NURSING MANAGEMENT• PRESENTED BY• MRS HEENA MEHTA• S.Y.M.SC NURSING * IVALUATED BY * MRS VASUDHAMADAM I/C PRINCIPAL J G NURSING COLLEGE
INTRODUCTION• The word communication is derived from the latin word communi, meaning “common”,”shared”. It is belongs to the family of words that includes communion,communism and community. Nurse Managers are required to be aware of the techniques that can help them ensure effective management of educational/service unit. Communication is one of the most important activities in the nursing management. It is the foundation upon which the manager achieves organizational objectives.
MEANING• Communication is a process of change. In order to achieve the desired result, the communication necessarily is effective and purposive.
DEFINITION• A processing messages,ideas,facts,opinions,attitudes, information and understanding, from one person to another.• Communication is the process of expressing ideas and feelings or giving information to people.• As a sending receiving process for channeling messages between individuals in person-to – person relationships.
IMPORTANT• Promotes motivation:• Source of information:• Altering individual‟s attitudes• Helps in socializing:• Controlling process:
ELEMENTS• There are seven elements of communication:• Source idea• Message• Encoding• Channel• Receiver• Decoding AND• Feedback
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION:• Clarity:• Aim or Goal:• Precision:• Avoid Repeatability, unless required so.• Linkage :• Globalization and Localization:• Style of Expressing:• Know and Analyze the audiences.• Do a good Homewor• Dress properly:
Process of Communication Msg Msg Msg MsgSource Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Feedback Context
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION:• Communication should be conviction.• Communication should be appropriate to situation.• Communication should have objective and purposes.• Communication should promote total achievement of purposes.• Communication should represent the personality and individuality of the communication.• Communication involves special preparation.• Communication should be oriented to the interest and needs of the receiver.• Communication through personal contact.• Communication should seek attention.• Communication should be familiar.•
TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE THE COMMUNICATION:• Listening• Broad openings• Restating• Clarification• Reflection• Focusing• Sharing perceptions• Silence• Humor• Informing• Suggesting
Most Common Ways to CommunicateSpeaking Writing Visual Image Body Language Deepti Singh
Types of Communication On the basis of organization relationship Formal Informal On the basis of Flow Vertical Crosswise/Diagonal Horizontal On the basis of Expression Oral Written Gesture Deepti Singh
TYPES Communication On the basis of relationship on the basis of flow on the basis of expressionFormal informal vertical horizontal verbal non verbal Downward upward oral written.
ONE-WAY V/S TWO WAY COMMUNICATION:• One-way communication:• The flow of communication is one way from the communicator to the audience. Example receive method.• Drawbacks are:• Knowledge is imposed.• Learning is authoritative.• Little audience participation.• No feedback.• Does not influence human behavior.• Two way communication:• In this both the communicators and the audience take place. The process of communication is active and democratic. It is more likely to influence behavior than one way communication.•
Communication Languages Communication LanguagesNon verbal language Verbal language
GESTURES•Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body Language•Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and postures to avoid•Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body language•Facial expressions can enhance or detract verbal communication•Setting standards of Body Language to drive Customer Delight at thePublic Office
PROXIMITYProximity is the distance people maintainbetween themselves while talking.
PARALINGUISTICS Components of Para linguistics are:• Rate of speed- When a speaker speaks too fast, he is seen as more competent.• Pitch-Pitch should be changed in accordance with the context of spoken words.
PARALINGUISTICS• Volume- It refers to loudly we speak.Loud people are perceived as aggressive or over- bearing. Soft-spoken voices are perceived as timid or polite.• Fillers- Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa” are used to gather thoughts.
FORMAL V/S INFORMAL COMMUNICATION:• Formal communicationIt is officiallyorganized channels ofcommunication and itis delayedcommunication. It isgenerally used for allpractices purposes
• Informal network:• Gossip circles such as friends internet group, like minded people and casual groups. Communication is very faster here. The informal channels may be more active. It follows grapewine route.
MECHANICAL COMMUNICATION• By using mechanical devices the communicatio n will be sent. For e.g. internet, radio , T.V. etc.
ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION:• Oral communication:• It is face to face system and hence can be clarified.• There is an opportunity to ask questions, exchange ideas and clarify meaning.• It can develop a friendly and co-operative spirit.• It is easy and quick.• It is flexible and hence effective.• Written communication:• It has permanent record for future reference.• It is less likely to be misunderstood.• It will have adequate coverage and accuracy.• Suitable for communicating lengthy messages.• It is an authoritative communication
DISADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION• Oral communication:• The spoken words may be misunderstood.• The facial expression and tone of voice of the communicator may misled the receiver.• Not suitable for lengthy communication.• It requires the art of effective specificity• It has no record for future reference.• Written communication:• It requires skill and education for understanding.• It is also one way communication and hence may not be effective.• There is no opportunity for the subordinates to ask questions and exchange ideas.• It may not communicate all aspects.
