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3.3

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3.3

  1. 1. ENERGY FOR LIFE Chapter 3 - Section 3
  2. 2. Where dobasketball playersget the energy theyneed to run, dribble,shoot and block?
  3. 3. Trapping and Using Energy
  4. 4. Trapping and Using Energy Metabolism:
  5. 5. Trapping and Using Energy Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions in an organism
  6. 6. Trapping and Using Energy Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions in an organism These chemical reactions need enzymes in order to occur.
  7. 7. Enzymes
  8. 8. EnzymesEnzymes cause a change to occur in a cell, but theenzyme is not changed and can be used again.
  9. 9. EnzymesEnzymes cause a change to occur in a cell, but theenzyme is not changed and can be used again.Enzymes also can cause molecules to join.
  10. 10. EnzymesEnzymes cause a change to occur in a cell, but theenzyme is not changed and can be used again.Enzymes also can cause molecules to join.Without the right enzyme, a chemical reaction in a cellcannot take place.
  11. 11. Make and Take
  12. 12. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups:
  13. 13. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers
  14. 14. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers consumers
  15. 15. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers consumersProducers—organisms that make their own food
  16. 16. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers consumersProducers—organisms that make their own foodConsumers—organisms that can’t make their ownfood
  17. 17. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers consumersProducers—organisms that make their own foodConsumers—organisms that can’t make their ownfoodWhat makes producers special?
  18. 18. Make and TakeAll living things are divided into two groups: producers consumersProducers—organisms that make their own foodConsumers—organisms that can’t make their ownfoodWhat makes producers special? They undergo photosynthesis
  19. 19. Photosynthesis
  20. 20. Photosynthesiscarbon dioxide + water + light energy --> glucose + oxygen 6CO2 6H2O energy C6H12O6 6O2
  21. 21. Photosynthesis the process that plants and other organisms use to convertlight energy into chemical energy or sugars to be used as food carbon dioxide + water + light energy --> glucose + oxygen 6CO2 6H2O energy C6H12O6 6O2
  22. 22. Producing Carbohydrates
  23. 23. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role?
  24. 24. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role? capture light’s energy
  25. 25. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role? capture light’s energyWhere is chlorophyll found?
  26. 26. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role? capture light’s energyWhere is chlorophyll found? Chloroplasts
  27. 27. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role? capture light’s energyWhere is chlorophyll found? ChloroplastsThe reactants of photosynthesis are:
  28. 28. Producing CarbohydratesChlorophyll’s role? capture light’s energyWhere is chlorophyll found? ChloroplastsThe reactants of photosynthesis are: light energy, carbon dioxide and water
  29. 29. Producing Carbohydrates
  30. 30. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from?
  31. 31. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from? water - soil
  32. 32. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from? water - soil CO2 - air
  33. 33. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from? water - soil CO2 - airSome of the captured light energy is stored in thechemical bonds that hold the sugar molecules together
  34. 34. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from? water - soil CO2 - airSome of the captured light energy is stored in thechemical bonds that hold the sugar molecules togetherWhat is needed for photosynthesis to take place?
  35. 35. Producing CarbohydratesWhere does the water and CO2 come from? water - soil CO2 - airSome of the captured light energy is stored in thechemical bonds that hold the sugar molecules togetherWhat is needed for photosynthesis to take place? Enzymes are needed for photosynthesis to take place.
  36. 36. Storing Carbohydrates
  37. 37. Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than theyneed for survival.
  38. 38. Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than theyneed for survival.Excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or usedto make other carbohydrates.
  39. 39. Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than theyneed for survival.Excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or usedto make other carbohydrates.Plants use carbohydrates as food for growth, maintenance,and reproduction.
  40. 40. Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than theyneed for survival.Excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or usedto make other carbohydrates.Plants use carbohydrates as food for growth, maintenance,and reproduction.Consumers take in food by eating producers or otherconsumers.
  41. 41. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.
  42. 42. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________
  43. 43. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________ Mitochondria
  44. 44. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________ MitochondriaMuscle cells break down food to get this energy.
  45. 45. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________ MitochondriaMuscle cells break down food to get this energy.Some energy is used when you move and somebecomes thermal energy.
  46. 46. Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________ MitochondriaMuscle cells break down food to get this energy.Some energy is used when you move and somebecomes thermal energy.Most cells use oxygen also when breaking downfood...that is why you may be breathing more heavilywhen you run.....or do .....
  47. 47. 100 jumping jacks!Muscle cells use a lot of energy when you run or doother physical activities.That is why muscle cells have many of this type oforganelle. _________________ MitochondriaMuscle cells break down food to get this energy.Some energy is used when you move and somebecomes thermal energy.Most cells use oxygen also when breaking downfood...that is why you may be breathing more heavilywhen you run.....or do .....
  48. 48. Cellular Respiration
  49. 49. Cellular RespirationSome of the energy from the food you eat is used tomake you move.
  50. 50. Cellular RespirationSome of the energy from the food you eat is used tomake you move.Some of it becomes thermal energy, which is whyyou feel warm or hot when you exercise.
