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FCZ Assessment Guidebook
Final Training Workshop
Presented by:
Erin Loury | Communications Director
Sinsamout Ounboundisan...
How do we know if
Fish Conservation Zones
are successful?
Workshop Goals
• Train participants in the process of assessing the
effectiveness of FCZs
• Introduce participants to the ...
Workshop Overview
Day 1
1. Project Overview
2. Introduction to Assessments and
Selecting Indicators
3. Introduction to Gov...
Workshop Overview
Day 2
1. Review Indicators and Q&A
2. Planning an FCZ Assessment
3. Conducting an FCZ Assessment
4. Usin...
Project Introduction
Developing Best Practices for
Evaluating Fish Conservation Zone
Effectiveness in Lao PDR
• Project Goals
• Develop a guidebook of best practices for assessing FCZs in
Lao PDR
• Build a network of Civil Society O...
What are FCZs?
• Fish Conservation Zones (FCZs) =
areas closed to some or all fishing
• Goals to protect fish populations,...
FCZ Status Report
• Total of 1,313 officially
recognized FCZs in Lao PDR
• A lot of effort to establish
FCZs across the co...
Few Resources for Assessing
Freshwater Protected Areas
Guidelines for Fisheries Co-
management
(DLF & WWF 2009):
How to es...
Filling the Gap: Assessment
Guidelines for Freshwater FCZs
• Guidance for answering
the question “Is this FCZ
successful?”...
Three Project Phases from 2016-2019
• 2016: Create a draft guidebook
for FCZ assessments in Lao PDR
• 2017-2018: Test the ...
Field Testing the Guidebook
Ban Houaykhoualouang
Xayabouri Province – FISHBIO
Ban Konglor
Khammouane Province – WWF
Ban Ke...
Intended Benefits
• Determine which FCZ approaches are successful or
unsuccessful
• Use time and effort most effectively t...
Introduction to FCZ Assessments
Selecting Indicators of
FCZ Effectiveness
Fisheries
Management:
A Cycle That
Repeats12
3
4
5
6
7
FCZ Assessment =
Phases 4, 5, and 6
• Monitoring
• Evaluation
• Rep...
Why Conduct Assessments?
• Identify FCZ strengths and
weaknesses: what is working
and what is not working?
• Can assess an...
Two Guidebooks to Use Together
Full Guidebook
Detailed reference guide
Information on assessment indicators
and methods
Fi...
Participatory Process
• FCZs = community co-management, should have
active participation of the community
• Although asses...
7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment
Monitoring: Collect Information for FCZ Assessment
Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired out...
7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment
Evaluation: Analyze Assessment Results
Step 5: Analyze and evaluate assessment results
7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment
Reporting: Communicate and Disseminate Findings
Step 6: Communicate assessment findings
Step ...
Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired outcomes
• Before beginning an assessment, decide: What will
we measure and why?
• ...
Identifying Vision, Goals, and Indicators
• Vision/Goals: Why are we
establishing an FCZ to begin
with?
• Benefits/Desired...
Three Categories of FCZ
Goals and Indicators
Ecological
Socio-economic
Governance
Desired Governance Goals:
• Effective management approach
• Community participation and
satisfaction
• Effective enforceme...
Each goal can have several, more specific
desired outcomes or benefits
Governance Goal: Effective management approach
Exam...
Example Goals: What should the FCZ do?
Desired Socioeconomic Goals:
• Increase food security
• Enhance or sustain liveliho...
Example Goals: What should the FCZ do?
Desired Ecological Goals:
• Protect individual species
• Protect or increase biodiv...
Step 2: Select indicators to measure
these goals and desired benefits
• Indicators are what you actually
measure in your a...
• Every FCZ assessment will be
different – there is no single
correct way to do an FCZ
assessment.
• FCZ assessments can a...
On Selecting Indicators
• Assessments don’t need to measure every indicator
• Only choose the indicators that are the best...
On Measuring Indicators
• A single indicator is not very informative
• Measuring multiple indicators helps paint a
picture...
• The FCZ Guidebook is a starting
point.
• You don’t need to measure all of
the indicators in the book, just the
ones that...
Introduction to the Full Guidebook:
• A reference to use for guidance during an FCZ
assessment.
• For each indicator, the ...
Introduction to the Governance Indicators
• Governance relates to all aspects of making
decisions and carrying out managem...
Desired Governance Goals:
• Effective management approach
• Community participation and
satisfaction
• Effective enforceme...
Governance Goal:
Effective management approach
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• Effective management decisions
• Clear...
Governance Goal:
Community participation and satisfaction
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• Community members participa...
Governance Goal:
Effective enforcement and compliance
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• Community members actively part...
Exercise (5 minutes)
Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are
familiar with:
• What are some of the FCZs governan...
What indicators can we measure to
determine whether these goals
and benefits are being achieved?
Introduction to the Governance Indicators
• G1: Existence of an active management committee
• G2: Existence and adoption o...
Indicator G1: Existence of an Active
Management Committee
• Looks at who is responsible for making decisions
about FCZ man...
Indicator G1: Existence of an Active
Management Committee
Methods – Example Questions:
• Who is part of the committee?
Wha...
Indicator G2: Existence and Adoption
of a Management Plan
• Looks for a document that recognizes the authority
of the FCZ,...
Indicator G2: Existence and Adoption
of a Management Plan
Methods – Example Questions:
• Who has approved the plan?
• How ...
Indicator G3: Local Understanding of FCZ
Rules and Regulations
• Looks at how familiar community members are
with FCZ purp...
Indicator G3: Local Understanding of FCZ
Rules and Regulations
Methods: Example Questions for Community Members
• Have you...
Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ
Administrative Resources
• Looks at whether there is enough funding,
materials, ...
Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ
Administrative Resources
Methods – Example Questions
Funding:
• How much funding...
Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ
Administrative Resources
Methods – Example Questions:
Equipment:
• How much equi...
• Looks at 1) whether community members
participate in FCZ management and 2) whether
they support or agree with FCZ manage...
Methods – Example Questions:
Participation:
• How do different groups of the community
participate in FCZ management?
• Ar...
Methods – Example Questions to Ask Stakeholders:
Satisfaction:
• How satisfied are you about FCZ management?
• What would ...
• Looks at FCZ enforcement protocols and practices
• frequency of patrolling, amount of area covered,
amount of time spent...
Methods – Example Questions
1. How frequently are patrols conducted?
2. How many hours are spent during each
patrol?
3. Wh...
• Looks at to what extent people are complying with
or violating the FCZ regulations.
• FCZs can only protect fish populat...
• Methods – Example Questions:
• In general, how many people violate the rules of
the FCZ?
• How frequently do people viol...
Group Exercise: Selecting Indicators
Example 1.1: A community wants to know if enforcement
efforts are working in the FCZ ...
Introduction to the Socioeconomic Indicators
Socioeconomic goals and indicators
relate to social and economic factors in
h...
Example Goals: What should the FCZ do?
Desired Socioeconomic Goals:
• Increase food security
• Enhance or sustain liveliho...
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• The community can catch more fish
• The community has more fish to eat
• The FCZ supp...
