Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

COVID-19 Antibody Test+Vaccination Certificates: There's an app for that

OVERVIEW AND ABSTRACT: This is the 'silent' slide deck, including extra Question-and-Answer session slides, from a presentation at The Open University's Knowledge Media Institute on 19th May 2020, in which we describe the workings of the world's first blockchain-based mobile app for certifying and verifying COVID-19 antibody test results and vaccinations. A full video replay of the 20-minute talk, as well as the full 30-minute followup question and answer session, and related academic papers, can be found at https://blockchain.open.ac.uk/#covid-19

----------[ABSTRACT OF TALK FOLLOWS]----------

As the COVID-19 Pandemic of 2019/2020 unfolds, a controversial 'Immunity Passport' has been mooted as a way to enable individuals to return back to work or be admitted to current off-limits locations. Our approach is less dramatic, concentrating on the soundness of certification and verification: While the quality of antibody testing and the likelihood of even attaining COVID-19 immunity continue to be researched, we address the issues involved in providing certification for antibody testing and likely future vaccination, in a tamper-proof, privacy-preserving, and ethically appropriate manner. To do this, we developed a prototype mobile phone app and requisite decentralised server architecture. Personally identifiable information is only stored at the user's discretion, and the app allows the end-user selectively to present only the specific test result with no other personal information revealed. Behind the scenes it relies upon (a) the 2019 World Wide Web Consortium standard called 'Verifiable Credentials', (b) Tim Berners-Lee's decentralized personal data platform 'Solid', and (c) a consortium Ethereum-based blockchain. Our approach enables both verifiability and privacy in a manner derived from public/private key pairs and digital signatures, generalized to avoid restrictive ownership of sensitive digital keys and/or data. The app and decentralised server architecture offer a prototype proof of concept that is readily scalable, applicable generically, and in effect 'waiting in the wings' for the biological issues, plus key ethical issues discussed in the presentation, to be resolved.

Full replay, academic papers, and related material can be found at
https://blockchain.open.ac.uk/#covid-19