  51. 51. Cellular RespirationSome of the energy from the food you eat is used tomake you move.Some of it becomes thermal energy, which is whyyou feel warm or hot when you exercise.Most cells also need oxygen to break down food andthat is why you are breathing a bit heavier.
  52. 52. Cellular Respiration
  53. 53. Cellular RespirationGlucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + waterC6H12O6 + 6O2 ==> energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O
  54. 54. Cellular RespirationGlucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + waterC6H12O6 + 6O2 ==> energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O Cellular Respiration - chemical reactions that occur to break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy
  55. 55. Cellular RespirationGlucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + waterC6H12O6 + 6O2 ==> energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O Cellular Respiration - chemical reactions that occur to break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy Just like in photosynthesis, enzymes are needed for cellular respiration
  56. 56. Breaking Down Carbs
  57. 57. Breaking Down CarbsThe type of food molecules most easily broken downby cells is carbohydrates.
  58. 58. Breaking Down CarbsThe type of food molecules most easily broken downby cells is carbohydrates.Cellular Respiration of carbohydrates begins in thecytoplasm of the cell.
  59. 59. Breaking Down CarbsThe type of food molecules most easily broken downby cells is carbohydrates.Cellular Respiration of carbohydrates begins in thecytoplasm of the cell.The carbohydrates are broken down into glucosemolecules.
  60. 60. Breaking Down CarbsThe type of food molecules most easily broken downby cells is carbohydrates.Cellular Respiration of carbohydrates begins in thecytoplasm of the cell.The carbohydrates are broken down into glucosemolecules.Each glucose molecule is broken down further into twosimpler molecules.
  61. 61. Breaking Down Carbs
  62. 62. Breaking Down CarbsAs the glucose molecules are broken down, energy isreleased.
  63. 63. Breaking Down CarbsAs the glucose molecules are broken down, energy isreleased.The two simpler molecules are broken down again.This breakdown occurs in the mitochondria of thecell.
  64. 64. This process usesoxygen, releasesmuch more energy,and producescarbon dioxideand water as wastes.
  65. 65. This process usesoxygen, releasesmuch more energy,and producescarbon dioxideand water as wastes.How do you get ridof the wastes?
  66. 66. This process usesoxygen, releasesmuch more energy,and producescarbon dioxideand water as wastes.How do you get ridof the wastes? you breathe out!
  67. 67. Carbohydrates go into the cell 1
  68. 68. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose 2
  69. 69. Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars 3
  70. 70. Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars e e and energy is released 4
  71. 71. Simple sugars enter themitochondria and are broken down more 5
  72. 72. Oxygen is usedEnergy is releasedCarbon dioxide and water are produced and released as wastes. + O2 energy + CO2 + H2O ] wastes products 6
  73. 73. Fermentation
  74. 74. FermentationWhat happens when a cell does not have enoughoxygen for respiration?
  75. 75. FermentationWhat happens when a cell does not have enoughoxygen for respiration? the cell releases some of the energy stored in the glucose molecules ~ this is called fermentation.
  76. 76. FermentationWhat happens when a cell does not have enoughoxygen for respiration? the cell releases some of the energy stored in the glucose molecules ~ this is called fermentation.Like respiration, fermentation begins in the cytoplasm.
  77. 77. FermentationWhat happens when a cell does not have enoughoxygen for respiration? the cell releases some of the energy stored in the glucose molecules ~ this is called fermentation.Like respiration, fermentation begins in the cytoplasm.As the glucose molecules are broken down, energy isreleased. The difference.....the simple molecules fromthe breakdown of glucose do not move into themitochondria.
  78. 78. Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.
  79. 79. Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.These reactions release some energy and producewastes.
  80. 80. Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.These reactions release some energy and producewastes.Depending on the type of cell, the wastes may be lacticacid, alcohol, or carbon dioxide.
  81. 81. Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.These reactions release some energy and producewastes.Depending on the type of cell, the wastes may be lacticacid, alcohol, or carbon dioxide.Lactic acid is what makes your muscles feel stiff and soreafter you work out.
  82. 82. Carbohydrates go into the cell 1
  83. 83. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose 2
  84. 84. Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars 3
  85. 85. Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars e e and energy is released 4
  86. 86. Simpler sugars do notgo into the mitochondria 5
  87. 87. Chemical Reactions occur incytoplasm and some energy is released. e e e Wastes are also produced, such as lactic acid, alcohol, or carbon dioxide. 6
  88. 88. Some microscopic organisms, like bacteria, carry outfermentation and make lactic acid. They are used in theproduction of yogurt and some cheeses.
  89. 89. Some microscopic organisms, like bacteria, carry outfermentation and make lactic acid. They are used in theproduction of yogurt and some cheeses.Yeasts cells use fermentation and break down sugars inbread dough. The produce alcohol and carbon dioxideas wastes.
  90. 90. Some microscopic organisms, like bacteria, carry outfermentation and make lactic acid. They are used in theproduction of yogurt and some cheeses.Yeasts cells use fermentation and break down sugars inbread dough. The produce alcohol and carbon dioxideas wastes.Kimchi
  91. 91. Review
  92. 92. Reviewphotosynthesis
  93. 93. Reviewphotosynthesiscellular respiration
  94. 94. Reviewphotosynthesiscellular respirationfermentation
  95. 95. Reviewphotosynthesiscellular respirationfermentationHow are photosynthesis, cellular respiration, andfermentation related?
  96. 96. CO2, H2OSugars, O2
  97. 97. • producers use photosynthesis to make food
  98. 98. • producers use photosynthesis to make food• living things use respiration or fermentation to release energy stored in food
  99. 99. • producers use photosynthesis to make food• living things use respiration or fermentation to release energy stored in food• amount of energy released by fermentation is less than that of cellular respiration

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