Published on

Published in: Business, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of “Allah”, the most beneficent and merciful who gave us strength and knowledge to complete this assignment. This assignment is a part of ourcourse “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT”. This has proved to be a greatexperience. We would like to express our gratitude to our subject teacher MS SEEMA MEGHANI; who gave us this opportunity to fulfill this report. She gave us moral support and guided in different matters regarding the topic. She had been very king and patient while suggesting us the outlines of this report. We thank her for her overall support. We are also thankful to everyone who all supported us, for that we have completed our report effectively and moreover on time. They gave us many helpful comments which helped us a lot in preparing this assignment.
  3. 3. ERGONOMICS: Ergonomics is a science that matches work to the worker. Poor ergonomic conditions at work, home, school, or play can negatively affect our health. Ergonomics literally means "laws of work." The word ergonomics is made up of two Greek words: "Ergos" meaning "work" and "Nomos" meaning "laws." These "laws" of work are simple: Your physical capabilities must match the demands of the task you are doing. When this matching is in balance, it helps us stay healthy. Poor ergonomic conditions at work, home, school, or play can negatively affect our health. Ergonomically designed tools, furniture and office equipment take their lead from the natural dynamics of the body, allowing people to accomplish tasks in ways that are beneficial rather than damaging to their bodies. Ergonomics is the study of the kind of work you do, the environment you work in, and the tools you use to do your job. The goal of office ergonomics is to set up your office work space so that it fits you and the job you are doing. When your workstation is set up right, you may: Be less likely to have problems such as headaches or eyestrain. Reduce neck and back pain. Prevent bursitis or tendon problems that are linked to doing the same task over and over (repetitive tasks). More and more work today is being done by machines. This increase in mechanization and automation often speeds up the pace of work and at times can make work less interesting. On the other hand, there are still many jobs that must be done manually, involving heavy physical strain. One of the results of manual work, as well as the increase in mechanization, is that more and more workers are suffering from backaches, neckaches, sore wrists, arms and legs, and eyestrain. Ergonomics is the study of work in relation to the environment in which it is performed (the workplace) and those who perform it (workers). It is used to determine how the workplace can be designed or adapted to the worker in order to prevent a variety of health problems and to increase efficiency; in other words, to make the job fit the worker, instead of forcing the worker to conform to the job. One simple example is raising the height of a work table so that the worker does not have to bend down unnecessarily to reach his or her work. A specialist in ergonomics, called an ergonomist, studies the relation between the worker, the workplace and the job design. There are many obvious benefits of applying ergonomics in the workplace. For the worker, the benefits are healthier and safer working conditions. For the employer, the most obvious benefit is increased productivity.
  4. 4. QUESTION # 1 How do you increase ergonomics in the workplace? INTRODUCTION Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work environments, which is very important to both health and safety. Good ergonomics adapt the job to fit the person rather than forcing the person to fit the job. In an ergonomic workplace, tasks and tools are designed to fit individual capabilities and limitations so people can do their jobs without being injured.For example, if we feel tired from working bent over, we change posture or change tools. If written characters are difficult to read, we adjust the lighting or character size. If a distance is too long and tiring to walk, we install a shoot on the work table. After all, ergonomics affects each of us personally. We're the ones who get aches and pains when tasks or tools have poor ergonomic design. In addition, you are the only one who knows when you are experiencing pain and strain, and you're the one who's best able to determine what tasks, tools, and positions cause those symptoms. By being alert to problems, you can help identify injury causes and solutions. That means you play an essential role in helping your company create a workplace in which you can work productively and comfortably. Occupational Safety and Health Administration In its ergonomic guidelines for meat packers, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration explain that there are four parts to a good ergonomics program:1) Worksite analysis,2) Hazard prevention and control,3) Medical management,4) Training and education By including training and education, OSHA is emphasizing that good ergonomics is everyone's responsibility. It's up to the employer to provide you with information and guidance on how to avoid risks, but only you can use that information to do your job in the proper way. IMPROVE ERGONOMICS OF YOUR WORKPLACE Let's talk now about things you can do to improve the ergonomics of your workplace and reduce the chance of injury. The positions you work in and the movements you make are key parts of ergonomics. And, these are things over which you have control. First, look at how your workstation is organized. Do you have to reach more than 20 inches to get to tools or materials you need? If so, try to rearrange your workstation to bring those things closer.