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

COVID-19 Antibody Test+Vaccination Certificates: There's an app for that

  1. 1. 1 COVID-19 Antibody Test / Vaccination Certificates “There’s an app for that” KMi Webinar 19th May 2020, 1:30pm-2:30pm UK Time • Overview, Key Technologies and Issues: Prof. Marc Eisenstadt • Technical Details: Dr. Manoharan Ramachandran • Questions & Answers (questions to kmi-events@open.ac.uk) Marc Eisenstadt and Mano Ramachandran with Niaz Chowdhury, Allan Third, John Domingue https://blockchain.open.ac.uk/#covid-19 (includes link to video replay)
  2. 2. 2 What we’ve done… ...and ‘So What?’ (then: ‘The Secret Sauce’) (then over to Mano for ‘under the hood’ + demo)
  3. 3. 3 Myth Busting: you might think… 1. Blockchain = Bitcoin + evil 2. Blockchain = slow 3. Blockchain = env’t disaster 4. ‘Immunity passports’= ‘ID hell’ 5. COVID-19 reinfection happens! 6. Antibody tests inaccurate 7. ‘Immunity’ short-lived 8. Vaccination certificates? NO!!!!
  4. 4. 4 Myth Busting: you might think… 1. Blockchain = Bitcoin + evil 2. Blockchain = slow 3. Blockchain = env’t disaster 4. ‘Immunity passports’= ‘ID hell’ 5. COVID-19 reinfection happens! 6. Antibody tests inaccurate 7. ‘Immunity’ short-lived 8. Vaccination certificates? NO!!!! 1. Decentralised ledger, immutable
  5. 5. 5 Myth Busting: you might think… 1. Blockchain = Bitcoin + evil 2. Blockchain = slow 3. Blockchain = env’t disaster 4. ‘Immunity passports’= ‘ID hell’ 5. COVID-19 reinfection happens! 6. Antibody tests inaccurate 7. ‘Immunity’ short-lived 8. Vaccination certificates? NO!!!! 1. Decentralised ledger, immutable PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87
  6. 6. 6 Myth Busting: you might think… 1. Blockchain = Bitcoin + evil 2. Blockchain = slow 3. Blockchain = env’t disaster 4. ‘Immunity passports’= ‘ID hell’ 5. COVID-19 reinfection happens! 6. Antibody tests inaccurate 7. ‘Immunity’ short-lived 8. Vaccination certificates? NO!!!! 1. Decentralised ledger, immutable 2. Generally, not any more 3. Consortium, no £££ ‘proof-of-work’ 4. Just verifiable & private test results 5. Hearsay! Tests were flawed. 6. 100% sensitivity & 99.8% specificity 7. Perhaps months -> years? 8. Required for yellow fever, measles
  7. 7. 7 T
  8. 8. 8 T
  9. 9. 9 Key premises 1. COVID-19 antibodies are reliably detectable SARS-CoV-2 x 10,000,000 https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths- technology/biology/how-does-the-human-body-fight-viral-infection
  10. 10. 10 Key premises 1. COVID-19 antibodies are reliably detectable SARS-CoV-2 x 10,000,000 https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths- technology/biology/how-does-the-human-body-fight-viral-infection
  11. 11. 11 Key premises 2. COVID-19 antibodies appear ‘eventually’ and last 1. COVID-19 antibodies are reliably detectable https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths- technology/biology/how-does-the-human-body-fight-viral-infection
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13 Key premises 2. COVID-19 antibodies appear ‘eventually’ and last 1. COVID-19 antibodies are reliably detectable 3. COVID-19 antibodies impart immunity…for ‘long enough’
  14. 14. 14 Problem: How to start getting people back to key jobs & locations as the COVID-19 pandemic eases? “Immunity Passports!”
  15. 15. 15 Problem: How to start getting people back to key jobs & locations as the COVID-19 pandemic eases? “Immunity Passports!” Antibody test… Results! Vaccination… Certificate! What about fraud? What about your privacy? Here’s our approach….
  16. 16. 16 A: Test B: Issue Certificate C: Verify What:
  17. 17. 17 A: Test B: Issue Certificate C: Verify What: ‘Good enough’  Issuer  Holder  IgG > 4.2
  18. 18. 18 Nobody (else) owns it. Nobody (else) stores it. So what? Nobody (else) sees all of it; only what you reveal. Nobody can take it. Nobody can fake it. Nobody can break it.
  19. 19. 19 How does it work? The secret sauce A-B-C 1 of 5 Verifiable Credentials: W3C standard to structure the data. VerifierIssuer Issue Holder Show Verifiable Data Registry Verify Register IDs Verify IDs
  20. 20. 20 Sender has Recipient has Signing Sender private key Sender public key How does it work? The secret sauce A-B-C 2 of 5 Verifiable Credentials: W3C standard to structure the data. VerifierIssuer Issue Holder Show Verifiable Data Registry Verify Register IDs Verify IDs
  21. 21. 21 How does it work? The secret sauce A-B-C 3 of 5 Verifiable Credentials: W3C standard to structure the data. VerifierIssuer Issue Holder Show Verifiable Data Registry Verify Register IDs Verify IDs Solid Pod: decentralised personal data store with custom ownership, control and hosting (eg on own phone). Think: ‘Facebook without facebook.com’
  22. 22. 22 How does it work? The secret sauce A-B-C 4 of 5 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Consortium blockchain: secure, immutable and trusted record, holding encoded hashes of certificates. Also a decentralised public key registry for signing all transactions. Verifiable Credentials: W3C standard to structure the data. VerifierIssuer Issue Holder Show Verifiable Data Registry Verify Register IDs Verify IDs Solid Pod: decentralised personal data store with custom ownership, control and hosting (eg on own phone). Think: ‘Facebook without facebook.com’
  23. 23. 23 How does it work? The secret sauce A-B-C 5 of 5 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Consortium blockchain: secure, immutable and trusted record, holding encoded hashes of certificates. Also a decentralised public key registry for signing all transactions. Verifiable Credentials: W3C standard to structure the data. VerifierIssuer Issue Holder Show Verifiable Data Registry Verify Register IDs Verify IDs Decentralised Verifiable Data Registry Solid Pod: decentralised personal data store with custom ownership, control and hosting (eg on own phone). Think: ‘Facebook without facebook.com’
  24. 24. 24 How does it work? (Timeline) 1 of 5 Holder’s mobile phone with Decentralised Identity 1
  25. 25. 25 Consortium blockchain Holder’s mobile phone with Decentralised Identity How does it work? (Timeline) 2 of 5 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94…
