All these make it imperative that the search for alternative fuels is taken in right earnest.
In fossil fuels,sulphur is present when it is released in the atmosphere it could cause acid rain. In many instances, Biodiesel is mixed with petroleum-based diesel to create a Biodiesel blend, which can then be sold into the general diesel market…It refers to mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from palm oil through a process known as ‘transesterification’.
As biofuel is the fuel which directly derived from biomass, biodiesel needs a special process to transform its source from the biomass to a fuel.
D:\Semester\5th Sem\Ppt\Alternative Fuels
Alternative Fuels<br />
Need for Alternate Fuels<br />World today is facing the pinch of rising energy consumption. <br />Green house gas emissions and global warming is also in the forefront of critical issues.<br />India is ranked 6th in terms of energy demands but its domestic crude oil production satisfies only ¼th of our current demands.<br />
Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum,coal), and nuclear materials such as uranium. <br />Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels.<br />
Bio Fuels<br /> There are 4 chief Biofuels categories:The 1st generation of biofuels comes from sugar, starch & vegetable fats that are solely dependent on food-crops. It also can be sourced through animal fats.<br /> e.g;biofuels are bio-diesel, Bioethanol & biogas.<br />
2nd generation comes from non food crops.<br />e.g.biofuels are bio-diesel, Bioethanol & biogas.<br />
3rd generation is established on the basis of biofuels got through algae. <br /> e.g. Algae oil4th generation Fuels based on the conversion of vegetable oil and biodiesel into gasoline.<br />
Bio Diesel<br /><ul><li>It can be manufactured from vegetable oils such as palm, rapeseed, soy, linseed, jatropha and coconut oil.
Avoiding the need for expensive additional infrastructure.
Reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter.
Biodiesel and Bioalcohol contains no sulphur. It has natural lubricity and thus lubricity enhancing additive is required.</li></li></ul><li>Bioethanol<br /><ul><li>Brazil stands 1st in terms of Biofuel consumption.
According to UNCTAD report, Brazil uses pure ethanol in 20% of their vehicles and a 22 to 26 % ethanol-petrol blend in the rest of their vehicles.
CO emission from automobiles decreased from 50g/km in 1980 to 5.8g/km in 1995
The USA and Australia use a 10% ethanol blend.
India is 4th largest producer and the government mandated the use of a 5% ethanol blend in petrol sold in nine sugarcane producing states.</li></li></ul><li>Projected Demand…….<br />
Algal Fuel<br /><ul><li>Microalgae contains Lipids and fatty acids
Because of the gaseous nature of this fuel, it must be stored onboard a vehicle in either a compressed gaseous state or in a liquefied state
A natural gas vehicle can be less expensive to operate than a comparable conventionally fueled vehicle depending on natural gas prices.</li></li></ul><li>CNG vs. CLG<br /><ul><li>In India CNG costs are at Rs. 22.00 per kg compared with Rs. 47.53 per liter of petrol.
The cost saving is immense along with reduced emissions and environmentally friendlier cars.
The use of CNG is mandated for the public transport system of India's capital New Delhi as well as for the city of Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat.
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses.</li></li></ul><li>Biogas <br /><ul><li> During production, there is a solid byproduct called digestate. This can be used as a biofuel or fertilizer. Biogas consists of methane.
Because of the gaseous nature of this fuel, it must be stored onboard a vehicle in either a compressed gaseous state or in a liquefied state.
A biogas-powered train has been in service in Sweden since 2005</li></li></ul><li>Electricity is used as fuel in the form of batteries and fuel cells.<br />Fuel Cells are more promising because they use other fuels to create the electrical energy<br />Electricity<br />
How does a fuel cell work?<br /><ul><li> A fuel cell uses a hydrogen and oxygen reaction resulting in the production of energy
If pure hydrogen is used the car produces only two by-products: Water and Heat.</li></ul>e.g. Hydrogen fuel car<br />What are the benefits of using electricity?<br /><ul><li> For electric cars it would mean no emissions
Although batteries have a short range, vehicles that use them can be used in communities to get around
For fuel cells, if hydrogen is used it can have a longer range vehicle with no emissions.</li></li></ul><li>Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle <br /><ul><li>Hydrogen and oxygen from air fed into a proton exchange membrane fuel cell produce enough electricity to power an electric automobile, without producing harmful emissions. The only byproduct of a hydrogen fuel cell is water.
Daimler starts its FC vehicle production in 2009 with the aim of 100,000 vehicles in 2012-2013.
Hyundai will produce 500 FC vehicles by 2010 and expects to start mass production of its FC vehicles in 2012</li></li></ul><li>Electric Fuel <br /><ul><li>Readily available.
Reduced NOx; and PM</li></li></ul><li>Plastic Fuel<br />The process involves heating shredded plastic waste with coal and a secret chemical. This yields around 1 litre of crude oil for every kilogram of waste plastic. <br />Using infra-red energy to remove hydrocarbons from plastic without the use of a catalyst, transforming 82% of the original plastic material into fuel.<br />