Symptons include: muslce pain, stiff neck and back, back ache, breathing difficulty, swallowing difficulty, moderate fevers
- “The first recorded case of polio is that of a five-year old Rumba, a Syrian boy whose history was carved in stone three thousand years ago… the stone tablet shows that as an adult, his right leg is shriveled and he walks with the aid of a crutch.” Since there was no cases noticed among the immigrants or no epidemics recorded in Italy, “ According to the New York Times , “there was a report… that the disease had been brought to America by Italian immigrants, though no cases had been noticed among immigrants… Quarantine had no record of epidemics in any of the towns in Italy.” -In preindustrial era, almost the entire community became infected with the polio virus in infancy…the virus was everywhere, but invisible. -As public health standards improved, there was increasing concern with personal hygiene and parents tried to keep their children away from dirt. - “What caused this shift from endemic to epidemic? Nothing more dramatic than a cleaner environment. For centuries, infants provided the poliovirus a steady supply of hosts, and open sewers delivers the disease to them. But as modern hygienic practices developed, increasing numbers of people escaped babyhood and even childhood without coming into contact with the virus.” “ The earliest medical approaches to the treatment of acute polio, spanning about a century between the 1780s to the early 1890s, was based primarily on brisk purges, cathartics, blisters and other counter-irritants, such as red-hot irons and hitting the spine with wet towels to promote blood flow. Warm baths and electrical treatments were also used to stimulate the muscles”
-FDR ’s”Birthday Balls” were an annual event to raise money for polio research. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) was established as an outcome of the Birthday Balls. - “The singer Eddie Cantor, suggested that stars take to the radio and ask people to send their dimes directly to the president at the White House. It was named the “March of the Dimes” and the White House mail room was swamped with letters and dimes came baked into cakes, jammed into cans, glued to pictures of the president, and jingling loose in envelopes. In all, 2,680,000 dimes came in for the first March of the Dimes.” the Foundation raised enough money to subsidize the hospital and rehabilitation costs of any polio patient, to train nurses and physical therapists in polio treatment and rehabilitation, and to sponsor scientific and medical research for preventative measures, including the work of Dr. Jonas Salk
-Local newspapers and radios pitched in with efforts to entertain children who were confined to their backyards. Radio stations scheduled special programs in its effort to keep children home during the epidemic the cities forbade children under fifteen in movie theaters, churches, Sunday schools, youth centers, and amusement parks. Schools around the nation closed due to the outbreak in communities ”
- “The OPV is also easily administered by giving children a sugar cube or sugar liquid containing the vaccine, neither of which requires extensive medical training to be administered” (Bradford). - “…indirectly protects other susceptible individuals by secondary vaccination, which means that vaccinated individuals may spread the vaccine virus in the community and thereby inhibit the spread of the wild type virus if it occurs in the population” (Bradford).
The first clue to understanding polio was uncovered at the end of the nineteenth century when a Russian scientist discovered viruses, or germs that were much smaller than bacteria. The existence of viruses seemed to answer the question of why vaccinations only worked for certain diseases. Scientists deduced that if the virus traveled through the bloodstream, then vaccinations could be effective. When researchers began studying polio in the early twentieth century, they concluded that the polio virus was not carried through the blood. Therefore, vaccination was not a viable option for the prevention of polio The polio vaccine signaled an end to the fear that had gripped two generations of Americans as the disease was banished to the recesses of American memory. Scientists now understood that polio enters the body through the mouth and travels through the digestive tract where it multiplies and is absorbed into the blood stream--this is when the initial symptoms appear. Paralysis then occurs when the virus enters the cells of the central nervous system. The degree of paralysis is determined by the strain of polio that the victim contracts. If antibodies are present in the blood before a person comes into contact with the virus, then they are immune. A polio vaccine would ensure this protection
With a rare case reported each year from persons coming into the country carrying the virus.
