINTEGRATE.
    30. 30. PROPHASETHE PAIRS OF CHROMATIDS ARE FULLY VISIBLE WHENVIEWED UNDER A MICROSCOPE.THE NUCLEOLUS AND THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANEDISINTEGRATE.TWO SMALL STRUCTURES CALLED CENTRIOLES MOVE TOOPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL.
    31. 31. PROPHASETHE PAIRS OF CHROMATIDS ARE FULLY VISIBLE WHENVIEWED UNDER A MICROSCOPE.THE NUCLEOLUS AND THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANEDISINTEGRATE.TWO SMALL STRUCTURES CALLED CENTRIOLES MOVE TOOPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL.BETWEEN THE CENTRIOLES, SPINDLE FIBERS BEGIN TOSTRETCH ACROSS THE CELL.
    32. 32. PROPHASETHE PAIRS OF CHROMATIDS ARE FULLY VISIBLE WHENVIEWED UNDER A MICROSCOPE.THE NUCLEOLUS AND THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANEDISINTEGRATE.TWO SMALL STRUCTURES CALLED CENTRIOLES MOVE TOOPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL.BETWEEN THE CENTRIOLES, SPINDLE FIBERS BEGIN TOSTRETCH ACROSS THE CELL.PLANT CELLS ALSO FORM SPINDLE FIBERS DURING MITOSIS BUT DONOT HAVE CENTRIOLES.
    33. 33. PROPHASEANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
    34. 34. METAPHASE
    35. 35. METAPHASETHE PAIRS OFCHROMATIDS LINEUP ACROSS THECENTER OF THE CELL.
    36. 36. METAPHASETHE PAIRS OFCHROMATIDS LINEUP ACROSS THECENTER OF THE CELL.THE CENTROMERE OFEACH PAIR USUALLYBECOMES ATTACHEDTO TWO SPINDLEFIBERS—ONE FROMEACH SIDE OF THECELL.
    37. 37. METAPHASEANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
    38. 38. ANAPHASE
    39. 39. ANAPHASEEACH CENTROMERE DIVIDES AND THE SPINDLE FIBERSSHORTEN.
    40. 40. ANAPHASEEACH CENTROMERE DIVIDES AND THE SPINDLE FIBERSSHORTEN.EACH PAIR OF CHROMATIDS SEPARATES, ANDCHROMATIDS BEGIN TO MOVE TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF THECELL.
    41. 41. ANAPHASEEACH CENTROMERE DIVIDES AND THE SPINDLE FIBERSSHORTEN.EACH PAIR OF CHROMATIDS SEPARATES, ANDCHROMATIDS BEGIN TO MOVE TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF THECELL.THE SEPARATED CHROMATIDS ARE NOW CALLEDCHROMOSOMES.
    42. 42. ANAPHASE
    43. 43. ANAHASEANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
    44. 44. TELOPHASE
    45. 45. TELOPHASESPINDLE FIBERS STARTTO DISAPPEAR
    46. 46. TELOPHASESPINDLE FIBERS STARTTO DISAPPEARTHE CHROMOSOMESSTART TO UNCOIL
    47. 47. TELOPHASESPINDLE FIBERS STARTTO DISAPPEARTHE CHROMOSOMESSTART TO UNCOILA NEW NUCLEUSFORMS
    48. 48. TELOHASEANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
    49. 49. DIVISION OF CYTOPLASM (CYTOKINESIS)
    50. 50. DIVISION OF CYTOPLASM (CYTOKINESIS)FOR MOST CELLS, AFTER THE NUCLEUS HAS DIVIDED,THE CYTOPLASM SEPARATES AND TWO NEWCELLS ARE FORMED.
    51. 51. DIVISION OF CYTOPLASM (CYTOKINESIS)FOR MOST CELLS, AFTER THE NUCLEUS HAS DIVIDED,THE CYTOPLASM SEPARATES AND TWO NEWCELLS ARE FORMED.IN ANIMAL CELLS, THE CELL MEMBRANE PINCHES INTHE MIDDLE, LIKE A BALLOON WITH A STRINGTIGHTENED AROUND IT, AND THE CYTOPLASM DIVIDES.
    52. 52. IN PLANT CELLS, THE APPEARANCE OF A CELLPLATE TELLS YOU THAT THE CYTOPLASM IS BEINGDIVIDED.
    53. 53. IN PLANT CELLS, THE APPEARANCE OF A CELLPLATE TELLS YOU THAT THE CYTOPLASM IS BEINGDIVIDED.WHY IS THIS STEP DIFFERENT FOR PLANT CELLS?
    54. 54. IN PLANT CELLS, THE APPEARANCE OF A CELLPLATE TELLS YOU THAT THE CYTOPLASM IS BEINGDIVIDED.WHY IS THIS STEP DIFFERENT FOR PLANT CELLS?NEW CELL WALLS FORM ALONG THE CELL PLATE, ANDNEW CELL MEMBRANES DEVELOP INSIDE THE CELLWALLS.
