A Theoretical Study on ‘Glass Ceiling Concept’


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A Theoretical Study on ‘Glass Ceiling Concept’

  3. 3. GLASS CEILING Under the Guidance of Dr. Ashok Antony D’ Souza DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE – 575001INTRODUCTIONThe modern society is often characterized as highly democratic, humanistic and 3DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  4. 4. GLASS CEILINGadvanced. At the same time, the arguments, concerning the real equality of allpeople regardless their race, gender, or social position, still persist. In such asituation, the arguments concerning the position of female in the modern societyare among the most contradictive since on the one hand, there are people whosincerely believe that women have eventually managed to get an equal position insociety compared to men and, at the present days, they have really equalopportunities as men do. On the other hand, there is a totally different view on theposition of women in the modern society, according to which the glass ceiling stillremains an unsurpassable barrier women regularly face in their life. The latterposition is more realistic and corresponds to the actual position of females in themodern society since their leadership is still rather an exception than a norm.Both points of view are grounded on certain reasons which should be analyzed inorder to fully reveal the extent to which the belief in the real improvement of theposition of women in the modern society and their access to top positions iserroneous. First of all, it should be said that the fact that women have made a greatprogress compared to the previous epoch is beyond a doubt. It is really true thatfemales play a significant role in the modern society and they have largeropportunities and formally they have absolutely equal rights compared to men. Asa rule, those, who believe that the glass ceiling syndrome has gone and totallyvanished from the modern society, stand on the ground that modern women havenot only equal rights compared to men but also have wide opportunities to realizetheir right.In this respect, it is necessary to agree that nowadays women have really got achance to receive the same basis for their future professional development andcareer growth. To put it more precisely, modern women have access to educationand have an opportunity to receive higher education of the same quality that mendo that is one of the basic conditions of their future perspectives as potentialleaders.Furthermore, it is really an unarguable fact that rights of women and their 4DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  5. 5. GLASS CEILINGopportunities are recognized and amply supported by the modern legislation whichfocuses on the protection of women against any sort of discrimination, includingthe gender-related discrimination. Moreover, women are not viewed as secondary-class citizens anymore who are supposed to spend all their life taking care abouttheir families, children and household. However, probably the strongest argumentof those, who believe that women have really overcome the glass ceilingsyndrome, is the assumption that, nowadays, women are widely represented inpractically all spheres of life and, what is more, often they occupy the leadingpositions.To put it more precisely, it is possible to estimate that many women are quitesuccessful politicians. For instance, nowadays, the perspective of two female-candidates on the next President elections in the US seems to be quite real. Similartrends may be observed in other countries of the world, such as Germany, wherethe Chancellor, i.e. the head of the government, is a woman, or the UK, which hasalready experienced the epoch of Margaret Thatcher as the Prime Minister.Practically, the same situation is estimated to be in economic sphere. Thesupporters of the belief that the current situation indicates to the end of the epochof the glass ceiling underline that women may be also fond among CEOs and inboardrooms of the most powerful companies and financial organizations. Forinstance, a woman is chief executive of the London Stock Exchange and thesimilar examples may be found in other developed countries, including the US.In such a way, judging from such a significant penetration of women on toppositions in politics and economy, it is really possible to believe that there is noglass ceiling syndrome anymore. The reality: the unsurpassable glass ceilingUnfortunately, the reality turns to be quite different from such an optimistic belief.In actuality, the position of women has hardly changed substantially in recent yearsor even decades. Regardless the seemingly growing presentation of women inpolitics and economy, in actuality, they still remain underrepresented in a male- 5DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  6. 