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• The FCZ does not negatively affect
traditional practices, relationships or
social sys...
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes:
• Increase environmental awareness and
knowledge
• Promote ecotourism
Socioeconomic Goa...
Exercise (5 minutes)
Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are
familiar with:
• What are some of the FCZs socioeco...
What indicators can we measure to
determine whether these goals
and benefits are being achieved?
Introduction to the Socioeconomic Indicators
• S1: Local fishing patterns and practices
• S2: Perceptions of local fish ca...
Indicator S1: Local Fishing Patterns
and Practices
• Looks at patterns in the ways people catch fish or
other aquatic reso...
Indicator S1: Local Fishing Patterns
and Practices
Methods – Example Questions
• What types of aquatic resources are being...
Indicator S2: Perceptions of
Local Fish Catch
• Example methods:
• Interview a diversity of
fishers
• Measures what fisher...
Indicator S2: Perceptions of
Local Fish Catch
Methods – Example questions
• Since the FCZ was established, has your total ...
Indicator S3: Patterns of
Household Fish Consumption
• Looks at how much wild-caught fish people are
eating in the communi...
Indicator S3: Patterns of
Household Fish Consumption
Methods – Example Questions
• How many days per week on average
do yo...
Indicator S4: Perception of benefits
derived from the FCZ
• Looks at whether community members feel the FCZ
has had a posi...
Methods – Example Questions:
• What benefits have you personally experienced
as a result of the FCZ?
• What negative impac...
Indicator S5: Household Income/Effort
Distribution by Source
• Measures the primary livelihood activities and
sources of i...
Indicator S5: Household Income/Effort
Distribution by Source
Methods – Example Question:
• What are all the livelihood act...
Indicator S6: Local Values and Beliefs
about Aquatic Resources
• Measures how local values and beliefs may shape
how peopl...
Indicator S6: Local Values and Beliefs
about Aquatic Resources
Methods – Example Questions:
• Why is the river/aquatic spe...
• This indicator measures understanding of how
human actions can harm or help the
environment.
• Understanding the environ...
Indicator S7: Level of environmental awareness
and understanding of conservation
Methods: Example Questions:
• What activi...
Group Exercise: Selecting Indicators
• Example 2.1: A facilitating organization wants to know
whether the FCZ is helping t...
Introduction to the Ecological Indicators
• Ecology refers to the relationships between
animals, plants, and their environ...
Example Goals: What should the FCZ do?
Desired Ecological Goals:
• Protect individual species
• Protect or increase biodiv...
Ecological Goal:
Protect individual species
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes
• Increase the abundance of a particular key...
Ecological Goal:
Protect biodiversity (or “all fishes”)
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes
• Increase total abundance of al...
Ecological Goal:
Protect the aquatic environment
Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes
• Protect important habitats inside the...
Exercise (5 minutes)
Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are
familiar with:
• What are some of the FCZ’s ecologi...
What indicators can we measure to
determine whether these goals
and benefits are being achieved?
Introduction to the Ecological Indicators
• E1a: Presence/absence of a key species
• E1b: Abundance of a key species
• E2:...
Fishery-Dependent vs. Fishery-Independent
• Fishery-dependent sampling collects data on based on
fishers regular fishing a...
Direct vs. Indirect Sampling
Direct sampling: Collecting data for an indicator through
first-hand surveys or observations
...
How to measure the ecological changes from
an FCZ on fish populations?
• Helpful to have data from before the FCZ was
esta...
Control or Reference Sites
• A “control site” or “reference site” should be in a
similar habitat as the FCZ, and far enoug...
Indicator E1a: Presence/absence
of a key species
• A key species is any species of interest related to
the FCZ
• This indi...
Indicator E1b: Abundance
of a Key Species
• Looks at “how many” there are of a key species by
number (numerical abundance)...
Indicator E1b: Abundance
of a Key Species
• Example Method:
• Use nets or traps to survey fish in a fisheries-
independent...
Indicator E2: Population Structure
of a Key Species
• Describes the size or age composition of a fish
population. How many...
Indicator E2: Population Structure
of a Key Species
Example methods – Percentage of “large” individuals:
• Determine a “cu...
Indicator E2: Population Structure
of a Key Species
Example methods – Length frequency distribution:
• Measure the length ...
Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group
(such as “all fishes”)
• Measures the abundance of a group ( “all fish,”
“all inver...
Similar methods for Indicators E1b (one
fish species) and E3 (all fish species)
• E1b: Only count or weigh fish from the s...
Indicator E4: Composition and structure
of the aquatic community
• A measure of biodiversity, or the number and
type of al...
Indicator E4: Composition and structure
of the aquatic community
Example Methods:
Species richness: Total number of specie...
Indicator E5: Total Catch Per unit of
Fishing Effort
• A fishery-dependent measure of fish abundance.
Measures the amount ...
Indicator E5: Total Catch Per unit of
Fishing Effort
Example methods:
• Fisher interview surveys (creel surveys): Collect
...
Indicator E6: Water Quality
• Measures conditions of the water that may
influence animals and plants inside the FCZ
• This...
Indicator E6: Water Quality
Example methods:
• Observations and basic measurements
• Odors, surface oils, temperature, sta...
Indicator E7: Habitat Distribution
and Quality
• Measures aspects of the physical environment where
fish live, such as roc...
Indicator E7: Habitat Distribution
and Quality
Example methods:
• Observational data: Land use near
the river, river bank ...
• Example 3.1: A donor wants to know if the FCZ is
helping to increase the abundance of an
endangered fish species.
• Exam...
Detailed indicator examples
• This indicator reflects the amount of effort spent in
patrolling and enforcing the FCZ.
• It can describe the the amount...
• Methods: Can ask questions such as:
1. How frequently are patrols conducted?
2. How many hours are spent during each
pat...
• Analysis: Can draw a map that shows the area
patrolled, and any variations in patrolling patterns.
Indicator G6: Clear E...
Violation Ratio: G6 and G7
• Analysis: Can calculate a violation ratio by dividing
the number of violations encountered by...
1. Is the enforcement coverage
enough to discourage or catch
violators?
2. Is it possible that illegal fishers
could be av...
• This indicator looks at whether
community members feel the FCZ
has had a positive or negative
impact on their lives, and...
Example open-answer questions (semi-structured interview):
1. What benefits have you personally experienced as a
result of...
Example of closed-question survey:
1. Do you think the FCZ has provided you more fish
to eat? (Yes or No)
2. How do you th...
Analysis: You can graph the results of your surveys or list
the answers in tables.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Food Income
P...
Questions to Consider:
1. Are members of the community generally feeling
benefits or negative impacts from the FCZ, or
nei...
• This indicator measures the abundance
of a particular group (such as “all fish,”
“all invertebrates,” “all catfishes,” e...
General considerations:
• This indicator requires selecting a reference or control
site to compare to the FCZ.
• Sampling ...
• How much to sample will depend on many factors, such as:
The size of the FCZ, the gear type used, the diversity of the
f...
Example methods:
• Use nets or traps to measure Catch Per Unit Effort
of all fishes (# of kg of fish / hour of fishing tim...
