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Shadows of the Mind<br />Explorations in Artificial Intelligence<br />
Artificial Intelligence (AI):<br />The simulation of intelligence, at whatever level by computational means.<br />Assumpti...
INTERDEPENDENCE<br />
The universe is made of stories, <br />not atoms.<br />Sir Roger Penrose<br /> Emeritus Professor of Mathematics<br />    ...
<ul><li>Language is a system that we use to both construct and describe reality
Natural language can be mapped to a representation system, incorporating systemic behaviours between representations
This conceptual pattern has no understanding, even though reasonabledeductions may be computed</li></li></ul><li>
<ul><li>Top-down AI Organisation
Constructed to a well defined computational procedure (associated with some predefined store of knowledge) to address a ve...
Bottom-up AI Organisation
No predefined operational procedure or knowledge store, rather there is a procedure of how the system may learn –neural ne...
Strong Emergence – the emergent phenomena has no strong reducible/causal relationship</li></li></ul><li>The Stream of Cons...
Directionsof AI - Robotics<br />Early Work – Emphasized a quest to imitate principles of intelligence underlying human per...
Directionsof AI – Natural Language Interaction<br />Proponents argue that programs cannot not understand language in a sig...
Programs fail to deal significantly with context, background and relevance
Programs have a limited language for expressing facts and relations</li></li></ul><li>The 5th Generation Computer System<b...
USA, Britain, France & Europe soon followed
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA)-USA-Primary sponsor of AI research in the past
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Explorations in Artificial Intelligence

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  1. 1. Shadows of the Mind<br />Explorations in Artificial Intelligence<br />
  2. 2. Artificial Intelligence (AI):<br />The simulation of intelligence, at whatever level by computational means.<br />Assumptions:<br />The human trait of intelligenceis decomposable to basic mechanistic parts, furthermore it can be so precisely described that it can be replicated by a machine (algorithmic and computational).<br />
  3. 3. INTERDEPENDENCE<br />
  4. 4. The universe is made of stories, <br />not atoms.<br />Sir Roger Penrose<br /> Emeritus Professor of Mathematics<br /> Oxford University<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Language is a system that we use to both construct and describe reality
  6. 6. Natural language can be mapped to a representation system, incorporating systemic behaviours between representations
  7. 7. This conceptual pattern has no understanding, even though reasonabledeductions may be computed</li></li></ul><li>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Top-down AI Organisation
  10. 10. Constructed to a well defined computational procedure (associated with some predefined store of knowledge) to address a very specific problem
  11. 11. Bottom-up AI Organisation
  12. 12. No predefined operational procedure or knowledge store, rather there is a procedure of how the system may learn –neural network</li></li></ul><li>Emergence – phenomena of a system which cannot be solely attributed to the aggregation of its parts<br /><ul><li>Weak Emergence – new properties emerge because of the interaction between sub-systems (it is reducible)
  13. 13. Strong Emergence – the emergent phenomena has no strong reducible/causal relationship</li></li></ul><li>The Stream of Consciousness<br />Embodied Cognition –Structural Coupling<br />Non-computational nature of the mind <br />Thinking Machines –<br />mind/body division<br />Rene Descartes<br />Kurt<br />Gödel<br />Maturana & Varela<br />Alan<br />Turing<br />Penrose &<br />Hameroff<br />Martin<br />Heidegger<br />Dasein -<br />Situated Cognition<br />Computational nature of the mind<br />Orchestrated<br />Objective Reduction<br />
  14. 14. Directionsof AI - Robotics<br />Early Work – Emphasized a quest to imitate principles of intelligence underlying human perception and action<br />Current Trends –Applying the same techniques developed earlier, to extend the the effectiveness and efficiency of automation<br />Authors argue that robotics can be useful in a limited domain and cannot reflect human perception and action<br />
  15. 15. Directionsof AI – Natural Language Interaction<br />Proponents argue that programs cannot not understand language in a significant sense because –<br /><ul><li>Programs are based on straight forward techniques developed in early AI
  16. 16. Programs fail to deal significantly with context, background and relevance
  17. 17. Programs have a limited language for expressing facts and relations</li></li></ul><li>The 5th Generation Computer System<br /><ul><li>Institute for New Generation Computer Technology-$500 million investment-Japan
  18. 18. USA, Britain, France & Europe soon followed
  19. 19. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA)-USA-Primary sponsor of AI research in the past
  20. 20. Initiated Strategic Computing Initiative</li></li></ul><li>5th Generation Vision for Social Improvement Areas<br /><ul><li>Increase productivity in areas such as agriculture, public services
  21. 21. Meeting international competition - development of information intensive industries
  22. 22. Assist in saving energy and resources by improving efficiency of resource use and developing knowledge intensive rather resource intensive industries
  23. 23. Coping with an ageing society through advances such as streamlined health management systems & lifetime education systems</li></li></ul><li>What Realistic Benefits can the 5th Gen Computer System Deliver?<br />Can computer technology play a major role in solving social problems?<br />Computer technology can definitely assist, expecting “intelligent” systems to tell us what to do is very naïve and dangerous.<br />Is the major technical problem to increase the effectiveness with which people use computers?<br />Yes this is a problem, instead of creating human like systems rather create tools that are designed to make maximal use of human perception and understanding. <br />
  24. 24. Human Evolution<br /> …occurs through a <br />symbiotic relationship <br />with technology<br />
  25. 25. References<br />1) Cotterill, R. (1998). Enchanted Looms. Cambridge: Biddles Ltd.<br />2) Flores, T., & Winograd, T. (1986). Computers and Cognition.Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.<br />3) Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1980). Autopoeisis and Cognition. Boston studies in the philosophy of science .<br />4) Penrose, R. (1994). Shadows of the Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.<br />5) Simon, H. (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.<br />Compiled by Andisiwe, Shafeeq, Jan and Mehul<br />PgDip Class 2011<br />
  26. 26. Propositions<br />Thought is an interdependent phenomena<br />Language is a tool used to both construct and describe reality<br />While an artificial representation (AI) system may imitate reasoning, it falls short of true understanding<br />Programs have an implicate social and intellectual bias due to its construction by human agents – (they are extension of the human mind –shadows of the mind)<br />Reasoning is a weak emergent phenomena of system interaction<br />Intelligence is a strong emergent phenomena with no apparent causal reduction<br />Cognition and being are not states but rather dynamic constructed and emerging phenomena<br />Cognition is embodied and is a result of a complex biological and social structural coupling<br />Cognition and understanding has a non-computational basis<br />Humans are the key aspects of all reasoning, theory and proofs and hence artificial systems, due to their non-computational nature<br />If humans were to create effectively intelligent machine they need to have a non-computational aspect – probably quantum effects<br />Robotics can be useful in a limited domain and cannot reflect human perception and action<br />
  27. 27. 13) Programs have a limited languagefor expressing facts and relations<br />14)AI’s purpose is to increase the effectiveness with which people use computers<br />15) AI is a tool to make maximal use of human perception and understanding<br />16) Technology is a fundamental tool in facilitating human evolution<br />

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