6. GLASS CEILINGdominated society, especially women are missing from top jobs.Even though women can have a real chance to receive the higher educationsimilarly to men but this does not necessarily mean that they will and actually havethe real opportunities to realize the acquired skills, abilities and knowledge in theirprofessional life. To put it more precisely, the recent researchers reveal the fact that81% of well-qualified women that can occupy top positions face serious barriersengendered by the existing stereotypes and preconceptions (Andrica 1997) whichare basically generated by male and accumulated in the society where maleideology is dominating.Furthermore, researchers also point out that many employers simply feel anaversion to taking a risk by hiring a woman, or not clearly planning their careers orjob assignments to benefit them and, what is more, less than 1% of CEOs see thedevelopment of high potential of women as a priority (Feldman 1997).In such a way, it is obvious that the stereotypes and biases still prevent womenfrom an opportunity to occupy top positions in organizations. In this respect, it iseven possible to speak about the failure of anti-discrimination legislation, which,being actually good in principle, has turned to be unable to change the stereotypesthat have been existing for decades, if not to say centuries. Moreover, speakingabout the wider opportunities of women in relation to their professional careers, itis necessary to underline that top positions still remain hardly accessible to women.In actuality, in spite of the substantial growth of women working in differentspheres, including those which were traditionally believed as purely male-dominated, they are still unrepresented on the top level. In other words, eventhough there is a growing share of female in organizations their perspectives ofgaining high or top positions are extremely low. As a result, the share of womenamong CEOs is extremely low as well. For instance, according to a recent studyonly 7-9% of senior managers at Fortune 1000 firms are women (Castro 1997).The same may be said about politics where a few women that have access to 6DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  7. 7. GLASS CEILINGleading positions while, taken at large, politics still remain the domain of men.Moreover, the conditions of work and payment are still unequal. It is not a secretthat many women can hardly maintain their careers after having children. This isparticularly true for women that used to play the leading role in organizationswhere they occupied top positions.It is also important to underline that pay gaps are also the reality of the modern lifesince, as a rule, men still have more chances to receive a better paid job, or, what ismore, men earn more than women even though they fulfill absolutely the same job.Remarkably, the gap for part-time job is traditionally wider than for the full-timejob. As a result, asking for flexible working still spells career death for manywomen in today’s workplace.At the same time, it is also worthy of mention another side of the problem of thestill progressing glass ceiling. In fact, often specialists, when they speak about theglass ceiling or poor or equal opportunities of women, forget that there are alsowomen from ethnic minorities who, at the present moment, seem to be practicallyunrepresented among the leaders of organizations, neither in politics nor inbusiness. In fact, the cases when a non-white woman is a CEO, for instance, arevery seldom.MEANING AND DEFINITION OF GLASS CEILINGIn HR term glass ceiling refers to an artificial barrier based on attitudinal ororganizational bias prevents qualified women/ other minorities from advancingupward into senior management level positions or situations where theadvancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization isstopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination, mostcommonly sexism or racism, but since the term was coined, “glass ceiling” has alsocome to describe the limited advancement of the deaf, blind, disabled, and aged. 7DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  8. 8. GLASS CEILING It is believed to be an unofficial, invisible barrier that prevents women andminorities from advancing in businesses or barrier to career advancement anunofficial but real impediment to some body’s advancement into upper levelmanagement positions because of discrimination based on the person’s gender,age, race, ethnicity or sexual preference. It is also defined as an unacknowledgeddiscriminatory barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to positionsof power or responsibility, as within a corporation.OVERVIEWThis situation is referred to as a "ceiling" as there is a limitation blocking upwardadvancement, and "glass" (transparent) because the limitation is not immediatelyapparent and is normally an unwritten and unofficial policy. This invisible barriercontinues to exist, even though there are no explicit obstacles keeping minoritiesfrom acquiring advanced job positions – there are no advertisements thatspecifically say “no minorities hired at this establishment”, nor are there anyformal orders that say “minorities are not qualified” (largely due to the factthat Equal employment opportunity laws forbid this kind of discrimination, andopen