Analysis:
• Can graph the abundance data over time to examine trends
inside and outside the FCZ
2.5
3.5
4.3
2.4
2.8
1.8
0
...
Additional Indicators in Appendix 1
• Level of resource conflict
• Existence and adequacy of
enabling legislation
• Inform...
Additional Indicators in Appendix 1
• Gender balance in management
• Material style of life
• Community infrastructure and...
Additional Indicators in Appendix 1
• Food web integrity
• Recruitment success within
the community
• Area showing signs o...
7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment
Monitoring:
Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired outcomes
Step 2: Select indicators
Step 3:...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
• Important to have a plan
(in writing) before
beginning the assessment
• S...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
Parts of an FCZ assessment plan
1. Who will be involved?
2. What will you m...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
1. Who is Involved? Identify the Assessment Team
• Who will conduct the ass...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
2. What Will You Measure? With What Methods?
• Often multiple ways to measu...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
3. When Will You Collect Data? Assessment Schedule
• How frequently should ...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
4. Where Will You Collect Data?
• Can you sample inside the
FCZ?
• If not, ...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
5. What Resources Do You Need?
• Make an equipment checklist
for all the su...
Step 3: Plan the assessment and select
methods
6. How Will You Manage the Data?
• How will your field data sheets
be colle...
Step 4: Collect data for the assessment
• Data might include: observations, interview
surveys, questionnaires, or scientif...
Best Practices for Interview Surveys
• Respect all community members
• Keep responses confidential and
if possible anonymo...
Best Practices for Interview Surveys
• Take detailed notes:
• What people say
• How they say it
• Cross-check the data: co...
Step 4: Collect data for the assessment
• Assessment team should communicate regularly
during the assessment
• Will need t...
Step 5: Analyze and Evaluate Results
• Data can be summarized in tables, charts, or graphs
• You may need to consult with ...
Step 5: Analyze and Evaluate Results
• What do the results tell you
about the FCZ’s
performance?
• Are there differences i...
Step 6: Communicate Assessment
Findings
• Share results with the
community, especially
fisheries management
committee
• Sh...
Step 7: Make Recommendations for FCZ
Management
• If the community is satisfied with the performance
of the FCZ after the ...
Step 7: Make Recommendations for FCZ
Management
• For example: the assessment finds a low level of
compliance with FCZ reg...
Share Your Experience:
Mekong Fish Network
• Resource for organizations and
individuals working on fish and
fisheries in t...
www.mekongfishnetwork.org
• Website
• Blog posts
• Project descriptions
• Photos and video
• Publications
• Email newslett...
Please Share Your FCZ Stories!
• Share your projects
and working on Fish
Conservation Zones
• Help others learn
from your
...
Please Stay In Touch – Thank You!
Email
• fishbiolaos@fishbio.com
• sinsamout@fishbio.com
• erinloury@fishbio.com
Websites...
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Training presentation for fish conservation zone assessment guidebook

This presentation is a training orientation to the guidebook "Guidelines for Assessing Fish Conservation Zones in Lao PDR. The guidebook describes the steps of planning and conducting an assessment of community-managed freshwater Fish Conservation Zones (FCZs), as well as 21 indicators of governance, socioeconomic, and ecological effectiveness. The full guidebook is available to download online:
https://www.mekongfishnetwork.org/guidebook-for-assessing-fczs-in-lao-pdr_fishbio-2/

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Training presentation for fish conservation zone assessment guidebook

  1. 1. FCZ Assessment Guidebook Final Training Workshop Presented by: Erin Loury | Communications Director Sinsamout Ounboundisane | Company Director Dana Lee | Fisheries Biologist
  2. 2. How do we know if Fish Conservation Zones are successful?
  3. 3. Workshop Goals • Train participants in the process of assessing the effectiveness of FCZs • Introduce participants to the guidebook “Guidelines for Assessing Fish Conservation Zones in Lao PDR” and it’s accompanying field handbook • Familiarize participants with selecting indicators to measure FCZ effectiveness • Familiarize participants with planning an FCZ assessment
  4. 4. Workshop Overview Day 1 1. Project Overview 2. Introduction to Assessments and Selecting Indicators 3. Introduction to Governance Indicators 4. Introduction to Socioeconomic Indicators 5. Introduction to Ecological Indicators
  5. 5. Workshop Overview Day 2 1. Review Indicators and Q&A 2. Planning an FCZ Assessment 3. Conducting an FCZ Assessment 4. Using the Results of an Assessment 5. Project Closing Ceremony 6. Field Trip to Sangthong District FCZs
  6. 6. Project Introduction Developing Best Practices for Evaluating Fish Conservation Zone Effectiveness in Lao PDR
  7. 7. • Project Goals • Develop a guidebook of best practices for assessing FCZs in Lao PDR • Build a network of Civil Society Organizations and fishery co-management groups working with FCZs • Donor Goals • Funded by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) • Empowering civil society to conserve biodiversity • Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) = communities, NGOs, universities, private companies FCZ Guidebook Project Goals
  8. 8. What are FCZs? • Fish Conservation Zones (FCZs) = areas closed to some or all fishing • Goals to protect fish populations, livelihoods, food security • Lao Fisheries Law (2009): Legal framework for FCZ co-management • Responsibility shared between communities and local government authorities
  9. 9. FCZ Status Report • Total of 1,313 officially recognized FCZs in Lao PDR • A lot of effort to establish FCZs across the country • However, little effort to assess and evaluate FCZs • Are FCZs successful or unsuccessful? Why or why not?
  10. 10. Few Resources for Assessing Freshwater Protected Areas Guidelines for Fisheries Co- management (DLF & WWF 2009): How to establish new FCZs. How is Your MPA Doing? (Pomeroy et al. 2004): How to assess marine protected areas
  11. 11. Filling the Gap: Assessment Guidelines for Freshwater FCZs • Guidance for answering the question “Is this FCZ successful?” • 21 indicators (governance, socioeconomic, and ecological effectiveness) • Steps for planning, carrying out, and communicating an FCZ assessment
  12. 12. Three Project Phases from 2016-2019 • 2016: Create a draft guidebook for FCZ assessments in Lao PDR • 2017-2018: Test the guidebook by at 3 FCZ sites • Partnered with WWF and JVC • 2018-2019: Refine, finalize, and disseminate the guidebook
  13. 13. Field Testing the Guidebook Ban Houaykhoualouang Xayabouri Province – FISHBIO Ban Konglor Khammouane Province – WWF Ban Kengmeaw Savannakhet Province JVC
  14. 14. Intended Benefits • Determine which FCZ approaches are successful or unsuccessful • Use time and effort most effectively to manage FCZs • Demonstrate value of FCZs to donors • Improve communication and sharing lessons learned among organizations involved with FCZs
  15. 15. Introduction to FCZ Assessments Selecting Indicators of FCZ Effectiveness
  16. 16. Fisheries Management: A Cycle That Repeats12 3 4 5 6 7 FCZ Assessment = Phases 4, 5, and 6 • Monitoring • Evaluation • Reporting}
  17. 17. Why Conduct Assessments? • Identify FCZ strengths and weaknesses: what is working and what is not working? • Can assess any kind of fisheries management strategy. • This guidebook focuses on FCZs.