• A viral disease which may affect the spinal cord causing muscle weakness and paralysis.• The virus enters the body through the mouth, usually from hands contaminated of an infected person.• 3 types: Spinal, Bulbar and Bulbospinal• Disease is more common in the summer• It is primarily an intestinal infection that causes paralysis in http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/policdc002a.jpg less than 1% of cases (Link 86).
• Mother’s performed the “Polio Test” on their children (Black 45). • 25% of polio deaths came in the first 24 hours…85% of deaths occurred during a victim’s first 20 days in the hospital (Black 18).http://www.achievement.org/achievers/sal0/large/sal0-010.jpg • Polio patients whose muscles were paralyzed faced months, perhaps years, of arduous physical therapy to strengthen weakened muscles (Wilson) • Patients were often placed in iron lungs to help with breathing regulation (Black 14). http://historyscoop.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/iron-lung-1.jpg
• FDR’s ”Birthday Balls“, an annual event to raise money for polio research • Founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) • “March of the Dimes”; collection of donated dimes that citizens would send to the President (Black 25) • In all, 2,680,000 dimes came in for the first (For both photos) March of the Dimes (Black 25) http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources/Student%20Projec
Fear was triggered by the post-war baby boom (McCreedy). In the five years following the war, at least 20,000 cases were reported annually (McCreedy). In 1952, polio reached its destructive peak with fifty- eight thousand new diagnoses (McCreedy). http://www.maryboonegallery.com/artist_info/pages/mir/det
Schoolchildren and families were vaccinated, reducing the incidence of polio by almost 90% within two years (Bradford).+Immunization triggers an excellent immune response and long-lasting immunity to all 3 poliovirus types (Bradford)+The virus is not live, thus it is easier to manage than OPV (Bradford) http://www.polio.pitt.edu/images/PhotoSalkLocalSchools.jpg-The price of IPV is over 5 times that of OPV (Bradford)-IPV induces only little immunity in intestinal tract (Bradford) http://www.healthheritageresearch.com/Polio-Vaccine/ gallery/pages/RogersPBFDR-1916Flies-p65.html
+Easily administered by giving children a sugar cube or sugar liquid containing the vaccine (Bradford) +Indirectly protects other susceptible individuals by secondary vaccination (Bradford) -The risk of vaccine- associated paralytic http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources /Student polio as a result of the %20Projects/McCreedy/students.u mw.edu/_lmccr9sd/poliovaccine/vac vaccination (Bradford) cine.htmlhttp://connectbillions.in/pn/ludhiana/ludhiana-east/sahnewal-khurd/files/2010/11/polio_vaccine_poster1.jpg
• New methods that had to be developed by the U.S government for approval of the killed polio vaccine continue to influence the FDA today (Tocci 5). • The OPV has been distributed to developing countries such as Africa, India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Bangladesh (Rutty). • When polio’s threat was eliminated, [the U.S] aquired a medical hubris that deepened with the elimination of smallpox (Black 257).http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources/Student%20Projects/McCreedy/students.umw.edu/_lmccr9sd/poliovaccine/development
During the first six months of 1964, there were only 35 cases of polio reported in the U.S, this was minor considering the annual average of 16,316 cases during the early 1950s (Black 256) The United States has been free of the wild poliovirus since 1979 (Okonek). http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects1999/polio/v
It is the development of new muscles that begins between 25 and 35 years after an acute attack of paralytic polio (Rutty). Approximately half of all polio survivors will develop Post-Polio Syndrome (Rutty). Has also developed among those who either had a mild polio case, or were unaware of being affected at all (Rutty).
Reduced fear within the American society Became a standard for future vaccines Eradicated the polio virus in the U.Shttp://home.vicnet.net.au/~hmwkhelp/images/polio_vac.jpg
"I won’t ever forget the feeling in my legs when I lost the use of them.It was just such a weird feeling.It was just like it went through me,just a surge went through my body.I can feel it right now just thinking about it.It was very frightening for a little 14-year-old girl to think,gosh, my life’s gone, you know?” —Addie Flowers Vance, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, 1996http://top-10-list.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/polio.jpghttp://ncmuseumofhistory.org/exhibits/healthandhealing/topic/17/