admittance of it is career suicide) – but they do lie beneath the surface. Whena company exercises said discrimination, they will usually attempt to use anindirect justification, such as "You are shouting obscenities that upset thecustomers," as opposed to directly saying, "You have Tourette syndrome." The"glass ceiling" is distinguished from formal barriers to advancement, such aseducation or experience requirements. Mainly this invisible barrier seems to existin more of the developing countries, in whose businesses this effect is highly"visible". However, this glass ceiling tends to cripple working women the most. This barrierprevents large numbers of women, ethnic minorities, and sexual minorities fromobtaining and securing the most powerful, prestigious, and highest-grossing jobs inthe workforce. This barrier makes many women feel as they are not worthy enough 8DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  9. 9. GLASS CEILINGto have these high-ranking positions, but also they feel as if their bosses do nottake them seriously or actually see them as potential candidateHISTORY 9DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  10. 10. GLASS CEILINGSexual discrimination was outlawed in the United States through the Civil RightsAct of 1964 in the hopes of allowing women to rise in the working world onceproper experience has been achieved.The term "glass ceiling" has been thought to have first been used to refer toinvisible barriers that impede the career advancement of women in the Americanworkforce in an article by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt in the March24, 1986 edition of the Wall Street Journal. However, the term was used prior tothat; for instance, it was utilized in a March 1984 Adweek article by Gay Bryant.The term glass ceiling was used prior to the 1984 article by two women at Hewlett-Packard in 1979, Katherine Lawrence and Marianne Schreiber, to describe howwhile on the surface there seemed to be a clear path of promotion, in actualitywomen seemed to hit a point which they seemed unable to progress beyond. Uponbecoming CEO and chairwoman of the board of HP, Carly Fiorina proclaimed thatthere was no glass ceiling. After her term at HP, she called her earlier statement a“[d]umb thing to say.”However, the term was used by the U.S. Department of Labor in 1991 in responseto a study of nine Fortune 500 companies. The study confirmed that women andminorities encountered considerable glass ceiling barriers in their careers; thesebarriers were experienced earlier in their professions than previously thought.United States Senator Hillary Clinton used the term glass ceiling in her speech toendorse Senator Barack Obama for President: "And although we weren’t able toshatter that highest, hardest glass ceiling this time, thanks to you, its got about 18million cracks in it."HR professionals are also required to be knowledgeable of employment laws,programs and practices for their organization. Because the law provides protectionfor certain demographic groups, such as women, in the labor market, HRprofessionals need to understand the potential impact of glass-ceiling barriers (e.g., 10DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  11. 11. GLASS CEILINGdiscrimination) on women--including women of color--regarding advancement inthe workplace.REASONS FOR THE GLASS CEILINGLate 1970s – Early 1980s: • Women lacked required experience and skills • They were restricted to clerical and other support services jobsMid – Late 1980s: • Trends started changing • More women took up higher education in management • Looked for careers in operating areas • The debate over the existence of the Glass Ceiling beganPROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES • Culture issues • Male Chauvinism 11DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  12. 12. GLASS CEILING • Marriage • Corporate organisations do not favour women • Unwritten rule of not employing womenOn the Greener Side..Women Managers are praised for: ► Soft Skills ► Caring ► Understanding ► Good teamwork ► Good communication skills ► Patience ► Perseverance ► Style of Management ► Unique skillsTYPES OF GLASS CEILING BARRIERS  Different pay for comparable work. 12DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  13. 13. GLASS CEILING  Sexual, ethnic, racial, religious discrimination or harassment in the workplace  Lack of family-friendly workplace policies (or, on the flipside, pro- child/pro-family values that discriminate against homosexuals, non-parents, or single parents)  Exclusion from informal networks; Stereotyping and preconceptions of womens roles and abilities; Failure of senior leadership to assume accountability for womens advancement; Lack of role models; Lack of mentoring  Requiring long hours for advancement, sometimes called the hour-glass ceiling.Sexism and glass ceiling effects - The gender wage gapThis gap is the difference in both the wages and earnings between males andfemales who have equivalent job titles, training experience, education, andprofessions. In most