  18. 18. Two Guidebooks to Use Together Full Guidebook Detailed reference guide Information on assessment indicators and methods Field Handbook Simplified step-by-step guide How to select indicators and conduct an assessment
  19. 19. Participatory Process • FCZs = community co-management, should have active participation of the community • Although assessments are technical, community can participate in some way at every step
  20. 20. 7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment Monitoring: Collect Information for FCZ Assessment Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired outcomes Step 2: Select indicators Step 3: Plan assessment and select methods Step 4: Collect data
  21. 21. 7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment Evaluation: Analyze Assessment Results Step 5: Analyze and evaluate assessment results
  22. 22. 7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment Reporting: Communicate and Disseminate Findings Step 6: Communicate assessment findings Step 7: Make management recommendations (if needed)
  23. 23. Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired outcomes • Before beginning an assessment, decide: What will we measure and why? • An assessment depends on the goals of the FCZ. • What are the facilitating organization's goals for the FCZ? • What are the community’s goals for the FCZ?
  24. 24. Identifying Vision, Goals, and Indicators • Vision/Goals: Why are we establishing an FCZ to begin with? • Benefits/Desired Outcomes: What do we hope the FCZ can accomplish? • Indicators: What will we measure to determine if the FCZ is successful?
  25. 25. Three Categories of FCZ Goals and Indicators Ecological Socio-economic Governance
  26. 26. Desired Governance Goals: • Effective management approach • Community participation and satisfaction • Effective enforcement and compliance Let’s walk through Table 3 in the Field Handbook to explore example FCZ goals Example Goals: What should the FCZ do?
  27. 27. Each goal can have several, more specific desired outcomes or benefits Governance Goal: Effective management approach Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • Effective management decisions • Clear guidelines for FCZ regulations and penalties • Clear community understanding of FCZ rules • Enough funding and resources for management and enforcement
  28. 28. Example Goals: What should the FCZ do? Desired Socioeconomic Goals: • Increase food security • Enhance or sustain livelihoods • Respect cultural values and practices • Increase understanding and support for conservation
  29. 29. Example Goals: What should the FCZ do? Desired Ecological Goals: • Protect individual species • Protect or increase biodiversity • Sustain aquatic resources • Protect habitat
  30. 30. Step 2: Select indicators to measure these goals and desired benefits • Indicators are what you actually measure in your assessment. • Indicators tell you whether you are achieving your desired goal or benefit. • The indicators you select should depend on the goals and desired benefits of the FCZ.
  31. 31. • Every FCZ assessment will be different – there is no single correct way to do an FCZ assessment. • FCZ assessments can answer many types of questions. You need to decide which questions are most important and relevant to you. Step 2: Select indicators to measure these goals and desired benefits
  32. 32. On Selecting Indicators • Assessments don’t need to measure every indicator • Only choose the indicators that are the best fit for your FCZ • Some indicators are easier to measure than others
  33. 33. On Measuring Indicators • A single indicator is not very informative • Measuring multiple indicators helps paint a picture of what is happening at the FCZ • Indicators are most informative when measured over time to see how they change.
  34. 34. • The FCZ Guidebook is a starting point. • You don’t need to measure all of the indicators in the book, just the ones that are most relevant • There may be other indicators that are not in this guidebook • It is helpful to include a mix of governance, socioeconomic, and ecological indicators Step 2: Select indicators to measure these goals and desired benefits
  35. 35. Introduction to the Full Guidebook: • A reference to use for guidance during an FCZ assessment. • For each indicator, the guidebook includes: • General considerations for data collection • Example methods • Examples of how to interpret results • References • A starting point • Not meant to be comprehensive • Indicators identified at a stakeholder workshop in 2016
  36. 36. Introduction to the Governance Indicators • Governance relates to all aspects of making decisions and carrying out management actions for the FCZ • It is a good starting point for FCZ assessments
  37. 37. Desired Governance Goals: • Effective management approach • Community participation and satisfaction • Effective enforcement and compliance Table 3 in the Field Handbook or Table 2 in the Guidebook Example Goals: What should the FCZ do? Each goal can have several, more specific desired outcomes or benefits
  38. 38. Governance Goal: Effective management approach Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • Effective management decisions • Clear guidelines for FCZ regulations and penalties • Clear community understanding of FCZ rules • Enough funding and resources for management and enforcement
  39. 39. Governance Goal: Community participation and satisfaction Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • Community members participate in FCZ management • Community members accept and support the FCZ regulations and management
  40. 40. Governance Goal: Effective enforcement and compliance Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • Community members actively participate in and support FCZ enforcement • Good compliance with FCZ regulations • Effective patrolling and monitoring of FCZs • Effective enforcement when regulations are violated
  41. 41. Exercise (5 minutes) Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are familiar with: • What are some of the FCZs governance goals or desired benefits? • Or, which governance goals/benefits do you think are most important to that FCZ? Write these down, then discuss with your neighbor.
  42. 42. What indicators can we measure to determine whether these goals and benefits are being achieved?
  43. 43. Introduction to the Governance Indicators • G1: Existence of an active management committee • G2: Existence and adoption of a management plan • G3: Local understanding of FCZ rules and regulations • G4: Availability and use of FCZ administrative resources • G5: Level of community participation and satisfaction in management • G6: Clear enforcement procedures and level of patrolling effort • G7: Level of compliance with FCZ regulations
  44. 44. Indicator G1: Existence of an Active Management Committee • Looks at who is responsible for making decisions about FCZ management • Having a recognized management body can make sure management of the FCZ stays active • Examples methods: • Interview members of the management committee • Observe a management meeting
  45. 45. Indicator G1: Existence of an Active Management Committee Methods – Example Questions: • Who is part of the committee? What are their roles? • How often do they meet? • What kinds of decisions are made? How are they made?
  46. 46. Indicator G2: Existence and Adoption of a Management Plan • Looks for a document that recognizes the authority of the FCZ, and describes its purpose, goals, rules and regulations, and roles and responsibilities. • Provides an agreed-upon reference and legal basis for management • Example methods: • Use a checklist to review the written management plan for completeness • Interview the management committee
  47. 47. Indicator G2: Existence and Adoption of a Management Plan Methods – Example Questions: • Who has approved the plan? • How complete is the management plan? • Does it include: Goals/Purpose Roles and responsibilities Regulations Penalties Enforcement plans/protocols Budget or financial plan Guidelines for reviewing management effectiveness
  48. 48. Indicator G3: Local Understanding of FCZ Rules and Regulations • Looks at how familiar community members are with FCZ purpose and regulations • People are more likely to comply with the rules if they understand them • Example methods: • Interviews with a diversity of community members (in the village and neighboring villages)
  49. 49. Indicator G3: Local Understanding of FCZ Rules and Regulations Methods: Example Questions for Community Members • Have you heard of the FCZ in your village? • What is the goal or purpose of the FCZ? • What are the rules and regulations of the FCZ? • What penalties will people face if they break the rules? • How difficult are the regulations to understand? • Do you think the regulations are fair/acceptable?
