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Faulty radiographs

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This gives an overall view of the different faulty radiographic errors.

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Faulty radiographs

  1. 1. FAULTY RADIOGRAPHS Melbia Shiny Sobhanam
  2. 2. Good quality radiographs should have:  Image with optimum density & contrast.  Image with minimum distortion.  Image with sharp borders & maximum details.
  3. 3. Various reasons for faulty radiographs 1)Errors in operating the machine. 2)Errors in techniques. 3)Errors in processing & mounting.
  4. 4.  Kvp – speed, penetration power, energy of Xray photons .  mA – amount , intensity of current .  S - time of current flow.
  5. 5. Errors in operating the machine Lighter radiographs (underexposed/ underdeveloped radiographs).  Exposure time less  < KVp  underdeveloped
  6. 6. Darker films (overexposed /overdeveloped /high density)  Exposure time >.  Higher Kilovoltage peak. (burn out effect)  Over developed.
  7. 7. Errors in technique  Improper manipulation /bending of film .
  8. 8.  Phalangioma.
  9. 9.  Cone cut/partial image.
  10. 10.  Apical ends cut off.
  11. 11.  Crown cut off
  12. 12.  Region of interest not shown
  13. 13.  Tipping/tilting of occlusal plane
  14. 14.  Dot artifact
  15. 15.  Blurring
  16. 16.  Image shape distortion.
  17. 17.  Tyre track/herring bone pattern
  18. 18.  Double image
  19. 19.  Size distortion/less vertical angulation/ elongation
  20. 20.  More vertical angulation shortening
  21. 21.  Improper horizontal angulation.
  22. 22.  Cervical burn out/adumbration:
  23. 23.  Ornamental artifact
  24. 24.  Foreign body/restorative material
  25. 25. Errors in processing  Exposure of film in day light.
  26. 26.  Contaminated film with developer before processing/developer spots.
  27. 27.  Contaminated film with fixer before processing/fixer spots.
  28. 28.  Film dropped into developer
  29. 29.  Film dropped into fixer
  30. 30. Standard dark room principle  Developer solution - left  Water - middle  Fixer solution - right
  31. 31.  Film incompletely immersed in developer solution /developer cut off
  32. 32.  Dust in developer solution
  33. 33.  Film incompletely immersed in fixer solution/fixer cut off
  34. 34.  Dust in fixer
  35. 35.  Use of expired film
  36. 36.  Improper washing of films
  37. 37.  Warping of film
  38. 38.  Improper position of hanger
  39. 39.  Scratches on film
  40. 40.  Writing on film
  41. 41.  Film fog light fog radiation fog chemical fog deterioration of film
  42. 42.  Finger nail artifact - dark cresent shaped
  43. 43.  Improper drying
  44. 44.  Black streaks
  45. 45.  Smuge/finger prints touched by fingers contaminated by developer/fluoride.
  46. 46.  Over lapped films
  47. 47.  Air bells
  48. 48.  Reticulation/orange peel appearance
  49. 49.  Static electricity/grass root/tree like/lightening marks
  50. 50.  Frilling hot processing solution  Dark flow marks vigorous agitation.  Crimping artifact remove from film holder.
  51. 51. Errors in OPG 1)Ghost image is a radiopaque artifact produced when radiodense object is penetrated twice.
  52. 52. 2)Lead apron artifact cone shaped artifact
  53. 53.  Thyroid collar
  54. 54. 3)Lips not closed dark radiolucent shadow that obscures anterior teeth.
  55. 55. 4)Tongue not in contact with palate/palatoglossal air space
  56. 56. 5)Frankfort plane upward R L
  57. 57. 6)Frankfort plane downwards
  58. 58. 7)Teeth position anterior to focal trough
  59. 59. 8)Teeth position posterior to focal trough
  60. 60. 9)Midsagittal plane not centered R L
  61. 61. 10)Position of spine/spine shadow ghost
  62. 62. 11)Blurring – due to patient movement R
  63. 63. Bibliography 1)Diagnostic imaging of jaws Langland & Langlais. 2)Oral radiology White & Pharoah . 3) Essentials of dental radiology Eric Whaites. 4)Manuel of dental & oral radiology john wright. 5)Fundamental of dental radiology Manson & Hing. 6)Radiology for dental professionals Stabulus Savage. 7)Radiogra phic imaging for dental auxillaries Miles ,Dis & Jensen.

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