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New Approach to Evaluate Barotrauma Susceptibility in Fish

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Rapid decompression causing barotrauma on fish has been a major problem in many different countries. The swim bladder morphology plays an important role in determining the reaction of fish to decompression and the susceptibility to barotrauma. Thus, understanding the tensile properties of the swim bladder tissue can help determine the probability of mortal injuries due to rapid decompression. A testing apparatus was designed to obtain the stress-strain curve of a swim bladder tissue sample. This information would allow the development of a model to predict the resistance of a swim bladder to volume expansion. This new approach was tested using latex balloon samples, which were stretched until rupture. A stress-strain curve was gathered and used to calculate the pressure necessary to fracture a balloon during air filling, considering its geometry and tensile properties. Then, balloons were inflated measuring the pressure until rupture, and the values were compared to those estimated using the model. The results showed a potential use of the model to determine the swim bladder capacity to hold the pressure increased by volume expansion during decompression, without fracturing. Thus, this could help reduce barotrauma injuries due to the swim bladder rupture.

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New Approach to Evaluate Barotrauma Susceptibility in Fish

  1. 1. NEW APPROACH TO EVALUATE BAROTRAUMA SUSCEPTIBILITY IN FISH Bernardo Beirão, Luiz G. M. Silva, Ricardo Falcão bvbeirao@gmail.com Federal University of São João del-Rei – UFSJ, Brazil American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  2. 2. Fonte: ANEEL, 2012 About 1,000 power plants already installed which corresponds to 76% of the electrical energy generation It corresponds to only ~30% of the inventoried hydropower capacity American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  3. 3. Fonte: ANEEL, 2012 Amazon River Basin Higher diversity Larger fish American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Facilities concentrated in the South, Southeast and Center-West
  4. 4. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Courtesy:RichBrown
  5. 5. Courtesy:RichBrown American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  6. 6. Swim Bladder Rupture Exophthalmia Stomach or Intestine Eversion Hemorrhage Emboli BROWN, R.S. BROWN,R.S. ALVES, C.B.M. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  7. 7. Brown et al. (2014) American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  8. 8. Biomechanical information about swim bladder structure can provide data to create barotrauma susceptibility prediction models - Construction of an apparatus to realize tensile strength tests with swim bladder tissues - Apparatus commissioning with rubber balloons samples Assumptions: Isotropic – Incompressible - Spherical V = V0 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  9. 9. Force Sensor Tested Sample Moving Cart Arduino American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  10. 10. Symbol Description Size (mm) W Initial width of the narrow area 2,1 WO Total width 4,8 Wc Central width of the narrow area 1,4 L Length of the narrow area 6,3 LO Total length 30,0 G Length of the tearing area 5,4 D Distance of the narrowing sections 12,7 T Thickness 0,35 R Internal radius 3,5 RO External radius 6,3 ASTMInternational American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  11. 11. Trials Logger Pro v. 3.6.1 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  12. 12. - Models calculated: - Kinetic theory model - Mooney-Rivlin theory model - Ogden model Related to elastic materials Used in biology modeling research American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  13. 13. Model equations for the tension tests Adapted from Mueller & Strehlow, 2004 𝐹𝐹 = 𝑊𝑊0 � 𝑇𝑇0 � 𝑠𝑠+ 𝛽𝛽 − 𝛽𝛽−5 Adapted from Mueller & Strehlow, 2004 𝐹𝐹 = 𝑊𝑊0 � 𝑇𝑇0 𝑠𝑠+ 𝛽𝛽 − 𝛽𝛽−5 + 𝑠𝑠− 𝛽𝛽−3 − 𝛽𝛽3 𝐹𝐹 = 𝑊𝑊0 � 𝑇𝑇0 � 𝑝𝑝=1 𝑁𝑁 𝜇𝜇𝑝𝑝 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼𝑝𝑝−1 − 𝛽𝛽−2𝛼𝛼𝑝𝑝−1 Adapted from Ogden, 1984 - Ogden Model - Mooney-Rivlin Theory Model - Kinetic Theory Model 𝛽𝛽 = 𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿0 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  14. 