  5. 5. Bending and twisting are also problems. For most people, a comfortable work surface is at about waist height. A work surface that's more than 6 inches below your waist is probably not in accordance with good ergonomics. If you can't make these changes yourself, talk to someone. You will need to figure out a way to make your workstation more comfortable. Here are some other things you can do to reduce the risk of injuries caused by poor ergonomics. Causes to reduce the risk of injuries Keep your elbows down on the work surface instead of leaning on the elbows. Work with your palms down. Work with your wrists straight, not bent. Shift positions every so often; don't sit or stand for too long at a stretch. Perform tasks with two hands rather than one when possible. Grip objects with your whole hand and your fingers – a power grip – in order to distribute the force over a larger area of your hand. Try to avoid applying pressure to a tool with the center of your palm; that spot is much weaker than the parts of the hand padded with more muscle. Know the warning signs of back pain caused by poor ergonomics and posture. Get up and move. Keep the body in alignment while sitting in an office chair and while standing. Use posture-friendly props and ergonomic office chairs when sitting. Increase awareness of posture and ergonomics in everyday settings. Wear supportive footwear when standing. Create ergonomic physical environments and workspaces, such as for sitting in an office chair at a computer. There are also products available to help make work stations more ergonomic. Ergonomic keyboards Ergonomic mouse pads CONCLUSION Although applying ergonomics to the production workplace may sound complicated, it is actually equivalent to what we do in everyday life. For example: if we feel tired from working bent over, we change posture or change tools. If written characters are difficult to read, we adjust
  6. 6. the lighting or character size. If a distance is too long and tiring to walk, we install a shoot on the work table. Another example I want to discuss is when we go Pepsi Company for survey we observe that during manufacturing a lot of noise is created which is harmful for employees who are working there. By this their hearing power became slower down day by day. Some employees often become irritated by the environment. There floor are not dry or uncomfortable & harmful for the employees. This may decrease down their productivity also because of uncomfortable environment. Therefore, it can be said that relieving the discomforts experienced by humans is in fact the essence of ergonomics. Practicing ergonomics in the production workplace thus involves the striving for harmony between humans and work by small contrivance ideas. Question # 2 HOW CAN ERGONOMICS HELP INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION? ERGONOMICS IN EDUCATION Ergonomics has traditionally considered work done, in a workplace. More recently, this scope has broadened, and the concept of 'work' may now be applied to the satisfactory completion of any task. Thus, learning, being the transformation and extension of the learner's knowledge or skills, can be viewed as work, with its workplace being the educational environment in which learning tasks take place. In accomplishing the learning, the learner interacts with the teachers, other students, equipment, materials, study plans and the educational organization; the effectiveness of these learning interactions is influenced by many factors both inside and external to the organization. To optimize such a multi-factorial process requires the application of an ergonomic approach. The application of ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) principles and practices, and the implementation of ergonomics programmes, have achieved proven success in improving performance, productivity, competitiveness, and safety and health in most occupational sectors. However, the benefits that the application of E/HF science might bring to promoting student learning have yet to be widely recognized. "The main challenge in the science of human learning is to understand the requirements of educational design at all levels" (K.U. Smith and Smith, 1966, p. 478). Educational ergonomics is defined as that field of human factors/ergonomic science concerned with the interaction of educational performance and educational design. The premise of educational ergonomics is that student performance to a substantial degree is context specific--specialized in relation to specific design factors---and that ergonomic interventions directed at design improvements therefore can benefit education Throughout the world education has been shaped by culture, politics and economics as well as the technology of the times. From hundreds of years print technology played a powerful role in shaping education and disseminating information. During the past two decades the influences of