  50. 50. Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ Administrative Resources • Looks at whether there is enough funding, materials, equipment and personnel to manage the FCZ, and how these resources are used • FCZ management is an active, ongoing process that requires resources • Example methods: • Conduct interviews with key groups (management committee, enforcement team) • Review key documents • Make an inventory of equipment/resources
  51. 51. Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ Administrative Resources Methods – Example Questions Funding: • How much funding is needed for FCZ management? • How much is available? Signs: • How many FCZ signs are there? • Are they visible? • Do they need fixing?
  52. 52. Indicator G4: Availability and Use of FCZ Administrative Resources Methods – Example Questions: Equipment: • How much equipment does the enforcement team have? • Is it in good condition? Personnel: • How many people are involved with FCZ enforcement and management? • How many are volunteers?
  53. 53. • Looks at 1) whether community members participate in FCZ management and 2) whether they support or agree with FCZ management • People are more likely to follow the rules of the FCZ if they feel a sense of ownership and satisfaction • Example methods: • Interview a diversity of members in the community. • Observe community participation in meetings or FCZ patrols Indicator G5: Level of Community Participation and Satisfaction in Management
  54. 54. Methods – Example Questions: Participation: • How do different groups of the community participate in FCZ management? • Are some groups not represented in FCZ management? Indicator G5: Level of Community Participation and Satisfaction in Management
  55. 55. Methods – Example Questions to Ask Stakeholders: Satisfaction: • How satisfied are you about FCZ management? • What would you like to change about FCZ management? Indicator G5: Level of Community Participation and Satisfaction in Management
  56. 56. • Looks at FCZ enforcement protocols and practices • frequency of patrolling, amount of area covered, amount of time spent patrolling, and procedures for apprehending/fining violators • Enforcement can prevent people from breaking the rules of the FCZ • Example methods: • Interview members of the enforcement team • Review patrol records • Interview fishers • Observe patrol activities Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  57. 57. Methods – Example Questions 1. How frequently are patrols conducted? 2. How many hours are spent during each patrol? 3. Where and how is patrolling completed? 4. How much of the FCZ area is covered during a patrol? 5. Is there a procedure for confronting and apprehending violators? Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  58. 58. • Looks at to what extent people are complying with or violating the FCZ regulations. • FCZs can only protect fish populations if people follow the rules of the FCZ and do not fish there. • Example methods: • Conduct interviews with members of the community and the enforcement team. • Review patrol records Indicator G7: Level of compliance with FCZ regulations
  59. 59. • Methods – Example Questions: • In general, how many people violate the rules of the FCZ? • How frequently do people violate the rules of the FCZ? • Is there a time of year (season) when there are more violations? • How many violators have been given warnings? How many have been made to pay fines? Indicator G7: Level of compliance with FCZ regulations
  60. 60. Group Exercise: Selecting Indicators Example 1.1: A community wants to know if enforcement efforts are working in the FCZ to apprehend violators. Example 1.2: An FCZ management committee wants to know if villagers are satisfied with the FCZ regulations and management. Example 1.3: A donor wants to know how their funding is being used to support management of the FCZ.
  61. 61. Introduction to the Socioeconomic Indicators Socioeconomic goals and indicators relate to social and economic factors in human communities.
  62. 62. Example Goals: What should the FCZ do? Desired Socioeconomic Goals: • Increase food security • Enhance or sustain livelihoods • Respect cultural values and practices • Increase understanding and support for conservation Each goal can have several, more specific desired outcomes or benefits Table 3 in the Field Handbook or Table 4 in the Guidebook
  63. 63. Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • The community can catch more fish • The community has more fish to eat • The FCZ supports community livelihoods Socioeconomic Goal: Enhance food security and livelihoods
  64. 64. Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • The FCZ does not negatively affect traditional practices, relationships or social systems. • Maintain/increase respect for and observance of traditional beliefs and practices Socioeconomic Goal: Respect cultural values and practices
  65. 65. Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes: • Increase environmental awareness and knowledge • Promote ecotourism Socioeconomic Goal: Increase understanding and support for conservation
  66. 66. Exercise (5 minutes) Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are familiar with: • What are some of the FCZs socioeconomic goals or desired benefits? • Or, which socioeconomic goals/benefits do you think are most important to that FCZ? Write these down, then discuss with your neighbor.
  67. 67. What indicators can we measure to determine whether these goals and benefits are being achieved?
  68. 68. Introduction to the Socioeconomic Indicators • S1: Local fishing patterns and practices • S2: Perceptions of local fish catch • S3: Patterns of household fish consumption • S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ • S5: Household income/effort distribution by source • S6: Local values and beliefs about aquatic resources • S7: Level of environmental awareness and understanding of conservation
  69. 69. Indicator S1: Local Fishing Patterns and Practices • Looks at patterns in the ways people catch fish or other aquatic resources. • Has the FCZ changed the way that people fish? How can FCZ management accommodate the community’s fishing needs? • Example methods: • Interview fishers and other community members • Observe fishing practices
  70. 70. Indicator S1: Local Fishing Patterns and Practices Methods – Example Questions • What types of aquatic resources are being harvested? With what methods? • Who is fishing? Where are they fishing? When are they fishing? • What species are they catching? • What are other ways that people use the river/stream? • How might FCZ establishment have affected fishing activities?
  71. 71. Indicator S2: Perceptions of Local Fish Catch • Example methods: • Interview a diversity of fishers • Measures what fishers think about their current fish catches, and how catches have changed over time. • People’s perceptions of their fish catch can relate to their perceptions of whether the FCZ is successful.
  72. 72. Indicator S2: Perceptions of Local Fish Catch Methods – Example questions • Since the FCZ was established, has your total catch (or fishing effort, or size of fish): • Increased a lot • Increased a little • Stayed the same • Decreased a little • Decreased a lot • If changes have occurred in your fishing catch (or effort, or fish size), why do you think this is?
  73. 73. Indicator S3: Patterns of Household Fish Consumption • Looks at how much wild-caught fish people are eating in the community and how frequently they are eating it. • FCZs are often established to provide more fish for people to eat, but they may initially result in fewer fish to eat because of the fishing restrictions. • Example methods: • Interview individuals or households
  74. 74. Indicator S3: Patterns of Household Fish Consumption Methods – Example Questions • How many days per week on average do you eat wild-caught fish? • How many days per week on average do you eat farmed fish? • Where do you obtain wild-caught fish for consumption? • Do you feel the FCZ is having an effect on the amount of fish available for consumption in the community? Why?
  75. 75. Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ • Looks at whether community members feel the FCZ has had a positive or negative impact on their lives, and whether they have benefited from the FCZ in some way. • People are more likely to support the management of an FCZ if they feel they have benefited from it. • Example Methods: • Interview individuals or households
  76. 76. Methods – Example Questions: • What benefits have you personally experienced as a result of the FCZ? • What negative impacts have you personally experienced as a result of the FCZ? • Do you think the FCZ has provided you more fish to eat? • Do you think the FCZ has provided you with more income? Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  77. 77. Indicator S5: Household Income/Effort Distribution by Source • Measures the primary livelihood activities and sources of income for local households • FCZs might provide a source of income to communities such as ecotourism or increased fishing catches. • Example Methods: • Household interviews
  78. 78. Indicator S5: Household Income/Effort Distribution by Source Methods – Example Question: • What are all the livelihood activities in your household? • Are any activities associated with the FCZ? • How much does each activity contribute to your income (or effort spent)? • Has income (or effort spent) from your livelihood activities changed since the FCZ was established? If yes, how?