14. The data calculated by the model is, then, inserted into the correspondent pressure model, allowing to predict the maximum pressure that material can hold; To verify whether the model responded to what was expected, the balloon was filled up with air whilst the pressure was measured. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  15. 15. Inflation tests American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  16. 16. 𝑝𝑝 = 2 𝑡𝑡0 𝑟𝑟0 � 𝑠𝑠+ 𝛽𝛽−1 − 𝛽𝛽−7 𝑝𝑝 = 2 𝑡𝑡0 𝑟𝑟0 𝑠𝑠+ 𝛽𝛽−1 − 𝛽𝛽−7 + 𝑠𝑠− 𝛽𝛽−5 − 𝛽𝛽 𝑝𝑝 = 2 𝑡𝑡0 𝑟𝑟0 � 𝑝𝑝=1 𝑁𝑁 𝜇𝜇𝑝𝑝 𝛽𝛽 𝛼𝛼𝑝𝑝−1 − 𝛽𝛽−2𝛼𝛼𝑝𝑝−1 𝛽𝛽 = 𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟0 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Inflation tests - Ogden Model - Mooney-Rivlin Theory Model - Kinectic Theory Model Adapted from Mueller & Strehlow, 2004 Adapted from Mueller & Strehlow, 2004 Adapted from Ogden, 1984
  17. 17. Apparatus commissioning - Kinetic Theory 𝐹𝐹 = 6 � 10−7 � 300000 𝛽𝛽 − 𝛽𝛽−5 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Force(N) β(L/L0 )
  18. 18. The balloon showed an non-linear behavior, as expected for biological materials (Lapeer et al., 2011; Ribeiro et al., 2012). American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Force(N) β(L/L0 )
  19. 19. Model Validation - Kinetic Theory 𝑝𝑝 = 2 � 0,025 � 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝛽𝛽−1 − 𝛽𝛽−7 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  20. 20. Didn’t explain well, but gives good notion on thermodynamics of the material (Mueller & Strehlow, 2004) American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  21. 21. 𝐹𝐹 = 6 � 10−7 � 300000 𝛽𝛽 − 𝛽𝛽−5 + 30000 𝛽𝛽−3 − 𝛽𝛽3 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Apparatus commissioning - Mooney-Rivlin Theory
  22. 22. 𝑝𝑝 = 2 � 0,025 300000 𝛽𝛽−1 − 𝛽𝛽−7 + 30000 𝛽𝛽−5 − 𝛽𝛽 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Model Validation - Mooney-Rivlin Theory
  23. 23. 𝐹𝐹 = 6 � 10−7 � 300000 𝛽𝛽2−1 − 𝛽𝛽 −2�2 −1 + 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏, 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝛽𝛽𝟔𝟔,𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒−1 − 𝛽𝛽 −2�𝟔𝟔,𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 −1 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Apparatus commissioning - Ogden Model
  24. 24. 𝑝𝑝 = 2 � 0,029 300000 𝛽𝛽2−3 − 𝛽𝛽 −2�2 −3 + 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏, 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝛽𝛽𝟔𝟔,𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒−3 − 𝛽𝛽 −2�𝟔𝟔,𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 −3 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Model Validation - Ogden Model
  25. 25. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Variable Fixed values (a) d0 4,0 x 10-4 m r0 1,4 x 10-2 m μ1 300.000 Pa μ2 18,22 Pa α1 2 α2 6,48 Variable Fitted Model (b) d0 4,0 x 10-4 m - r0 1,4 x 10-2 m - μ1 300.000 Pa - μ2 38,86 Pa ± 39,00 α1 2 - α2 6,25 ± 0,43
  26. 26. Assumptions: Isotropic – Incompressible - Spherical V = V0 American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR Biological materials Vs. Elastic materials Mechanical properties
  27. 27. • Balloon tests provided good results for a initial stage • Improvements are already being done based on these tests It is possible to come up with new methodologies to test a large number of fish types and come up with a realistic metric for determining barotrauma in different countries American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  28. 28. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  29. 29. American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR
  30. 30. - Prof. Dr. Carlos Martinez – CPH/UFMG - Prof. Dr. Edson Dias, Natália Castelo Branco, Luma, Sarah, Aline Assunção & Nathalia Stockler – UFSJ - Emily Anderson, Rich Brown, Alison Colotelo & Stephanie Liss – Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Ricardo Walker – US Army Corps of Engineers CPH American Fisheries Society 145th Annual Meeting – Portland, OR

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