  7. 7. information and communication technology (ICT) have been superimposed upon the traditional structure of education.As schools in many parts of the world integrate technology into the learning environment, classrooms have changed in a fundamental way. Electronic devices are typically brought into a physical environment that has not changed to accommodate them. Computers are placed on tables and desks that are a legacy from the past. The science of human factors has rarely been incorporated into the design of school furnishings and children sit on chairs designed by tradition. The size and shape of computers, keyboards and pointing devices are usually not tailored to children. Those concerned with the health and well-being of children in various parts of the world are recognizing the benefit of ergonomics education, design and implementation. There is a sense that the future health and careers of children could be at risk. The education industry encompasses public and private schools and colleges, the early childhood, primary, secondary and tertiary sector. Workers in the education sector can be exposed to a wide range of hazards which can have serious effects on their health and safety. For educational environments, it is important to consider ergonomics for the following reasons: Protect the health and well-being of the children and teachers Enhance learning and teaching experience Preventing adult degenerative dieses from childhood Reaching full potential of the child and reducing distraction due to aches and pains Enhance the learning environment- such as curriculum innovation. The benefit of applying an ergonomics approach to educational environments and the introduction of interventions (such as new furniture or ways of teaching) is that it provides a structured, multi factorial framework building out from the pupil emphasizing that any intervention can only take place or be measured within the totality of the environment. ERGONOMICS FOR TEACHERS Teachers need an understanding of ergonomics both for their own benefit and safety and that of their pupils. Teachers can have great influence over children and therefore it is not only what they teach the children but also how they behave that has an influence on the ultimate behavior of the children i.e. positive modeling. There is considerable evidence that motor learning (including the development of postural habits) occurs when children are engaged in meaningful goal oriented tasks such as those in the classroom. With the right equipment, you can teach more effectively and your students' attention can be kept more closely with items like mobile stands and presentation keyboards. A teacher, who is working in an ergonomically designed environment, including chair, desk, lighting, keyboard and monitor, is far less likely to experience discomfort during the workday. Physical discomfort, whether it is from unpleasant lighting or back and joint pain, can lead to irritability, fatigue and demoralization. Physically comfortable employees are far more likely to have a positive attitude toward their job and to be more productive while doing it. Provision of ergonomically appropriate office equipment by management demonstrates a concern for the well-being of employees that will be appreciated. Following are several pieces of ergonomic equipment that actually help teacher’s better track classroom management and increase their productivity and performance.
  8. 8. TOP ERGONOMIC PRODUCTS FOR TEACHERS 1. Mobile stands are incredibly useful for any teacher who presents lessons {which should be all teachers!}. Since most desks are located fairly committed to one spot, it's superhelpful to have a desk that moves with you. 2. Presentation keyboards provide the same advantage of mobility so you can present lessons from any point in the classroom. This can be particularly advantageous if you need to position yourself next to the chatters. 3. A keyboard tray is ideal for freeing up desk space and also maintaining a good neutral posture. An ergonomic keyboard and/or mouse also make for more efficient and more comfortable typing which is essential for extended periods of lesson planning and document writing. 4. A document holder keeps notes and texts at eye level, thus reducing eye strain while typing. They can be used while recording grades and taking student-specific notes. 5. An ergonomic chair is a great investment for all those hours you spend lesson planning and grading. All that adjustability is so great for bad backs and general comfort. 6. An ergonomic desk is ideal for all those hours spent planning and looking over student work, as well as typing and printing worksheets, quizzes, and tests. 7. A little thought of resource for educators is a sound machine, whether for individual reading time or even test days. As distracted as students are these days, there's no reason they should have to be diverted by their classmates' every movement or eraser mark. In fact, many students find themselves stressed and unfocused because of awareness of their peers. EXAMPLES OF FURNITURE FOR PROFESSIONALS MOBILE AND FLEXIBLE: RONDOLIFT TABLE RondoLift is a height-adjustable table, enabling the teacher to work while both sitting and standing. In this way, the RondoLift supports the ergonomically vital alternation between working postures. It can be swiftly adapted to any individual requirement by means of its infinite height adjustment. The RondoLift features a lockable drawer under its oval table top. Here the teacher can safely and securely store teaching materials. Its mobility makes it particularly suitable for teaching with the computer. ERGONOMIC SITTING: PANTOMOVE The PantoMove height-adjustable swivel chair with innovative 3D tilt mechanism delivers more. It provides the freedom of movement which is essential to active sitting comfort and sustained concentration. Its moving seat surface automatically provides for completely dynamic sitting. With weight the seat surface inclines forward and thus supports a physiological working posture.
