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1           Chapter                        7             Leadership    After completing this chapter, you should be able t...
2Leadership Trait Theory    Leadership trait theory: assumes that there are distinctive physical    and psychological char...
3Behavioral Leadership Theories    Behavioral leadership theories: assume that there are distinctive    styles that effect...
4Ohio State/U. of Michigan Model                      High                                            High consideration  ...
5The Leadership Grid    The Managerial Grid: Blake and Mouton’s model identifying the    ideal leadership style as having ...
6The Leadership Grid                                                                 9 High                     9,9       ...
7Transformational Leadership    Transformational leadership: focuses on the behaviors of    successful top-level managers....
8Contingency Leadership Theory    Contingency leadership theory: Fiedler’s model to determine if    leadership style is ta...
9Contingency Leadership Model                Question 1        Question 2         Question 3                  Appropriate ...
10Continuum of Leadership Behavior       Autocratic style                                                                 ...
11Normative Leadership Theory (I)    Normative leadership theory: Vroom and Yetton’s decision-tree    model that enables u...
12Normative Leadership Theory (II)       Determining the appropriate leadership          Is there a quality requirement ...
13Situational Leadership                                    Immature                                     Low              ...
14Situational Supervision Model           Capability Levels (C)                          Supervisory Styles (S)    (C-1) L...
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Ch07

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management

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Ch07

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 7 Leadership After completing this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain what leadership is and how it affect behavior. 2. Describe leadership trait theory. 3. List and describe five behavioral leadership theories. 4. List and describe four contingency leadership theories. 5. Explain four situational supervisory styles. 6. Identify three characteristics that substitute for leadership. 7. Define the following 14 key terms (in order of appearance in the chapter): leadership normative leadership theory leadership trait theory situational leadership behavioral leadership theories autocratic style Leadership Grid consultative style contingency leadership theories participative style contingency leadership theory laissez-faire style leadership continuumMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. 2Leadership Trait Theory Leadership trait theory: assumes that there are distinctive physical and psychological characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness. Ghiselli’s six significant leadership traits  Supervisory ability (Getting the job done through others).  Need for occupational achievement (Seeking responsibility).  Intelligence (Good judgment, reasoning, thinking capacity).  Decisiveness (Solve problems and make decision).  Self-assurance (Copes with problems, self-confidence).  Initiative (Self-starting).McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. 3Behavioral Leadership Theories Behavioral leadership theories: assume that there are distinctive styles that effective leaders use consistently, or, that good leadership is rooted in behavior.  Basic leadership styles  Autocratic (Theory X)  Democratic (Theory Y)  Laissez-faire (free-rein)McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. 4Ohio State/U. of Michigan Model High High consideration High structure (employee centered) (job centered) and and (employee centered) Low structure High consideration Consideration (job centered) (employee centered) 32 41 Low consideration High structure (employee centered) (job centered) and and Low structure Low consideration (job centered) (employee centered) Low Initiating structure Low High (job centered)McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. 5The Leadership Grid The Managerial Grid: Blake and Mouton’s model identifying the ideal leadership style as having a high concern for both production and people.  Five major styles (out of 81 possible)  The impoverished manager (1,1)  The sweatshop manager (9,1)  The country club manager (1,9)  The organized person manager (5,5)  The team manager (9,9)McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. 6The Leadership Grid 9 High 9,9 9,1 Concern for production 5,5 Low 1 1,9 1,1 High 9 Low 1 Concern for peopleMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. 7Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership: focuses on the behaviors of successful top-level managers.  Three acts:  Recognizing the need for revitalization.  Creating a new vision.  Instituting a change.  Transformational leadership styles:  Charismatic Leadership  Transactional LeadershipMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. 8Contingency Leadership Theory Contingency leadership theory: Fiedler’s model to determine if leadership style is task or relationship orients, and if the situation matches the style.  Leadership style  Determined by filling out LPC scales.  Situational Favorableness  Leader-member relations.  Task structure.  Position power.McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. 9Contingency Leadership Model Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Appropriate Situation Are leader-member Is the task Is position power Style relations good or structured or strong or weak? poor? unstructured? Strong 1 Task Structured Weak 2 Task Good Strong 3 Task Unstructured Weak 4 RelationshipStart End Strong 5 Relationship Structured Weak 6 Relationship Poor Strong 7 Either Unstructured Weak 8 Task McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. 10Continuum of Leadership Behavior Autocratic style Participative style Leader Leader Leader Leader Leader Leader Leader makes “sells” presents presents presents defines permits decision and decision ideas and tentative problem, limits and subordinates announces it invites decision gets asks group to function questions subject to suggestions, to make within limits change and makes decision defined by decision leader 1 2 3 4 5 6 7McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. 11Normative Leadership Theory (I) Normative leadership theory: Vroom and Yetton’s decision-tree model that enables user to select on of five leadership style appropriate for the situation.  Five styles:  AI — Autocratic. Leader makes decision alone with available information.  AII — Autocratic. Leader makes decision alone, but uses information from subordinates.  CI — Consultative. Leader meets with subordinates individually, explains situation, gets information and ideas. Leader may or may not use subordinate’s input. Leader makes decision alone.  CII — Consultative. Leader meets with subordinates as a group, with same process as CI.  GII — Group oriented. Leader meets with subordinates as a group, explains the situation and allows the group to make the decision.McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. 12Normative Leadership Theory (II)  Determining the appropriate leadership  Is there a quality requirement such the one solution is likely to be more rational than another?  Do I have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision?  Is the problem structured?  Is acceptance of a decision by subordinates critical to effective implementation?  If I were to make the decision by myself, is it reasonably certain that it would be accepted by my subordinates?  Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem?  Is conflict among subordinates likely in the preferred solution (not relevant to individual problems)?  Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision?McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. 13Situational Leadership Immature Low Moderate High MatureMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. 14Situational Supervision Model Capability Levels (C) Supervisory Styles (S) (C-1) Low (S-A) Autocratic The employees are unable to and/or High directive/low support unwilling to do the task without direction. Tell employees what to do and closely oversee performance. Give little or no support. Make decisions by yourself. (C-2) Moderate (S-C) Consultative The employees have moderate ability and High directive/high support are motivated. Sell employees on doing the job your way and oversee performance at major stages. You may include their input in your decision. Develop a supportive relationship. (C-3) High (S-P) Participative The employees are high in ability but may lack Low directive/high support self-confidence or motivation. Provide little or no direction. Let employees do the task their way. Spend limited time overseeing performance. Focus on end results. Make decisions together, but you have the final say. (C-4) Outstanding (S-L) Laissez-Faire The employees are very capable and highly Low directive/low support motivated. Provide little or no direction and support. Let employees make their own decisions.McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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