circumstances, women are paid less than men when all ofthese factors are comparable. A comparison frequently cited is that women make75.3 cents on the dollar to men, which is derived from statistics maintained by theUnited States Census Bureau from 2003, relating specifically to an across-the-board comparison of year-round full-time workers.David R. Hekman and colleagues (2009) found that customers prefer white menemployees, which is why such workers may continue to earn 25 percent more thanequally-well performing women and minorities. Hekman et al. (2009) found thatcustomers who viewed videos featuring a black male, a white female, or a whitemale actor playing the role of an employee helping a customer were 19% moresatisfied with the white male employees performance and also were more satisfiedwith the stores cleanliness and appearance. This despite that all three actorsperformed identically, read the same script, and were in the exact same locationwith identical camera angles and lighting. Moreover, 45 percent of the customers 13DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  14. 14. GLASS CEILINGwere women and 41 percent were non-white, indicating that even women andminority customers prefer white men. In a second study, they found that whitemale doctors were rated as more approachable and competent than equally-wellperforming women or minority doctors. They interpret their findings to suggestthat employers are willing to pay more for white male employees becauseemployers are customer driven and customers are happier with white maleemployees. They also suggest that what is required to solve the problem of wageinequality isnt necessarily paying women more but changing customer biases. Thispaper has been featured in many media outlets including The New York Times, TheWashington Post, The Boston Globe, and National Public Radio.A customer preference for white men may also help explain why white men holdthe highest paying, most prestigious, and most powerful jobs in the occupationalstructure. This is referred to as occupational segregation. Men tend to be highlyconcentrated in the top professions, such as supervisors, managers, executives, andproduction operators. On the other hand, women tend to be over-represented in thelowest-ranking and lowest paid professions in the workforce, such as secretaries,sales associates, teachers, nurses, and child care providers. As a result, occupationsbecome “sex typed” as either being specifically male or female jobs. Thestereotypically male-characterized occupations, in which at least 60-75% of theworkers are males, are more highly paid than occupations in which 60-75% of thejobholders are women. This segregation of women into less-prestigious and lower-ranked jobs also decreases a woman’s chance of being promoted, as well as thechance of having any type of power over others. Moreover, occupationalsegregation reduces women’s access to insurance, benefits, and pensions.Males not only have superior statuses than women between jobs, but also withinthe jobs themselves Women are concentrated into the lower-ranked and lower-paidoccupations within a given profession. If women are in management positions,they are more likely to be in personnel than in marketing professions; the averagessalaries of each are $48,048 and $56,940 per year, respectively. Another example 14DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  15. 15. GLASS CEILINGoccurs within the medical field. Female doctors are much more likely to be heavilyconstricted in the family practice or pediatric specialties, which average about$130,000 and $126,000 per year, respectively. However, men are more likely tobecome surgeons and highly specialized medical practitioners, who tend to average$240,000 or more per year.This gender wage gap is present within all realms of the workforce – blue collar,managerial, and professional occupations. Only 16% of the top executive positionsin America’s largest corporations and enterprises are held by women. Additionally,the median weekly income of full-time working women is only 70.5% of full-timeworking men. This statistic tends to hold true across all fields of work. This genderimbalance in occupations occurs to some degree because women are more likelythan men to be newcomers in many fields; therefore, they lack the primacy and theincreased pay that comes with seniority.Gender Inequality is often embedded within the social hierarchy and this affectshow women and men are perceived in leadership roles. Different traits are ascribedto females when compared to males that often color the selection process withunfounded bias. If a female does have other traits aside from the gendered traitsthat she is believed to possess, then she is viewed negatively. For example, in astudy conducted by Thomas-Hunt and Phillips (2004) they found that when womenpossessed expertise they were actually viewed as less influential by others.However, expertise was positive for males. Also, female led groups were lessproductive than male led groups even though the women held expertise in the areajust like males. Therefore, possessing expertise is not viewed as positively as it isfor males. This also suggests that lack of skills is not the only reason why womenare not deemed worthy of leadership roles. As cited by Lyness and Thompson in1997, one consequence of sex stereotypes is that womens achievements tend to bedevalued or attributed to luck or effort rather than ability or skill,and therefore thisstereotype has the potential to reduce the organizational awards that they receive. 15DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  16. 16. GLASS CEILINGLyness and Heilman (2006) found that in a study conducted with 448 upper-levelemployees that women were less likely to be promoted than males, and if theywere promoted they had stronger performance ratings than males. However,performance ratings were more strongly connected to promotions for women thanmen. This suggests that women had to be highly impressive to be consideredeligible for leadership roles, whereas this was not the case for men. In a number oflongitudinal studies (Cox & Harquail, 1991; Olson, Frieze, & Good, 1987; Strober,1982; Wallace, 1989; Wood, Corcoran, & Courant, 1993), that track comparablyqualified men and women, such as graduates of the same MBA program or lawschool, it has been shown that over time there is degradation of the womenscompensation that cannot fully be explained by differences in qualifications, workhistory, experience, or career interruptions.Women are more likely to choose jobs based on factors other than pay, forinstance: health care and scheduling that can be managed with the duties ofprimary care of children for which women are still overwhelmingly responsible,and thus they may be less likely to take jobs that require travel or relocation or jobsthat are hazardous. On average, women take more time off and work fewer hours,often due to the unequal distribution of childcare labor, domestic labor, medicalneeds specific to women, and other family issues that tend to fall to a womansresponsibility per the gender roles assigned by society. The ending result ofwomen’s extensive obligation to attend to responsibilities of the home and childrenis that their wages plummet. Family demands have a downward pull on women’searnings as they proceed throughout their life course. The earnings gap tends towiden considerably when men and women are in their early to mid-thirties; the gapreaches the widest point when men and women are in their fifties.Another perspective on the gender wage gap comes from a 2008 research study byJudge and Livingston. They investigated the relationship(s) between gender, 16DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  17. 17. GLASS CEILINGgender role orientation, and labor marker earnings. The study did not specificallylook at the gender wage gap, but focused more on the impact that the interactionbetween gender role orientation (people’s beliefs about what occupations areconsidered suitable and appropriate for males and females) and gender has onearnings. The researchers suggested that the gender wage gap cannot fully beexplained through economic factors, offering that underlying psychologicalcomponents and attitudes account for some of the difference. They found thatwhile traditional gender roles were positively connected to earnings, that gendersignificantly predicted the amount and direction of this relationship. For instance,traditional gender role orientation was positively related with earnings for males,providing them with strong earnings. Meanwhile, traditional gender roleorientation was slightly negatively associated with earnings for females, providingthem weaker earnings. This suggests that men who have traditional male-femaleattitudes about working are rewarded in the workplace for seeking to maintain thesocial order, while women were neither rewarded nor punished. In general, thestudy indicated that even though gender role beliefs are beginning to become lesstraditional for men and women, traditional gender role orientation continues tointensify the gender wage gap.THE GLASS CEILING AND DISCLOSURE OF SEXUALORIENTATIONIn order to excel in the workplace it is important that people are familiar with aworkers strong attributes. This may present obstacles for the LGBT communitybecause their sexual orientation may be a large factor that plays in to how theyidentify themselves. In a study done by Ragins in 2004, disclosure of sexualorientation has been found to have some positive, some negative, and nonsignificant effects on work attitudes, psychological strain, and compensation.Ragins, Singh and Cornwell in 2007, found that in some cases disclosure of sexual 17DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  18. 