INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
22.214.171.124 Define ICT.ICT is the technology required for informationprocessing, in particular, the use of electronic computers,communication devices and software applications toconvert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieveinformation from anywhere, anytime.
INFORMATIONInformation refers to the knowledge obtained from reading,investigation, study or research. The tools to transmit information are thetelephone, television and radio. Information is knowledge and helps us tofulfill our daily tasks. COMMUNICATIONCommunication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a processwhereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signsor verbal interactions. Communication is important in order to gainknowledge. TECHNOLOGYTechnology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience andresources to create processes products that fulfill human needs.Technology is vital in communication
126.96.36.199 Evolution of computers.COMPUTER GENERATIONS First Generation (1940-1956) SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT) FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND) NEW ERA COMPUTER
188.8.131.52 The usage of ICT in everyday life◊ EDUCATIONIn education, teachers, students, researchers and school administrators benefits from the usage ofICT.◊ BANKINGIn the banking, customers, businessman & bank administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.◊ INDUSTRYComputers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chainmanagement and to help in product design in the industrial sector. In the industrial sector, workers, researchersand administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.◊ E-COMMERCEE-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficientand faster. For this application, computers, Internet and shared software are needed. In the e-commerce sector,customers, suppliers and employees benefits from the usage of ICT.
184.108.40.206 Differences between computerised and non-computerisedsystems.Computerised Non-Computerisedmore interesting & interactiveexperiencesdepends on teachers & textbookall transactions are done bycomputersbanking was done manuallyComputers andtelecommunications industrybecame very popular and profitablesince production can be increasedthrough an all day operation.Production was slow becauseeverything was done depended onhuman labour.E-commerce plays an importantrole in the economic scene. Itincludes distribution, buying,selling and servicing products thatare done electronicallyTrading was made using the bartersystem and it was then laterdeveloped into currency.
COMPUTER ETHICSComputer ethics is a system of moral standards orvalues used as a guideline for computer users. It isneeded to stop the current technology products frombeing exploited.Ethics is a moral philosophy where a person makes aspecific moral choice and sticks to it. Code of ethicsin computing means moral guidelines to refer to whenusing the computer and the Internet.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYIntellectual property refers to any product of human intellectthat is unique and has value in the market place. This coversideas, inventions, unique name, computer program codes andmany more.PRIVACYPrivacy in IT refers to data and information privacy. In general,data include texts, numbers, sounds, images and video.Information privacy is described as the rights of individualsand companies to deny or restrict the collection and use ofinformation about them.CYBER LAWCyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internetand other online communication technologies.
ETHICS LAW Guideline: As a guideline tocomputer users. Moral Standards: Ethical behaviouris judged by moral standards. No Punishments: No punishment foranyone who violates ethics. Free To Follow: Computer users arefree to follow or ignore the code ofethics. Immoral: Not honouring computerethics means ignoring the moralelements (immoral). Universals: Universal, can beapplied anywhere, all over the world Produce Ethical Computer Users: Toproduce ethical computer users Control: As a rule to controlcomputer users. Judicial Standards: Law is judgedby judicial standards. Must Follow: Computer users mustfollow the regulations and law. Punishments: Penalties,imprisonments and other punishmentsfor those who break the law. Depends On Country: Depends oncountry and state where the crime iscommitted. Prevent Misusing Of Computers: Toprevent misuse of computers. Crime: Not honouring the lawmeans committing a crime.
Intellectual property laws are needed toestablish and safeguard the intellectualproperty which refers to works createdby inventors, authors and artists. It isalso needed as businesses todaycontinue to expand globally. There arefour types of Intellectual Propertyprotection. They are patents forinvention, trademarks for brand identity,designs for product appearance andcopyright for material.
•he privacy laws in Malaysia emphasises on thefollowing:•Security Services to review the security policySecurity Management to protect the resourcesSecurity Mechanism to implement the requiredsecurity services Security Objects, the importantentities within the system environmentPrivacylaw•Example: anti-spam program, firewall, anti-spyware and antivirus.Utilitiessoftware
Methods of AuthenticationMethods of VerificationThere are two commonly used authentication methods, which are biometricdevice and callback system. Biometric device is a device that translatespersonal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digitalcode stored in the database. Biometric devices include FingerprintRecognition, Facial Recognition, Hand Geogmetry, Iris Scanning, RetinalScanning, Voice Recognition and Signature Verification. Callback systemrefers to the checking system that authenticates the user.There are two methods used in verification, which are user identificationand processed object. User identification refers to the process ofvalidating the user. Processed object refers to something the user hassuch as identification card, security token and cell phone.
PornographyPornography: can lead to criminal acts such asexploitation of women and children can lead to sexualaddiction or perversion can develop low moral valuetowards other men, women or children can erode goodreligious, cultural and social beliefs and behaviourSlanderSlander: can develop into a society that disregardshonesty and truth can develop bad habit of spreadinguntruths and rumours can lead to unnecessary argumentcan cause people to have negative attitudes towardsanother person
Cyber Law is needed as in the recent years, manyconcerns and issues were raised on the integrityand security of information, legal status of onlinetransactions, privacy and confidentiality ofinformation, intellectual property rights andsecurity of government data placed on the Internet.220.127.116.11 Computer crimes belowFraudTheftCopyrightInfringementAttacks
1.3.2 .1 Security ThreatsComputer security means protecting our computer systemsand the information they contain against unwanted access,damage, destruction or modification. Three types ofcomputer security are: hardware security softwaresecurity/data security network securityMaliciouscodeHackingNaturaldisaster