  9. 9. A change in load caused by a transfer of weight to the rear in turn results in strain being removed from the back. The dynamic PantoMove even supports side movements. TEACHER’S WORKPLACE: NETWORK TABLE Flexible and fully usable according to individual requirements: the teacher’s workstation for homework supervision. The NetWork teacher’s table is equipped with lockable castors and can thus be easily moved. At these fully equipped PC workstations the teacher who is supervising the pupils while they are doing their homework can use his/her time effectively for his/her own work – corrections, preparing lessons or completing organizational tasks. ERGONOMICS IN THE CLASSROOM When you think of ergonomic you associate the word with comfort and if you are comfortable with no musculoskeletal stress, it only makes sense that your productivity and concentration will improve. Such is the case with ergonomics and how it increases learning in the classroom. Little consideration has been given to ergonomics and the classroom until now. Choosing ergonomics furniture’s that take care of the student’s needs contributes to student motivation and learning. The new ergonomic furniture’s with ergonomic advantages helps to increase learning in the classroom by providing a desk that reduces musculoskeletal stress on the student. If stress is reduced learning can increase.Numerous university studies have pointed to the fact that the importance of ergonomics in the classroom is crucial to reducing physical ailments and increasing student productivity and learning. The ergonomic furniture’s designed for comfort which provides students with a way to interact efficiently and safely so learning and productivity can increase The BENEFITS of an ergonomic classroom include reducing the risk of accidents, reducing the risk of aches and pains and ensuring that teachers and pupils don’t become frustrated as a result of not being able to adjust or see equipment properly.In addition to providing healthier seating, good ergonomics will improve comfort – and in the classroom, better comfort means more learning.Although using well-designed and properly sized furniture is important, it’s only part of the ergonomics equation. Frequent movement, periodic rest breaks, and regular stretching and exercise are also key elements in an effective ergonomics program – at school, at work and at home. EXAMPLE OF ERGONOMICS FOR STUDENTS: IMPROVED SITTING, IMPROVED WORKING.
  10. 10. Crucial to an ergonomic pupil’s workstation are chairs and desks/tables which are adapted to height. The PantoMove swivel chair is not only infinitely height-adjustable and thus completely adaptable to individual requirements; it has an innovative 3D tilt mechanism which facilitates dynamic sitting. Here the seat surface reacts to each change in load by tilting forward, back or sideways accordingly. In this way, the dynamic chair provides pupils with the freedom of movement which is essential to the development of a healthy posture and sustained concentration. HEIGHT-ADJUSTABLE PUPILS’ DESKS/TABLES Both chairs and desks/tables are height-adjustable in the interests of optimum adaptation of the pupil’s workstation. The Ergo school desk/table is fitted with infinite height adjustment by crank handle from 56 to 82 cm – and thus particularly suitable for changing space occupation. It can be swiftly and directly adapted to suit the individual requirements of the pupil who is working on it at that particular moment. Height-adapted furnishings and chairs for dynamic sitting are basic ergonomic requirements for healthy and productive learning in that they facilitate a physiologically positive sitting posture. But what happens then if the desk/table height is not correctly adjusted? If the desk/table is too low, the pupil is forced to work with a hunched back, which places strain on the intervertebral discs. If the desk/table is too high, the pupil all too easily suffers tenseness in the shoulders. QDESK The Qdesk is an affordably-priced, durable and functional elementary-school desk that is also ergonomic and recyclable. Its award-winning design gives the school classrooms the fun look that children love while providing unmatched comfort and ergonomic advantage for children at a very low cost. CONCLUSION Students that sit in uncomfortable desks and classrooms will let their attention wander away from the lesson being taught. This concept is true with anyone that is uncomfortable sitting for extended periods of time. Ergonomic furniture can change this by designing a desk with the student in mind instead of the classroom. Ergonomic desks and other classroom furniture help to reduce student injury and physical pain which disrupts the learning process. When school desk manufacturers design ergonomic desks they vary the measurement to suit different body sizes and this factor alone is beneficial in increasing student attention span which improves the learning process. A lot of states have placed a limit on the weight of backpacks to reduce student injury however very little consideration has been given to the effects of