  79. 79. Indicator S6: Local Values and Beliefs about Aquatic Resources • Measures how local values and beliefs may shape how people view or interact with the river/aquatic environment • Values and beliefs may influence where, when, how, and why people fish or do not fish. Is FCZ management compatible with local values and beliefs? • Example methods: • Interviews with households • Interviews with cultural or spiritual leaders
  80. 80. Indicator S6: Local Values and Beliefs about Aquatic Resources Methods – Example Questions: • Why is the river/aquatic species/fishing culturally important to you? • Are there traditional practices related to aquatic habitats or species? • Are there cultural beliefs or traditions that influence your fishing practices? • Is protecting the aquatic environment in the FCZ culturally important to you?
  81. 81. • This indicator measures understanding of how human actions can harm or help the environment. • Understanding the environmental impact of their actions can motivate people to change their behavior, which can be one of the goals of an FCZ. Indicator S7: Level of Environmental Awareness and Understanding of Conservation • Example methods: • Interviews with households, individuals or focal groups
  82. 82. Indicator S7: Level of environmental awareness and understanding of conservation Methods: Example Questions: • What activities, events, or changes are negatively impacting the aquatic environment in your community? • What could be done to reduce these threats? • What threats does the FCZ help address? • What will happen to fish populations if we harvest too many fish?
  83. 83. Group Exercise: Selecting Indicators • Example 2.1: A facilitating organization wants to know whether the FCZ is helping to support the food security of the community. • Example 2.2: An FCZ management committee wants to know whether the FCZ is helping to support community livelihoods related to ecotourism. • Example 2.3: A community wants to know if the FCZ is helping their children learn about conservation of natural resources and environmental sustainability.
  84. 84. Introduction to the Ecological Indicators • Ecology refers to the relationships between animals, plants, and their environment. • Many of the Ecological Indicators focus on fish or other aquatic species.
  85. 85. Example Goals: What should the FCZ do? Desired Ecological Goals: • Protect individual species • Protect or increase biodiversity (or “all fishes”) • Protect the aquatic environment Each goal can have several, more specific desired outcomes or benefits Table 3 in the Field Handbook or Table 10 in the Guidebook
  86. 86. Ecological Goal: Protect individual species Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes • Increase the abundance of a particular key species
  87. 87. Ecological Goal: Protect biodiversity (or “all fishes”) Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes • Increase total abundance of all fishes (or Other Aquatic Animals) • Protect or increase the biodiversity of aquatic species
  88. 88. Ecological Goal: Protect the aquatic environment Example Desired Benefits/Outcomes • Protect important habitats inside the FCZ (such as spawning habitat, deep pools, etc.)
  89. 89. Exercise (5 minutes) Take a few minutes and think about an FCZ you are familiar with: • What are some of the FCZ’s ecological goals or desired benefits? • Or, which ecological goals/benefits do you think are most important to that FCZ? Write these down, then discuss with your neighbor.
  90. 90. What indicators can we measure to determine whether these goals and benefits are being achieved?
  91. 91. Introduction to the Ecological Indicators • E1a: Presence/absence of a key species • E1b: Abundance of a key species • E2: Population structure of a key species • E3: Total abundance by group (such as “fishes”) • E4: Composition and structure of the aquatic community • E5: Total catch per unit of fishing effort • E6: Water quality • E7: Habitat distribution and quality
  92. 92. Fishery-Dependent vs. Fishery-Independent • Fishery-dependent sampling collects data on based on fishers regular fishing activities (logbook programs, fish-catch monitoring) • Fishery-independent sampling collects data in a standardized way that is separate from regular fishing activity (scientific sampling)
  93. 93. Direct vs. Indirect Sampling Direct sampling: Collecting data for an indicator through first-hand surveys or observations • Weighing the amount of fish caught per day • Observing the number of boats fishing per day Indirect sampling: Collecting data for an indicator by asking people to report it from their experience or memory • Interviewing fishers to ask how much fish they catch per day • Interviewing community members about how many boats fish per day
  94. 94. How to measure the ecological changes from an FCZ on fish populations? • Helpful to have data from before the FCZ was established • Can compare fish populations before and after FCZ establishment • Alternatively, can compare fish populations in the protected area (inside the FCZ) to those in an unprotected area (outside the FCZ). • This requires choosing a “control site” or “reference site” to compare to the FCZ.
  95. 95. Control or Reference Sites • A “control site” or “reference site” should be in a similar habitat as the FCZ, and far enough away that it is not influenced by the FCZ regulations • The only major difference between the sites should be that the FCZ prohibits fishing, while the control site allows fishing. • This allows you to “control” for the effect of fishing to see how fish populations differ at sites with and without fishing • Comparing to a control site is important for understanding whether an FCZ is working.
  96. 96. Indicator E1a: Presence/absence of a key species • A key species is any species of interest related to the FCZ • This indicator looks at whether the species is found in the FCZ at least part of the year (presence) • If an FCZ was established to help a particular species, it is important to know whether that species actually uses the habitat in the FCZ (is the FCZ protecting the correct location?) • Example Methods: • Fishery-independent sampling to detect the presence of the species
  97. 97. Indicator E1b: Abundance of a Key Species • Looks at “how many” there are of a key species by number (numerical abundance) or weight (biomass) • Looks at whether the FCZ is helping to increase the population of a key species. • Example Methods: • Fishery-independent sampling to measure the relative abundance of a species. • Surveys of abundance will automatically provide information on presence/absence
  98. 98. Indicator E1b: Abundance of a Key Species • Example Method: • Use nets or traps to survey fish in a fisheries- independent survey in the FCZ and control site • Important to record the survey “effort” or time spent fishing • Abundance is reported as Catch Per Unit of Effort (CPUE), such as “kg of fish per hour of fishing per net” or “number of fish per hour of fishing per trap” • One survey is not enough: repeat surveys throughout the season or in different seasons to get an average abundance
  99. 99. Indicator E2: Population Structure of a Key Species • Describes the size or age composition of a fish population. How many individuals are there of different sizes or ages? • Can help determine how many fish are able to reproduce and sustain the population. • Example methods: • Fishery-independent surveys with multiple types or sizes of gear to catch both juveniles and adults of the species.
  100. 100. Indicator E2: Population Structure of a Key Species Example methods – Percentage of “large” individuals: • Determine a “cut-off” length for a “large” individual of the species. • “Cut-off” length could be the size of reproductive maturity • Mark a measuring stick to show the “cut-off” length • Count the number of fish caught in the survey that are smaller or larger than the “cut-off” length
  101. 101. Indicator E2: Population Structure of a Key Species Example methods – Length frequency distribution: • Measure the length (or weight) each individual of the species caught • Graph how many individuals are found of each length
  102. 102. Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”) • Measures the abundance of a group ( “all fish,” “all invertebrates,” “all catfishes,” etc.) by number or weight • Can help answer the question “Are there more fish in the FCZ?,” which is useful to know for food security • Example Methods: Fishery-independent sampling to measure the relative abundance of all fish
  103. 103. Similar methods for Indicators E1b (one fish species) and E3 (all fish species) • E1b: Only count or weigh fish from the species of interest • E3: Count or weigh all fish species combined • Compare the number or weight of fish caught per hour of fishing inside the FCZ compared to the control site.