18. GLASS CEILINGorientation has been found to result in reports of verbal harassment, jobtermination, and even physical assault. (DAugelli & Grossman, 2001; Friskopp &Silverstein, 1996). In their study, Ragins, Singh and Cornwell examined fear ofdisclosure only among LGBT employees who had not disclosed, or had not fullydisclosed their sexual identity at work. Promotion rate and compensation wereused to measure career outcomes. Promotions were defined as involving two ormore of the following criteria that may occur within or between organizations:significant increases in salary; significant increases in scope of responsibility;changes in job level or rank; or becoming eligible for bonuses, incentives, andstock plans. Given this definition, respondents were asked how many promotionsthey had received over the past 10 years. Respondents also reported their currentannual compensation, which included salary, bonuses, commissions, stock options,and profit sharing. The findings showed that those who feared more negativeconsequences to disclosure reported less job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment, satisfaction with opportunities for promotion, career commitment,and organization-based self-esteem and greater turnover intentions than those whofeared less negative consequences.WOMEN SURPASSING THE GLASS CEILINGAlthough there is a glass ceiling, many women recently have surpassed that hurdle.When at the top management, many women feel isolated like outsiders . Most ofthe time they are the only female at that level and are surrounded by males. Manywomen have faced sexual harassment, wage inequality, blocked movement andgender stereotyped roles. Women are said to have different styles of leadership andmanagement once they break the barrier. They are generalized to be morenurturing and caring in nature than men . Men are stereotypically, more “tough”and shrewd in business, which is sometimes seen as positive traits. Women’straditional role is in the home, taking care of children, and keeping house. Thestereotype of maternal leadership stems from that. Some men in senior 18DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  19. 19. GLASS CEILINGmanagement that do not want to see women climb the corporate ladder believe thatthey do not have the qualities to lead a company. Many believe that makingassumptions about the way women act in a leadership position perpetuates thestereotypes that cause the glass ceiling . There are many reasons why women havebeen able to break the barrier. Some believe that having women on an executiveboard is a positive thing . Women make 60% of all purchases in the United States,it is common sense to want their opinion. The more women that are accepted intomanagement positions, the more will get promoted to senior management andserve as role models for the younger . Younger men have also been more acceptingof female superiors . The perception of a woman’s role is changing with theyounger generation.Women who break through the glass ceiling may also face a glass cliff wherebythey are more likely than men to occupy risky or precarious leadership positions.VARIATIONS AND RELATED TERMS  Brass Ceiling - In the traditionally male-dominated fields of law enforcement and military service, some people use the term “brass ceiling” to describe the difficulty women have when they try to rise up in the ranks. "The brass" denotes the decision-makers at the top of an organization, especially in the military; it is an example of synecdoche.  Stained-Glass Ceiling is a sociological phenomenon in religious communities similar to the concept of the "glass ceiling." The concept revolves around the apparent difficulty for women who seek to gain a role within church leadership.  Bamboo Ceiling - The exclusion of Asian-descendants from executive and managerial roles on the basis of subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" or "inferior communication ability" where the East Asian-descendants candidate has superior objective credentials such as education in high-prestige universities (in comparison to their white 19DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  20. 20. GLASS CEILING counterparts with only lower-prestige university credentials). For example, research shows that there are a decent number of partners at leading prestigious law firms in the United States who did not attend top notch law schools. However, you will seldom find an East Asian American partner of a leading law firm who did not attend a "Top 16 Law School" (according to the US News ranking).  Concrete Ceiling – This is a term used to describe the type of barrier minority woman encounter. Caucasian women may face the glass ceiling in the workforce, but be able to break through it from time to time; however, minority women’s glass ceiling tends to be more solid and unyielding. This ‘concrete ceiling’ is due to minority women facing both issues of sexism and racism which intensifies their obstructions in advancing within the labor market.  Expatriate Glass Ceiling - After breaking through the first level of the glass ceiling, many women are beginning to face an additional barrier. This is a term used to describe this second level of obstruction which prevents women in managerial positions from receiving foreign management assignments, projects, and experiences that is becoming increasingly more important for promotion into the upper-level managerial positions as documented by Insch, McIntyre, and Napier.  