  26. 26. 26 Test result certificate goes to Solid Pod How does it work? (Timeline) 3 of 5 2 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Hash
  27. 27. 27 Verifying test result certificate How does it work? (Timeline) 4 of 5 3 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Compare
  28. 28. 28 Verifying test result certificate How does it work? (Timeline) 4 of 5 3 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Compare ‘Good enough’  Issuer  Holder  IgG > 4.2
  29. 29. 29 How does it work? (Timeline) 5 of 5 - Steps together FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 1 2 3 Compare Hash
  30. 30. 30 Consider the ‘Holder’ at the end of this…
  31. 31. 31 Consider the ‘Holder’ at the end of this… Nobody (else) owns it. Nobody (else) stores it. Nobody (else) sees all of it; only what you reveal. Nobody can take it. Nobody can fake it. Nobody can break it.
  32. 32. 32 Too good to be true? • Private • Tamper-proof
  33. 33. 33 • Do we need certificates? • Do we need digital certificates? • What about ‘bad actors’ (e.g. bribery)? • Two-tiered society? • Incentivise illness? • Could it be ‘weaponised’? Too good to be true? • Private • Tamper-proof
  34. 34. 34 • Manage incentives (i.e. keep it free!) • Well understood guidelines (e.g. NHS, MRC, ESRC, BBSRC, …) • Oversight by ethics committee • 3-monthly review Ethics
  35. 35. 35 Under the hood + Demo (Screenshots from live demo)
  36. 36. 36 Functional modules Generate/Scan QR Blockchain Communications Solid Pod Communications Maintain Holder/Issuer Accts Generate DIDS Generate Verifiable Credentials Hashes for text/images
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48 COVID-19 Antibody Test / Vaccination Certificates “There’s an app for that” Questions & Answers kmi-events@open.ac.uk https://blockchain.open.ac.uk/#covid-19 (includes link to video replay) Special thanks to Ben Hawkridge, Pasquale Iero, Michelle Bachler, Kevin Quick, Harriett Cornish, Damian Dadswell
  49. 49. 49 Antibody binding to the critical antigens on the outside of the virus can prevent it from infecting a host cell. Interferon can signal a cell to adopt a virus-resistant state. Once a cell has become infected, NK cells (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc) can recognise it and trigger a process of cell death. A B C D https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/biology/how-does-the-human-body-fight-viral-infection How does the human body fight viral infection? (OpenLearn: open.edu)
  50. 50. 50 Blockchain in 30 seconds 1 of 6 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 “Just a ledger”
  51. 51. 51 Blockchain in 30 seconds 2 of 6 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87 “Encode entire contents here”
  52. 52. 52 Blockchain in 30 seconds 3 of 6 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87 (The code of the another ledger) “Encode entire contents here”
  53. 53. 53 Blockchain in 30 seconds 4 of 6 ###0 ###1 50 75 ###1 ###2 210 450 ###2 ###3 79 5281 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87 “Ledger 3 stores the code of Ledger 2, etc.”
  54. 54. 54 Blockchain in 30 seconds 5 of 6 ###0 ###1 XXX 75 ###1 ###2 210 450 ###2 ###3 79 5281 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87 “Tamper with one, and the chain of codes breaks”
  55. 55. 55 *Majority has to agree what’s good, but no one owns it. Blockchain in 30 seconds 6 of 6 ###0 ###1 50 75 ###1 ###2 210 450 ###2 ###3 79 5281 PlainVanilla Ledger 50 75 42 87 PlainVanilla Ledger ###0 ###1 50 75 42 87 “Replicate this chain of good* ledgers around the world.”
  56. 56. 56 Public/private keys Sender has Recipient has Signing Sender private key Sender public key Encrypting Recipient public key Recipient private key
  57. 57. 57 Test result certificate goes to Solid Pod EU GDPR ‘Right To Be Forgotten’ 1 of 3 2 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Hash
  58. 58. 58 Test result certificate goes to Solid Pod EU GDPR ‘Right To Be Forgotten’ 1 of 3 2 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Hash I quit!
  59. 59. 59 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… I’m deleting my Solid Pod EU GDPR ‘Right To Be Forgotten’ 2 of 3 Hash
  60. 60. 60 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Done EU GDPR ‘Right To Be Forgotten’ 3 of 3
  61. 61. 61 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… Done EU GDPR ‘Right To Be Forgotten’ 3 of 3 – note ‘orphaned’ hash
  62. 62. 62 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 1 2 Hash Compare 3 Off-site lab test 1
  63. 63. 63 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2 Off-site lab test 2 3
  64. 64. 64 Off-site lab test 3 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3
  65. 65. 65 Off-site lab test 4a 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3
  66. 66. 66 Off-site lab test 4b 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3
  67. 67. 67 Off-site lab test 4c 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3
  68. 68. 68 Off-site lab test 4d 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a ‘Supply Chain Logistics’ 3 • Pharmacy ID • Blood sample ID • Lab ID, location • Lab technician ID • Vehicle, driver IDs
  69. 69. 69 Off-site lab test 4e 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 2b ‘Supply Chain Logistics’ • Pharmacy ID • Blood sample ID • Lab ID, location • Lab technician ID • Vehicle, driver IDs 3
  70. 70. 70 Off-site lab test 4f 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 2b ‘Supply Chain Logistics’ • Pharmacy ID • Blood sample ID • Lab ID, location • Lab technician ID • Vehicle, driver IDs 3
  71. 71. 71 Off-site lab test 5 1 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3 2b Compare ‘Supply Chain Logistics’ • Pharmacy ID • Blood sample ID • Lab ID, location • Lab technician ID • Vehicle, driver IDs
  72. 72. 72 FCD3FA34E… 79A6EB94… 2a 3 2b Compare Off-site lab test - whole life-cycle ‘Good enough’  Issuer  Holder  IgG > 4.2 ‘Supply Chain Logistics’ • Pharmacy ID • Blood sample ID • Lab ID, location • Lab technician ID • Vehicle, driver IDs 1
  73. 73. 73 COVID-19 Antibody Test / Vaccination Certificates “There’s an app for that” Special thanks to Ben Hawkridge, Pasquale Iero, Michelle Bachler, Kevin Quick, Harriett Cornish, Damian Dadswell https://blockchain.open.ac.uk/#covid-19 (includes link to video replay)

×