  104. 104. Indicator E4: Composition and structure of the aquatic community • A measure of biodiversity, or the number and type of all living things in a specific area. • Protecting or increasing biodiversity is often a goal of conservation. High biodiversity can be a sign of healthy environment. • Example methods: • Sampling species with a large diversity of methods • Interviewing community members about species found
  105. 105. Indicator E4: Composition and structure of the aquatic community Example Methods: Species richness: Total number of species in the aquatic community • Native fish species richness, macroinvertebrate species richness Evenness: Measure of how equally represented different species are in the aquatic community Dominance: Measure of whether some species are more abundant than others
  106. 106. Indicator E5: Total Catch Per unit of Fishing Effort • A fishery-dependent measure of fish abundance. Measures the amount of fish that fishers catch per amount of time spent fishing. • Many FCZs are established with the hope that increasing fish abundance inside the FCZ will “spill over” to benefit fish catches outside the FCZ. • Example methods: • Fisher interview surveys (creel surveys) • Fisher logbooks
  107. 107. Indicator E5: Total Catch Per unit of Fishing Effort Example methods: • Fisher interview surveys (creel surveys): Collect data from fishers that bring their catch to a landing site. Measure and weigh their catch. • Fisher logbooks: Train fishers to collect data on their own fishing catch • These surveys require commitment and generate a lot of data. There should be a plan for organizing and analyzing these data before beginning.
  108. 108. Indicator E6: Water Quality • Measures conditions of the water that may influence animals and plants inside the FCZ • This indicator can be used to understand factors other than the FCZ that might affect aquatic species • Example methods: • Observations and basic measurements • Macroinvertebrate monitoring (bioindicators)
  109. 109. Indicator E6: Water Quality Example methods: • Observations and basic measurements • Odors, surface oils, temperature, stage height (water level), clarity • Macroinvertebrate monitoring (bioindicators) • Protocols from The Asia Foundation • Tolerance of macroinvertebrate species provides an indicator of water quality
  110. 110. Indicator E7: Habitat Distribution and Quality • Measures aspects of the physical environment where fish live, such as rocks, sand, pools, rapids, and plants. • FCZs may protect important habitats, such as spawning areas or deep pool refuges. Are these habitats of good quality? • Example methods: • Observations • Stream cross-section • Substrate survey
  111. 111. Indicator E7: Habitat Distribution and Quality Example methods: • Observational data: Land use near the river, river bank erosion, presence of vegetation, visible trash, water odors, water surface appearance • River cross section: Measure river depth across a transect • Substrate survey: Measure the size of rocks on the river bottom across a transect
  112. 112. • Example 3.1: A donor wants to know if the FCZ is helping to increase the abundance of an endangered fish species. • Example 3.2: A community wants to know if the FCZ has helped increase the abundance of all fish species and fisher catches. • Example 3.3: A facilitating organization wants to know if the FCZ is successful in protecting spawning habitat for a key fish species. Group Exercise: Indicator Selection
  113. 113. Detailed indicator examples
  114. 114. • This indicator reflects the amount of effort spent in patrolling and enforcing the FCZ. • It can describe the the amount of area covered, the amount of time spent patrolling, or the frequency of patrolling • Example methods: • Conduct interviews with the enforcement team. • Make direct observations of enforcement team activities. Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  115. 115. • Methods: Can ask questions such as: 1. How frequently are patrols conducted? 2. How many hours are spent during each patrol? 3. Where and how is patrolling completed? 4. How much of the FCZ area is covered during a patrol? 5. How many violations have been observed doing patrols? 6. How many violators have been apprehended during patrols? Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  116. 116. • Analysis: Can draw a map that shows the area patrolled, and any variations in patrolling patterns. Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  117. 117. Violation Ratio: G6 and G7 • Analysis: Can calculate a violation ratio by dividing the number of violations encountered by the number of hours spent patrolling. • Ex: 5 violations/80 hours of patrolling = 0.0625 violations/hours of patrolling • Ex: 2 violations/100 hours of patrolling = 0.02 violations/hours of patrolling • You can track changes in the violation ratio over time to see if it is increasing or decreasing
  118. 118. 1. Is the enforcement coverage enough to discourage or catch violators? 2. Is it possible that illegal fishers could be avoiding patrols? 3. Has there been any change in the frequency or duration of patrols over time? 4. Has there been a change in the violation ratio over time? 5. Are there recommendations to improve enforcement coverage? Some Questions to Consider: Indicator G6: Clear Enforcement Procedures and Level of Patrolling Effort
  119. 119. • This indicator looks at whether community members feel the FCZ has had a positive or negative impact on their lives, and whether they have benefited from the FCZ in some way. • Benefits could include food, income, or others. • Example methods: • Conduct interview surveys with individuals or households Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  120. 120. Example open-answer questions (semi-structured interview): 1. What benefits have you personally experienced as a result of the FCZ? (Please list them all) 2. What negative impacts have you personally experienced as a result of the FCZ? (Please list them all) 3. Do you think the community has generally benefited or suffered as a result of the FCZ? Why or why not? 4. Do you think the benefits or impacts from the FCZ have been experienced equally by the community? Why or why not? Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  121. 121. Example of closed-question survey: 1. Do you think the FCZ has provided you more fish to eat? (Yes or No) 2. How do you think your access to fish for eating has changed as a result of the FCZ? 1. Increased a lot 2. Increased a little 3. Stayed the same 4. Decreased a little 5. Decreased a lot 6. I don’t know/don’t have an opinion Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  122. 122. Analysis: You can graph the results of your surveys or list the answers in tables. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Food Income PercentofRespondents Has the FCZ benefited you in terms of food or income? Yes No FCZ changes to Food FCZ Changes to Income Increased a lot 20% 5% Increased a little 35% 20% Stayed the same 35% 50% Decreased a little 10% 15% Decreased a lot 0% 10% Total 100% 100% Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  123. 123. Questions to Consider: 1. Are members of the community generally feeling benefits or negative impacts from the FCZ, or neither? 2. Are certain members/groups of the community feeling the benefits or negative impacts more than others? 3. Are there recommendations that can be made to make the benefits of the FCZ more widespread or equitable? Indicator S4: Perception of benefits derived from the FCZ
  124. 124. • This indicator measures the abundance of a particular group (such as “all fish,” “all invertebrates,” “all catfishes,” etc.) • This can help answer the question “Are there more fish in the FCZ?” • Abundance can be numeric abundance (counts) or biomass (weight) • Useful if you are concerned about overall fish abundance (food security perspective), and not as concerned about individual fish species. Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”)
  125. 125. General considerations: • This indicator requires selecting a reference or control site to compare to the FCZ. • Sampling can be: • fisheries-dependent sampling: collect data based on fishermen’s regular harvest • Fisheries-independent sampling: using standardized sampling gear to collect data for research that is separate from regular fishing. • For fisheries-independent sampling, the same gear type should be used each time the survey is completed. Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”)
