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Critical thinking 3 valutare gli argomenti- tecnica

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slide della terza lezione di critical thinking Università di Edimburgo by Coursera

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  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Critical thinking 3 valutare gli argomenti- tecnica

  1. 1. Critical Thinking 3 - Valutare gli argomenti: tecnica Da Coursera MOOC - The Univerity of Edinburgh https://www.coursera.org/course/criticalthinking traduzione a cura di Emanuela Zibordi
  2. 2. 2 Valutare la credibilità e la rilevanza dell’evidenza Autorevolezza Chi dice questo? Provenienza E’ una risorsa primaria o secondaria? Natura Fatto o opinione? Contesto Quando è stato riportato? E’ focalizzato? E’ rappresentativo? Accuratezza E’ accurato? Autorità Chi sono lui/lei? E’ la sua visione condivisa?
  3. 3. Come valutare gli argomenti? 5 passi: 1. Struttura 2. Chiarezza 3. Evidenza 4. Logica 5. Valutazione 3
  4. 4. 1 - Struttura Identificare: ● Evidenza ● Conclusioni “Duemila anni fa la terra era abitata da 300 milioni di persone, tanto quanto la popolazione odierna degli Stati Uniti. Duecento anni fa vivevano sul pianete un miliardo di persone. Oggi la popolazione è di oltre 6 miliardi e cresce rapidamente. Quindi, se il trend corrente continua, aggiungeremo un altro miliardo alla popolazione ogni 13 o 14 anni.” Verde = evidenza Rosso = conclusione 4
  5. 5. 2 - Chiarezza Identificare: ● qualsiasi imprecisione ● qualsiasi confusione ● qualsiasi assunzione 5
  6. 6. 3 - Evidenza Valutare: ● Credibilità ● Rilevanza 6
  7. 7. 4.1 - Logica Identificare le fallacie: Fallacia argomentazione ingannevole o infondata 7 Fallacia formale Errori di logica che sono indipendenti dai contenuti dell’argomento (scorre nella forma dell'argomento) Fallacia informale Errori di logica che sorgono dal contenuto. (scorre nel contenuto dell'argomento)
  8. 8. 4.2 - Fallacia informale ● Falso dilemma: (offre solo 2 opzioni quando altre sono possibili) “Per perdere peso tu puoi o smettere di mangiare patatine fritte o fare una liposuzione.” ● La correlazione dimostra causalità (assume che la correlazione tra due variabiliimplica che una causi l’altra) “Ogni volta che lavo la macchina, piove” ● Scegliere selettivamente per supportare la tesi (utilizza solo prove che sembrano confermare una particolare posizione, ignorando una porzione significativa di prove che contraddicono tale posizione) “Ogni volta che lavo la macchina, piove” 8
  9. 9. 4.3 - Fallacia informale ● Ad Hominem: (Attacca l’interlocutore piuttosto che l’argomento) “Cosa sa il Prof. Popper del riscaldamento globale? Guida una range Rover” ● Appello al movente (chiede i motivi del proponente per respingere il punto del proponente) “Naturalmente il Prof. Popper dice che il cambiamento climatico è pericoloso. Egli occupa la cattedra di Innovazione in Modello Euristico del Cambiamento climatico” ● Appello alle emozioni(utilizza le emozioni invece dell’evidenza) “Dobbiamo fermare il cambiamento climatico o i nostri bambini annegheranno sotto il crescente livello del mare” ● L’uomo di paglia (travisa la tesi dell’avversario) “Il Prof Popper crede che un incremento della caduta della pioggia distruggerà le coltivazioni ma, se non ci sarà pioggia, nessuna cultura sarebbe in grado di crescere” 9
  10. 10. 5 - Valutazione 10 E’ l’argomento chiaro, con evidenza valida e logico? SI Argomento forte NO Argomento debole

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