STRATEGIES OF COMMUNICATION• Think before you speak:• Listening:• Questioning:• Using Discretion:• Directing
Skills and Best Practices: Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills Positive Nonverbal Actions Include: • Maintain eye contact. • Nod your head to convey that you are listening or that you agree. • Smile and show interest. • Lean forward to show the speaker you are interested. • Use a tone of voice that matches your message
Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills (cont) Negative Nonverbal Actions Include: • Avoiding eye contact and looking away from the speaker. • Closing your eyes or tensing your facial muscles. • Excessive yawning. • Using body language that conveys indecisiveness or lack of confidence (e.g., slumped shoulders, head down, flat tones, inaudible voice) • Speaking too fast or too slow.
CHANNELS OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION• There are four levels of managerial communication:• Downward communication.• Upward communication.• Lateral communication.• Diagonal communication.
Barriers that Affect Co-Worker CommunicationSender Receiver Message
Types of Barriers• Semantic Barriers• Emotional or Psychological Barriers• Physical Barriers• Organizational Barriers• Personal Barriers• Socio Psychological Barriers
Organizational barriers• Organizational policy• Organizational rules and regulations• Status relationship in organization• Structure of the organization• Lack of organizational facilities• Wrong choice of channel
Personal barriers• Barriers in superiors• Attitude of superiors• Fear of challenge to authority• Underestimation of their subordinates• Ignoring the junior• Insistence on following proper channel
• Barriers regarding subordinates• Unwillingness to communicate• Lack of proper incentive• Poor listening.• Egotism• Emotions• Selective perception
BERRIERS RELATEDD TO THE ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION• SENDER-•• ECORDING MESSAGE•• TRANSMISSION•• RECEPTION AND DECODING•• RECEIVER•
• THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION: Related to management:• The decibal theory• The sell theory• The minimet theory• The decibal theory:• It argues that the best way to get the message across is to state one‘s point loudly and frequently. its effectiveness over a period of time is nil, but many of us still need to be reminded that shouting only makes poor communication louder.•• The sell theory:• It lays down that the total burden of communication is on the communicator while the receiver is passive and pliable. One of the problem created by this approach is that it tends to increase the barriers between the individuals and thus reduces the chances of hearing each other.• The minimet theory:• It assumes that the receiver probably is not much interested in what is being communicated. By telling an individual what he needs to know, he will have little to object and little to question.
INTRODUCTION:• Public relation is an essential and integrated component of public policy or service. The professional public relation activity will ensure the benefit to the citizens, for whom the policies or services are meant for. An effective public relations can create and build up the image of an individual or an organization or a nation. At the time of adverse publicity or when the organization is under crisis an effective public relations can remove the "misunderstanding" and can create mutual understanding between the organization and the public.
OBJECTIVES:• On completion of the seminar the participant will be able to:• Explain public relation concept and its importance• Explain the importance of organizational image.• Develop public relation programmes in the hospital.• Explain about the methods of maintaining public relation in the community.• Tell about the public relation in an educational institution.• Understand the role of dean in public relation.
TERMINOLOGIES:• (1) Fortitude: Happening by chance.• (2) Composite: Made up of different part or material.• (3) Humility: Quality of being humble• (4) Persuasive: Able to give good reason for doing something.
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC RELATION• ―Public relation are knowing what the public expects and explaining how administration is meeting these desires….‖. - John Millet• ―Public relation in Government is the composit of all the primary and secondary contacts between the bureaucracy and citizens and all the interactions of influences and attitudes established in these contracts‖. - J.L MeCamy,
• ―Public relation means the development of cordial, equitable and therefore mutually profitable relations between a business industry organization and the public it serves‖. - W.T. Parry‘• ―Public relations are the process whereby an organization analyses the needs and desires of allinterested parties in order to conduct itself more responsively towards them‖. - Rex Harlow,
NEED OF PUBLIC RELATION:• There is normally four distinct reasons for ever increasing necessity of public relations:• (1) Increased governmental activities.• (2) Population explosion creating communication problems.• (3) Increased educational standards resulting in rise in expectations.• (4) Progress in communication techniques.
• Well-executed public relations will• Increase visibility for the hospital, employees, programs and services.• Position the hospital as a health care leader and authority within the community or region.• Expand awareness of the hospital‘s entire range of programs and services.• Enhance the hospital‘s image.• Aid in recruitment and retention of employees.• Support efforts to raise funds for new programs and services or assist with the passage of levies and bonds.• Act as a foundation when negative news about the hospital occurs.• Boost employee morale.