  126. 126. • How much to sample will depend on many factors, such as: The size of the FCZ, the gear type used, the diversity of the fish in the river etc. • When sampling inside the FCZ, take care to reduce fish mortality and release fish in good condition. • This can mean setting the gear for a short amount of time and checking it frequently. Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”)
  127. 127. Example methods: • Use nets or traps to measure Catch Per Unit Effort of all fishes (# of kg of fish / hour of fishing time) • Conduct fisher interviews about their relative fish catch outside the FCZ. Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”)
  128. 128. Analysis: • Can graph the abundance data over time to examine trends inside and outside the FCZ 2.5 3.5 4.3 2.4 2.8 1.8 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 CPUE(KgofFish/TrapHour) Total Fish Abundance FCZ REFERENCE Questions to Consider: • Is there a trend in abundance in the FCZ or in the control site (increasing or decreasing?) • Is the trend inside the FCZ similar to the trend outside the FCZ? Indicator E3: Total Abundance by Group (such as “all fishes”)
  129. 129. Additional Indicators in Appendix 1 • Level of resource conflict • Existence and adequacy of enabling legislation • Information dissemination • Fair allocation of access rights • Equal distribution of FCZ effects
  130. 130. Additional Indicators in Appendix 1 • Gender balance in management • Material style of life • Community infrastructure and business • Number and nature of markets • Quality of human health • Distribution of local ecological knowledge
  131. 131. Additional Indicators in Appendix 1 • Food web integrity • Recruitment success within the community • Area showing signs of recovery • Area under no or reduced human impact
  132. 132. 7 Steps of an FCZ Assessment Monitoring: Step 1: Identify FCZ goals and desired outcomes Step 2: Select indicators Step 3: Plan assessment and select methods Step 4: Collect data Evaluation: Step 5: Analyze and evaluate assessment results Reporting: Step 6: Communicate assessment findings Step 7: Make management recommendations (if needed)
  133. 133. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods • Important to have a plan (in writing) before beginning the assessment • Save the plan for future reference when you repeat the assessment. • Assessments should ideally be part of long- term monitoring that repeats over time • Data has to be consistently collected in the same way to compare year to year
  134. 134. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods Parts of an FCZ assessment plan 1. Who will be involved? 2. What will you measure? With what methods? 3. Where will you survey? 4. When will you survey? 5. Why are you collecting the data? 6. How will you manage the data?
  135. 135. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 1. Who is Involved? Identify the Assessment Team • Who will conduct the assessment? (Community, CSO, Government staff?) • What is each person’s role(s) and responsibilities? • Roles could include: designing the assessment, coordinating with the community, collecting data, analyzing data, communicating results.
  136. 136. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 2. What Will You Measure? With What Methods? • Often multiple ways to measure an indicator • Some methods are more difficult than others • Select methods depending on available resources, equipment, training, etc. • Some guidance on methods for each indicator provided in the Full FCZ Guidebook. • May need to consult a technical expert for advice
  137. 137. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 3. When Will You Collect Data? Assessment Schedule • How frequently should you collect data for each indicator and method in your assessment? (every day, month, year, etc.?) • May need to collect data in multiple seasons
  138. 138. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 4. Where Will You Collect Data? • Can you sample inside the FCZ? • If not, can you sample just outside the FCZ to represent “inside”? • Most FCZ assessments require a reference site outside the FCZ for comparison • Similar habitat as the FCZ • Not too close to FCZ
  139. 139. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 5. What Resources Do You Need? • Make an equipment checklist for all the supplies you will need • Make a budget for the assessment. Do you have enough funding, or need to seek more? • Does your team have skills and capacity to conduct the required methods, or do you need additional training/support?
  140. 140. Step 3: Plan the assessment and select methods 6. How Will You Manage the Data? • How will your field data sheets be collected and checked for accuracy? • Do you have a database to store your data? (Microsoft Access, Excel, etc.) Is it backed up? • Who will enter the data into the database and check it for Quality Assurance?
  141. 141. Step 4: Collect data for the assessment • Data might include: observations, interview surveys, questionnaires, or scientific measurements in the field • Data should be written down, and entered in a computer database for analysis • Data can be collected regularly to look at trends over time
  142. 142. Best Practices for Interview Surveys • Respect all community members • Keep responses confidential and if possible anonymous • Clearly state the purpose of the assessment • Recognize and reduce biases of the assessment team • Address gender issues • Address language differences
  143. 143. Best Practices for Interview Surveys • Take detailed notes: • What people say • How they say it • Cross-check the data: compare data collected in different ways for the same indicator • For enforcement indicators: 1) Interview the enforcement team 2) Observe the enforcement team procedures 3) Review enforcement protocols or other written document
  144. 144. Step 4: Collect data for the assessment • Assessment team should communicate regularly during the assessment • Will need to address challenges that arise • Record any changes to the assessment plan for future reference • Review the strengths and weaknesses after the assessment
  145. 145. Step 5: Analyze and Evaluate Results • Data can be summarized in tables, charts, or graphs • You may need to consult with a technical expert for statistical data analysis and interpretation • Some guidance on data analysis is provided in the Full FCZ Guidebook • Are there differences inside and outside the FCZ? • Are certain factors increasing or decreasing over time?
  146. 146. Step 5: Analyze and Evaluate Results • What do the results tell you about the FCZ’s performance? • Are there differences inside and outside the FCZ? • Valuable to collect data over time to look at changes • Are certain factors increasing or decreasing over time?
  147. 147. Step 6: Communicate Assessment Findings • Share results with the community, especially fisheries management committee • Share results with DAFO/PAFO officials, donors, and other organizations • Workshops, reports, fliers, videos, etc. • Seek community input on next steps for FCZ management
  148. 148. Step 7: Make Recommendations for FCZ Management • If the community is satisfied with the performance of the FCZ after the assessment is conducted, there may be no need to change FCZ management. • However, if the assessment identified any FCZ weaknesses, the assessment team can recommend actions to improve these weaknesses.
  149. 149. Step 7: Make Recommendations for FCZ Management • For example: the assessment finds a low level of compliance with FCZ regulations • Potential recommendations: • more signs • increased patrolling • increased outreach to community members, etc.
  150. 150. Share Your Experience: Mekong Fish Network • Resource for organizations and individuals working on fish and fisheries in the Mekong Basin • Goals of improving • Communication • Capacity building • Collaboration
  151. 151. www.mekongfishnetwork.org • Website • Blog posts • Project descriptions • Photos and video • Publications • Email newsletter (can subscribe online)
  152. 152. Please Share Your FCZ Stories! • Share your projects and working on Fish Conservation Zones • Help others learn from your experiences!
  153. 153. Please Stay In Touch – Thank You! Email • fishbiolaos@fishbio.com • sinsamout@fishbio.com • erinloury@fishbio.com Websites www.fishbio.com www.mekongfishnetwork.org

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