  11. 11. ergonomics on learning and the classroom environment until recently. Students continue to try and learn while sitting in desks that hinder the learning process. The effects of ergonomics on learning are beginning to receive global attention with the inception of the manufacturing of ergonomic school desks and classroom furniture. After studies have shown there is a correlation between ergonomics and improved learning, ergonomics will most likely be brought to the forefront when it comes to increasing learning in the classroom. Modern day students live in the 21st century so it is time for the educational system to step up to the plate and provide a 21st century classroom that promotes learning and improves the quality of education. Combined with maintaining a good posture, well designed equipment in the classroom can help to significantly reduce the risk of upper limb and back pain. Seating position is only part of the problem as technology such as tablets, laptops and desktop computers is now an essential part of classroom life – ensuring these technologies are ergonomically set-up is vital for a healthy and productive educational space. Simple, inexpensive equipment such as monitor arms, laptop and tablet supports, CPU supports and cable management solutions can make classrooms a safer, healthier and more pleasant place to learn and teach. QUESTION # 3 Why is ergonomics so important to a company and its employees? In today’s world, advances in technology have really improved the quality of the workplace. Ergonomics is also important to a company. Companies study ergonomics to try to eliminate and decrease the risk of injuries as well as to improve the efficiency of those working. If you are set up comfortably at work, whether you are stuck behind a desk all day or you are constantly pushing and pulling heavy objects, the more comfortable you are, the better you will perform. Workplace injuries, especially musculoskeletal injuries that could be prevented, affect a company negatively when large amounts of insurance money have to be paid out and filing worker’s compensation claims. Such claims have a significant financial impact on many companies and injuries can also reduce worker productivity rates. Direct costs are those directly associated with the claim and include: Medical treatment Prescription costs Insurance premiums Indirect costs associated with the injury can include: Overtime due to staff coverage during absence of injured worker Accommodation for modified duty Increased absenteeism
  12. 12. Decreased morale Legal and investigation costs Presenteeism: when an employee comes back to work too early and is less productive than in a healthy state Replacement worker costs Advertising and recruiting if employee doesn’t return to work Orientation and training costs “INDIRECTCOSTS ARE ESTIMATED TO BE 3-5 TIMES MORE EXPENSIVE THAN THE DIRECT COSTS OF THAT CLAIM.” HERE ARE SOME REASONS WHY ERGONOMICS MAKES GOOD BUSINESS SENSE: 1. Workers are the main cost for modern businesses, and businesses need to attract and retain the best talent. You don't want to hire then inadvertently injure workers - that benefits no-one. Ergonomics prevents this. 2. Musculoskeletal disorders are entirely preventable and quite unnecessary injuries that cost the US economy billions of dollars and inflict misery and suffering on affected workers. 3. When ergonomics is an integral part of basic job and workplace design NOT an afterthought, it's no more expensive to choose a good ergonomic design for a workplace than to choose a bad design - the difference isn't economics it's education! 4. Good ergonomics programs focus on ways to reduce costs to companies by: o reducing injuries o reducing absenteeism o reducing errors o Maximizing productivity. 5. Good ergonomics programs are ALWAYS cost-effective - they save more than they cost. Many studies have shown this. EXAMPLE: Companies like Baxter Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, and Air Products, Inc. are launching large-scale office ergonomics programs as part of corporate initiatives to improve health & safety and productivity. Many companies believe that it is important to make sure their workers are happy, comfortable and safe, both in order to obey the law and to improve production efficiency. In more recent years, the study of ergonomics has really taken off in workplaces and many companies are completely changing the way their offices are set up. These facts will help you to understand. Ergonomics is important for the health and safety of the employees. OSHA provides guidelines so that employee health and safety is always a first and foremost concern of any employer, when employees are uncomfortable or dissatisfied, productivity suffers. Ergonomic office environments benefit employees by making them more comfortable, and benefit managers and owners too by helping employees to be more productive.