Functions of public relation:• Public Relation is establishing the relationship among the two groups• (organization and public).• Art or Science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill.• It analyses the public perception & attitude, identifies the organization policy with public interest and then executes the programmes for communication with the public.
ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS:• A planned effort or management function.• The relationship between an organization and its publics. Evaluation of public attitudes and opinions.• An organization‘s policies, procedures and actions as they relate to said organization‘s• publics.• Steps taken to ensure that said policies, procedures and actions are in the public interest and socially responsible.• Execution of an action and or communication programme.• Development of rapport, goodwill, understanding and acceptance as the chief end result sought by public relations activities.•
Public Relations (PR)• PR - marketing and corporateMarketing Public Relations (MPR) programmes create impact in many ways:• Generate Excitement in Market Before Advertising Campaign• Introducing a New Product• Advertising Itself Becomes the News• Influence the Opinion Leaders• Defend Adverse Product Consequences and Convince Consumers• Build the Company Image and Create Favorable Brand Opinion
• Marketing PR:• Long-term strategic image building, developing credibility, raising the organisation’s profile, and enhancing other marketing activities.• Corporate PR:• Long-term relationship building strategy with various publics.• Short-term tactical response to an unforeseen crisisWell-planned public relations offer some major advantages that include:
• Can be very effective in new product launch.• It is a highly targeted way of reaching the desired audience.• It is far more cost effective than advertising.• It gets endorsements from independent, objective third party having no association with the product or company.• It is viewed as highly credible.• It breaks through advertising clutter.• It supports advertising campaigns.• It bypasses consumer resistance to company sales efforts.• It helps image building.• It can generate immediate inquiries about new products.
• Publicity versus advertising• Advantages of publicity over advertising:• Credibility - advertising is paid for whilst publicity is seen as free.• Reach - PR can achieve an incredible level of reach.• Excitement - Publicity is about news and can generate its own excitement.• Disadvantage of publicity over advertising:• Managing Public Relations• Four steps for planning a public relations programme: – Identify and define public relations problem, – Develop a plan and programme, – Implement the programme, and – Evaluate the programme effectiveness.
• The target audiences may be internal or external. Internal Audiences External AudiencesEmployees. Channel members.Unions. Customers.Shareholders. Media. Financial Institutions. Special-interest groups. Government. Local community.
• Setting Objectives• Marketing Public Relations (MPR) can serve to accomplish a variety of promotional objectives. Some of them are:• Build Excitement Prior to Product Introduction.• Build Strong Consumer Awareness and Launch Product.• Influence Opinion Leaders.• Build Company and Brand Image.• Counter Negative Publicity.• Programme Implementation• After conducting research, identifying target audience, and setting objectives, programmes are developed and delivered to audiences to accomplish the objectives.• Press release and press conferences• Personal interviews• Event sponsorship• Community involvement• Corporate advertising
• Public Relations Ideas for College/Schools or• Educational Institute.• Newsletters –often mailed to parents on college expense• News Tips Sheets –brief (who, what, when, where)• Visit local newspaper offices – meet reporters• Publicize teacher in-service – ex. School Diary, Magazine, ect.• Breakfast with parents• Pre-registration counseling with students & parents• Student recognition – award, bulletin boards, newspapers, etc.• Adopt a student• Open House –have students and parents present
• Evening Meals –business and professional leaders• Parent conferences• Performing student groups• Computerized assignment system• Shadow a student• Letters to parents –honor rolls• Publish Honor Rolls in newspapers• Good conduct awards• Good news cards –hand out to parents at evening meeting• Booster club meetings after in house games• Grandparent’/Senior Citizens Day• Flowers to mothers on mother’s day• Awards assemblies• Citizenship and Good Deeds day• Announce student birthdays over morning intercom• School/College picnic –invite parents in for special activities• Students seen doing something good.• Mini-college for parents –entire day follows the schedule of their son/daughter.• Senior citizen Thanksgiving dinner.• Positive phone calls from teachers
• Career day• College page in local newspaper• College web page• Give out school email addresses to parents• Web-based grading and homework sites.• Parent-Advisory Committee• Joining community organizations (Rotary club etc.)• Speaking at community meetings (Homeowner’s Association meetings)• College-based enterprises• After-college day care• Opening the building after hours for community use (scout meetings, computer lab use, library use)•
• Effective PR & Marketing means building relationships• It is better to have many people involved in your PR plan, understanding that efficiency may suffer some, than to have one person do everything perfectly• If your PR & Marketing program isn’t tied to your organization’s critical issues, you are going about it the wrong way• The best way to kill a bad ideas is to advertise it