    55. 55. IN PLANT CELLS, THE APPEARANCE OF A CELLPLATE TELLS YOU THAT THE CYTOPLASM IS BEINGDIVIDED.WHY IS THIS STEP DIFFERENT FOR PLANT CELLS?NEW CELL WALLS FORM ALONG THE CELL PLATE, ANDNEW CELL MEMBRANES DEVELOP INSIDE THE CELLWALLS.NOW, THE PERIOD OF GROWTH, OR INTERPHASE,BEGINS AGAIN.
    56. 56. Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase CytokinesisI Pray More At The Church
    57. 57. RESULTS OF MITOSIS
    58. 58. RESULTS OF MITOSIS3 IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT MITOSIS ANDCELL DIVISION
    59. 59. RESULTS OF MITOSIS3 IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT MITOSIS ANDCELL DIVISION 1. MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS
    60. 60. RESULTS OF MITOSIS3 IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT MITOSIS ANDCELL DIVISION 1. MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS 2. IT PRODUCES 2 NEW NUCLEI THAT ARE IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL NUCLEUS
    61. 61. RESULTS OF MITOSIS3 IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT MITOSIS ANDCELL DIVISION 1. MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS 2. IT PRODUCES 2 NEW NUCLEI THAT ARE IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL NUCLEUS EVERY CELL IN YOUR BODY (TRILLIONS!!!!!!!) COPIES THE SAME HEREDITARY INFORMATION!!!
    62. 62. RESULTS OF MITOSIS3 IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT MITOSIS ANDCELL DIVISION 1. MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS 2. IT PRODUCES 2 NEW NUCLEI THAT ARE IDENTICAL TO THE ORIGINAL NUCLEUS EVERY CELL IN YOUR BODY (TRILLIONS!!!!!!!) COPIES THE SAME HEREDITARY INFORMATION!!! 3. THE ORIGINAL CELL NO LONGER EXISTS.
    63. 63. ALL OF YOUR CELLS USE DIFFERENT PARTS (GENES)OF THE SAME HEREDITARY MATERIAL TO BECOMEDIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS.CELL DIVISION ALLOWS GROWTH AND REPLACESWORN OUT OR DAMAGED CELLS.
    64. 64. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?
    65. 65. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2
    66. 66. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES________ORGANISMS.
    67. 67. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES________ORGANISMS.1
    68. 68. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES________ORGANISMS.1CAN EUKARYOTIC CELLS REPRODUCEASEXUALLY??
    69. 69. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES________ORGANISMS.1CAN EUKARYOTIC CELLS REPRODUCEASEXUALLY??YES....POTATOES FOR ONE.
    70. 70. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES _________ ORGANISMSTO PRODUCE OFFSPRING?2ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION REQUIRES________ORGANISMS.1CAN EUKARYOTIC CELLS REPRODUCEASEXUALLY??YES....POTATOES FOR ONE.
    71. 71. WHAT ABOUT BACTERIA....CAN THEY REPRODUCE USINGMITOSIS?DO YOU REMEMBER WHAT THE DEFINITION OF MITOSISIS?
    72. 72. WHAT ABOUT BACTERIA....CAN THEY REPRODUCE USINGMITOSIS?DO YOU REMEMBER WHAT THE DEFINITION OF MITOSISIS?MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS.DOES THIS HAPPEN IN BACTERIA?
    73. 73. WHAT ABOUT BACTERIA....CAN THEY REPRODUCE USINGMITOSIS?DO YOU REMEMBER WHAT THE DEFINITION OF MITOSISIS?MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS.DOES THIS HAPPEN IN BACTERIA?BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS, SO THEY CANNOTUNDERGO MITOSIS.
    74. 74. WHAT ABOUT BACTERIA....CAN THEY REPRODUCE USINGMITOSIS?DO YOU REMEMBER WHAT THE DEFINITION OF MITOSISIS?MITOSIS IS THE DIVISION OF A NUCLEUS.DOES THIS HAPPEN IN BACTERIA?BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS, SO THEY CANNOTUNDERGO MITOSIS.THE PROCESS THEY USE IS CALLED FISSION.
    75. 75. FISSION
    76. 76. FISSION
    77. 77. HYDRA, A FRESHWATERANIMAL, REPRODUCESUSINGBUDDING. THEBUD IS AN EXACT COPYOF THE ADULT PLANT.
    78. 78. HYDRA, A FRESHWATERANIMAL, REPRODUCESUSINGBUDDING. THEBUD IS AN EXACT COPYOF THE ADULT PLANT.PART OF THE ADULTBUDS OFF, OR BREAKSOFF, AND A NEWORGANISM GROWS.
    79. 79. HYDRA, A FRESHWATERANIMAL, REPRODUCESUSINGBUDDING. THEBUD IS AN EXACT COPYOF THE ADULT PLANT.PART OF THE ADULTBUDS OFF, OR BREAKSOFF, AND A NEWORGANISM GROWS.
    80. 80. REGENERATION REPLACES LOST BODYPARTS. IT USES MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISION.
    81. 81. REGENERATION REPLACES LOST BODYPARTS. IT USES MITOSIS AND CELL DIVISION.

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