  13. 13. EXAMPLES: In some major companies in which the comfort of employees is very important, more efficient ergonomic techniques are being implemented in the workplace at the cost of the company. For office employees are who are stuck sitting at a desk for eight or more hours, some companies are implementing standing desks. Some studies have suggested that sitting down all day increase your chance of negative health effects in the future, especially on your neck and back, due to your posture. Other examples include measuring the height of individual employees before setting up a work station, setting up keyboards at an angle that doesn’t stress the wrist, or setting computer screens at levels that don’t stress the neck. BENEFITS OF A WORKPLACE ERGONOMICS PROCESS Here are five of the proven benefits of a strong workplace ergonomics process: 1. Ergonomics reduces costs. By systematically reducing ergonomic risk factors, you can prevent costly MSDs. With approximately $1 out of every $3 in workers compensation costs attributed to MSDs, this represents an opportunity for significant cost savings. Also, don’t forget that indirect costs can be up to twenty times the direct cost of an injury.– The average direct cost of a workers compensation claim for an MSD is $14,120 (Oregon OSHA 2007) – The indirect costs involved bring the total average claim cost to well over $32,000. 2. Ergonomics improves productivity. The best ergonomic solutions will often improve. By designing a job to allow for good posture, less exertion, fewer motions and better heights and reaches, the workstation becomes more efficient. Ergonomic improvements can reduce the primary risk factors for MSDs, so workers are more efficient, productive, and have greater job satisfaction. 3. Ergonomics improves quality. Poor ergonomics leads to frustrated and fatigued workers that don’t do their best work. When the job task is too physically taxing on the worker, they may not perform their job like they were trained. For example, an employee might not fasten a screw tight enough due to a high force requirement which could create a product quality issue. 4. Ergonomics improves employee engagement. Employees notice when the company is putting forth their best efforts to ensure their health and safety. If an employee does not experience fatigue and discomfort during their workday, it can reduce turnover, decrease absenteeism, improve morale and increase employee involvement. 5. Ergonomics creates a better safety culture. Ergonomics shows your company’s commitment to safety and health as a core value. The cumulative effect of the previous four benefits of ergonomics is a stronger safety culture for your company. Healthy employees are your most valuable asset; creating and fostering the safety & health culture at your company will lead to better human performance for your organization.
  14. 14. CONCLUSION Ergonomics has become a very important aspect of office furniture design, and rightly so. Efficient design makes it easy for people to function better and be more productive. Long term damage to the musculoskeletal system and work related injuries can be minimized or avoided. Ergonomics applies information about human behavior, abilities and limitations and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, tasks, jobs and environments for productive, safe, comfortable and effective human use Ergonomics is investing in your company and investing in your human capital! Extension of ergonomics and safety culture in education, in family and at work: experience has shown that, achieving significant improvements in workplace safety and health, is not only a matter of technology but of more of culture Ergonomics contributes to health and safety of an employee and contributes to company performance Ergonomic interventions, aimed at preventing musculoskeletal disorders can be initiated through risk assessment, safety measures and control procedures at workplaces together with instructions and training of computer workers of all age groups. Occupational health services should design effective workplace layout in combination with a feedback survey of the psychosocial work environment and individual training focusing on the working technique to increase the efficiency and productivity of employees, and to minimize the risk of repetitive injuries in all age groups.