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Fair Trade: Coffee and Cacao

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Td123 Ccsshow

  1. 1. Fair Trade: Coffee and Cacao . Data provided by Tom Dietsch, Center for Tropical Research
  2. 2. Coffee Agriculture  Trade; Second largest internationally traded commodity [Oil. Is #1]  Consumption: United States is the largest consumer, (26% of world consumption).  Coffee Drinkers in the US? 130 million  Geography of Origin : Highlands of Ethiopia.  American brew: Brought to the Americas in early 1700’s.
  3. 3. Variations in Coffee Agroecosystems (Moguel and Toledo 1999) Rustic T ra d itio n a l Sh a d e d Traditional Polyculture (ÒCoffee Garden Ó ) Comercial Polyculture M o d e rn U n sh a d e d Shaded Monoculture Unshaded Monoculture
  4. 4. Shade Grown: Community Benefits  Timber: Commercial and household  Fruit: Sold at local markets; eaten at home  Medicines: Medicinal Plants  Financial Exchange --bartering  Spices  Edibles [nuts, berries]
  5. 5. Coffee Crisis  Governance: International Aid: promotes intensification  Markets: Declining coffee prices - ~$0.30 per lb from $2.75 in 1994.  Growers: Farmer response - more intensification and extensification  Household Finance: Poverty for small landowners and workers  Alternative Markets: A solution? Socially- responsible certification.
  6. 6. Types of Coffee Certification  Organic - no agrochemical use  Fair-trade  Shade-grown  Cause-related
  7. 7. Fair-Trade  Markets: Farmers are paid a fair price for harvest. For coffee - guaranteed $1.26 per pound ($1.41 for certified organic coffee)  Governance: Organized into democratically-organized cooperatives  Producer – Consumer Relationship: Sell direct to buyers in consuming countries  Personal Finance: Consumers pay certification costs
  8. 8. Fair Trade: Economic/Financial Sustainability •Create opportunities for economically disadvantaged producers •Pay a fair price, above the minimum wage at the location of production Knowledge: Educational Sustainability •Build knowledge capacity across sectors: financial, markets, growing and producing techniques, strategies, and practices Social Sustainability •Facilitate gender Equity •Mandate safe, healthy work conditions
  9. 9. Shade-grown: Ecological sustainability  No ecological net loss!  Riparian Buffers  Species Composition of Shade Trees.  Shade Cover  Canopy Structure  Epiphytes
  10. 10. Cause-related: Social Sustainability  Proceeds from sales go to aid social or environmental organizations. Example Organizations  Coffee Kids  Café Solidario  Starbucks - Conservation Coffee  Thanksgiving Coffee Company
  11. 11. Ecosystem Services from Birds  Aesthetic/Cultural  Pollination  Pest Control  Panama  Seed Dispersal  Cameroon
  12. 12. Hornbill Ecology and Conservation Long distance movements by Ceratogymna hornbills in dry season (Holbrook & Smith 2000).
  13. 13. In Cameroon, most cacao is grown under diverse shade by small farmers (1-2 ha).
  14. 14. Study Locations
  15. 15. Methods  Sampled 7 cacao-producing villages  4 cacao farms per village.  Bird Sampling  2 days mist-netting per farm  45 minute area search per farm  Vegetation Sampling  3 25x25m plots per farm  Overstory trees (dbh & height)  Density & height of cacao
  16. 16. Cameroon Results  Bird species richness in Cameroon  150 bird species in cacao farms • 56 species captured in cacao layer (mist nets)  Very few migratory species are using cacao farms  80 species estimated for Primary forests (Waltert et al. 2005)  70 species estimated for Cocoa Agroforests (Waltert et al. 2005)  Tree species richness  112 cocoa shade tree species • 192 shade tree species in STCP database  230 tree species known in Dja reserve (Dietsch et al., this study) (Sonwa 2000) (Fogiel unpublished) (Waltert et al. 2005)
  17. 17. Majority of birds in Cacao layer consume insects Highly Skewed Distribution 100% 80% Omnivores 60% Insectivores Nectivores 40% Granivores 20% Frugivores 0% Abundance Diversity
  18. 18. Bird diversity in Cacao layer compared with shade layer 100% 80% Omnivores Insectivores 60% Nectivores 40% Granivores 20% Frugivores Carnivores 0% Aerial Feeders Cacao layer with Shade layer
  19. 19. Tree species used by Ceratogymna hornbills in Dja reserve (Whitney et al. 1998), also found in Cocoa farms with farmer uses.
  20. 20. Cameroon: Summary  High diversity of shade tree in cocoa farms  High bird diversity in cocoa farms  High proportion of bird diversity and abundance in the cacao layer consume insects  Many tree species can provide food resources for hornbills  Trees used by hornbills are also useful for farmers – potential “Win-Win” scenario

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