Archaeological, historical and cultural protection (2)
Prof. Dr. Mehmet TuncerUrban Conservation Planner
Turkey, based on thousands of years of history as a country of rich civilizations lived on the protection of the cultural heritage of humanity is one of the countries with a high global responsibilities.
Turkey is very rich in terms of cultural and natural values. However, the law may be able to protect this wealth.
In our country, to this day 2425 archaeological sites, natural sites 269 pieces, 146 pieces urban sites, 17 historic sites and site areas in 2857, including 44 406 units have been registered immovable cultural property to be protected.
Efforts focusing on international platforms since 1970 has taken place in our country. To UNESCO member states in 1983, the country adopted the "Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" in accordance with the provisions within the territory of states parties committed to the protection of cultural and natural assets.
World Cultural Heritage List From Turkey, Pamukkale, Goreme, Cappadocia, Istanbul, Bogazkoy Mount Nemrut, Xanthos-Letoon, Patara and Divriği Great Mosque and Hospital of the World Cultural Heritage List as a cultural heritage were taken.
BERGAMA - PERGAMON CIVILISATION B E R G A M A *P E R G A M O N
"European Convention for the Protection ofthe Architectural Heritage" Our country, with the countries of the Council of Europe in 1985 signed the "European Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage" 04/13/1989 Day and by Law No. 3534 came into force. Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution (Barcelona Convention) 100 of importance of the site in accordance with the Mediterranean partner sites were protected by 17 units in our country.
PATARA SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAGELEMIS CONSERVATION AREA
Asar-ı Atika Regulations Western countries, cultural values, to their home countries with the understanding of the protection of private property against them take the first exit Asar-ı Atika has been with the Regulation. (April 10, 1322 / M.1904 dated "Asar-ı Atika Regulations)
Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayunu Later, Gülhane Hatt-ı Hümayunu a spirit of cultural heritage with the opening of the West and the Ottoman Empire also changed.
During this period, industrial and commercial bourgeoisie, the market has become all the Empire of the West, with the understanding of the unconscious continued protection and preservation of cultural heritage curator value of the monumental structures that are incapable of protecting even the prosthesis.
After Republic of Turkey (1923) Socio-economic structure of the countrys economy after 1923, parallel to the changes to streamline the efforts of conservation policy, carried out by the development of certain principles.
I. antiquities and museums in 1944 Advisory Commission report has revealed the need for the protection of ancient monuments with the development plans.
On the protection of cultural and natural environment in Turkey and all over the world as well as organizing legal and institutional adjustments done and is still being continued work on this issue.
No. 1710 "Antiquities Act" May 3, 1973, this law came into force in the protection of ancient monuments and prevent smuggling of antiquities have been targeted in this context.
The scope of this law, science, religion, culture and the arts on all the immovable and movable objects, archaeological and ethnographic collection of the works, materials and documents in the history of art is all about.
Antiquities Law No. 1710 Antiquities Law No. 1710 and historical periods prior to the date of the science, culture, religion and artistic underground and above ground or to destroy property rights of individuals largely restricts or completely eliminated.
In particular historical and cultural artifacts and potential in terms of the environment and the need for portable and moved to a country very rich in this state alone, detection, investigation, detection, protection, repair, and maintain without the support of individuals deserve as much at one with the conduct of a comprehensive study is very difficult.
Particular historical and cultural environment as the best in real property, not presented as museum objects but be integrated and to experience daily life can be maintained.
Mardin Urban Site Conservation Plan is one of the pioneering plans inconservation
• Ürgüp – Göreme (Cappadocia) CONSERVATION PLAN Plans are the GÖREME URBAN SITE AREA Urban Site Conservation pioneering plans in conservation
2863 numbered "Law on Protection of Cultural andNatural Heritage" Including central and local government is a "Protection Policy" should be stated, the bill in general, "Local Government" to protect or take up very little space, or excluded.
Organizations for Conservation Adequate legal, organizational and financial infrastructure, in spite of the creation of the specification must be created organizations "Conservation Education and Research and Documentation Center", "Application Technical Control Units" for more like auditing and documentation seen.
But this organization is, the more people living in protected areas of the current problems in the application (removal of building survey, restoration project, production, repair, technical and financial problems) it is necessary to solve that.
Destruction of cultural and natural heritage In particular the destruction of cultural and natural heritage that has very quickly and intensively coast, tourist destinations and quickly urbanizing metropolitan urban centers should be given priority and urgency.
Participation Active and conscious participation of the local people and managers of local problems be solved with. The scale of the neighborhood and the street in the areas of conservation organizations may be considered.
Archaeological sites The case of archaeological sites of organization, financing, and implementation / decisions for controlling, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of laws and regulations.
Excavation and research policies, the planning and organization of archaeological sites should be developed for the new and effective policies. Available positions supporting museums and archaeological sites, streamlining is required.
Urban Conservation Areas In Urban Conservation Areas, the "Protection of Local Boards of" input is very important applications in the control of the establishment and Protection Boards.
Urban conservation areas be considered separately from the whole city, the city that provides all the services provided to local governments on this issue is very important tasks.
Protection Finance and Funds With the Law, Housing Development Fund-like "Protection Fund" was established.
In addition to this fund, local governments, property owners and tenants living in the field of conservation, non-governmental organizations (foundations, corporations, associations, cooperatives, banks, political parties, etc.) with the participation of local and voluntary activation of resources is of great importance.
In addition, transfer is important from foreign companies and organizations source, loans, grants and so on.
In particular, the only building repairs, infrastructure, landscaping work in the organization of local governments, should take place under the supervision of the boards.
Infrastructure works and environmental regulations should not be made without repair of historic structures within the tissue.