Glass Closet - The exclusion of openly gay men and women from certain jobs, especially in the media.  Glass elevator (or glass escalator) - The rapid promotion of men over women, especially into management, in female-dominated fields such as nursing. Men in these fields are promoted with ease – they actually have to struggle not to advance due to facing invisible pressures and expectations to move up from where they currently are. This is based on traditional gender roles and stereotypes that men are expected to be in the chief roles, while women are to be in the subordinate positions. Therefore, in the fields 20DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  21. 21. GLASS CEILING where men are less common, they receive differential treatment that favors them to exert their authority and control in the workplace.  Glass Labyrinth - referring to something related to a maze and can find the way out of and get through; otherwise thought of as finding a path through power in an organization.  Sticky Floor - refers to women who are trapped in low-wage, low mobility jobs in state and local government.  Sticky Ladder - A term used to describe womens struggle to reach the top of the corporate ladder. This term describes the theory that women are not incapable of reaching the top; they just get "stuck" on the middle rungs of the ladder.The effect has also inspired a musical, bearing the same name. "Glass Ceiling"(2006), written by Bret VandenBos and Alex Krall, examined and parodied theidiosyncrasies of both males and females in the corporate workplace.WOMEN IN WAL-MART MANAGEMENT POSITIONS- ACASE STUDY 21DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  22. 22. GLASS CEILING D is t r ic t M a n a g e r S to re M a n a g e r C o -M a n a g e r A s s is t a n t M a n a g e rs (1 to 7 ) M a n a g e m e n t T r a in e e D e p t H e a d s C a s h ie rs C a rt P u s h e r G re e te r S to c k e r Percent Women in Store Mgmt & Hourly Supervisors, 2001 100 90 80% Women in Job 70 60 50 %Women in Job 40 30 20 10 0 e . gr gr SM . gr gr gr e .M M M in M tM C o- ra rt st re po ep C t.T As o St D p gm Su M 22 DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  23. 23. GLASS CEILING Are Women as a Group Less Qualified forManagement?! Performance Ratings 2004 4.6 4.4 Performance Scores 4.2 4 Women 3.8 Men 3.6 3.4 3.2 All Hourly Sales Assoc. Dept. Managers Job PositionsPOSITION AVERAGE EARNINGS %WOMEN/%MENStore manager 89300 / 105700 14.3% / 85.7% 56300 / 59500 22.8% / 77.2%managerAsst manager 37300 / 39800 35.7% / 64.3% 23DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  24. 24. GLASS CEILINGMgmt Trainee 22400 / 23200 41.3% / 58.7%Cashier 13800 / 14500 92.5% / 7.5%Wal-Mart facts• About 65% of hourly employees are women, compared to about 33% ofmanagement employees.• From date of hire until being promoted into an assistant manager position it tookon average 4.38 years for women, compared to 2.86 years for men.• To be store manager, the average male needed 8.64 years compared to 10.12years for a femaleINDIANS WHO BROKE THE GLASS CEILINGIndia Inc is dominated by men. Women do not have proportionate representationin companies, and yet they are better off than women in other parts of the worldwhen it comes to top positions.Eleven per cent of 240 large companies -- Indian-owned as well as multinational,private as well as state-owned -- have women CEOs, according to a study carriedout by executive search firm EMA Partners. By contrast, only 3 per cent of theFortune 500 companies have women CEOs. 24DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  25. 25. GLASS CEILINGStill, most experts say women are under-represented in corner offices across theworld. "Given that roughly about 50 per cent of our population is female, thatabout 50 per cent of staff is female in most markets, the gender is hugelyunrepresented in boards and at the CEO level," said EMA Partners Internationalchairman James Douglas."For instance, out of 1,000 public companies in the USA, with at least $1 billion inannual revenue, there are only 30 female CEOs. In the UKs FTSE 100 list, thereare just three." 25DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  26. 26. GLASS CEILINGShikha SharmaShikha Sharma heads Axis Bank. Shikha Sharma worked with the ICICI groupfor 28 years. Sharma is credited for the banks growth in personal financialservices."Amongst private and foreign banks, women almost outnumber men. This hasbeen helped in no mean measure by women from ICICI Bank who have joinedother financial institutions in recent times," said EMA Partners managingpartner K Sudarshan.. Chanda Kochar The financial services sector is dominated by women in India. As manyas 54 per cent of the women CEOs are, according to EMA Partners, in financialservices. Chanda Kochhar is among the leading women in Indias financial servicessector. She took over as managing director and CEO of ICICI Bank from May 1,2009. According to Chanda Kochhar Head of India’s largest public sector bankwith 10,000 plus employees now a days companies are considering merit and notbe biased to any gender and women should not expect to be treated differently inany field. 26DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  27. 27. GLASS CEILINGKiran Mazumdar-ShawEleven per cent of the Indian women CEOs are in the media and another 11 percent in pharmaceuticals. Thus, Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw is the chairman andmanaging director one of the largest pharmaceutical company in India she alsoreached in the lime light of corporate world when she decided to fill majority ofthe vacancy in the organization with women’s.IndraNooyiIndra Nooyi is the newly appointed CEO of PepsiCo-the worlds second-largestsoft drink maker. She joins the select band of women who head Fortune 500companies. Presently, there are only 10 Fortune 500 companies that are run bywomen, and Indra Nooyi is the 11th to break into the top echelons of power.Prior to becoming CEO, Indra Nooyi was President, Chief Financial Officer anda member of the Board of Directors of PepsiCo Inc. 27DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  28. 28. GLASS CEILINGRajshree PathyManufacturing has traditionally not attracted too many women because of thenature of the business and the location of factories in the interiors. Thirty-fiveper cent of the women CEOs, according to EMA Partners, are also promoters oftheir companies.This includes Rajshree Pathy who runs Rajshree Sugars & Chemicals andMeher Pudumjee who is the chairperson of Thermax.Meera SanyalMeera Sanyal was appointed as CEO of ABN Amro Bank in December 2007. 28DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  29. 29. GLASS CEILINGSanyal was working as corporate executive vice president and head of services(Asia) of ABN Amro. She was earlier the chief operating officer of the bank.In Germany, just over 10 per cent of board members are women, according toEMA Partners. In France, it is as low as 7 per cent.To address this imbalance, some countries have insisted on minimum levels ofboard female members. Norway, in 2004, inaugurated a quota systemstipulating that 40 per cent of the board of a publicly quoted company should bewomen otherwise that company could be delisted. In 2007, Spain decided to gothe same way. The Royal Bank of Scotland took over ABNs assets globally,including in India, early this year.Barkha DuttBarkha Dutt is an Indian TV journalist and columnist. She is currently GroupEditor, English News at New Delhi Television(NDTV) Dutt gained prominence for her reportage of the Kargil War. She has wonmany national and international awards, including the Padma Shri, Indias fourthhighest civilian honour. She writes a popular column for The Hindustan Times,called "Third Eye."However, she has also come in for criticism that herreporting is sensationalist and melodramatic. 29DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  31. 31. GLASS CEILINGKUMARI MAYAVATIKumari Mayawati is the current chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Indias mostpopulous state. Her supporters refer to her as Behen Ji, which means sister. At theage of 39, the unmarried Mayawati was the youngest politician to become the chiefminister in Uttar Pradesh. As the first Dalit woman chief minister of any Indianstate after centuries of oppression by the Hindu upper castes kumari Mayawati is anicon for millions of India’s Dalits she also known as the Dalit Ki Beti which meansDaughter of Dalit.CONCLUSIONThus, taking into account all above mentioned points, it is possible to conclude thatnowadays the glass ceiling syndrome is still a serious problem. In fact, the positionof women has not changed or improved substantially. In stark contrast, the life atthe top is still white and male and the arguments in favor of the existence of equalopportunities for men and women seem to be not very convincing. At leaststatistics perfectly illustrates that women are not only underrepresented at the toppositions, but they are also often discriminated and are not considered to bepotentially prospective workers. As a result, the current leaders prefer to developmen as future leaders instead of developing women whose potential may be equalor even higher than that of some men that occupy high positions. Obviously, such a 31DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  32. 32. GLASS CEILINGsituation cannot remain unchanged and the problem of the glass ceiling still has tobe solved in such a way that women can get a real opportunity to fully realize theirpotential and become leaders.However, to end this paper on a more optimistic note we may do well to rememberthe words of Russel Madden who said, “Those who complain about glass ceilingsshould keep in mind that glass can be shattered if one strikes it hard enough, andlong enough”. Hence, the women need to take up the reality of glass ceiling as achallenge to be overcome and men as an occasion to rise to the occasion by makingway for the talented and deserving women rather than blocking their path for equalopportunities for advancement.REFERENCES1. Andrica, Diane. (1997). “The Glass Ceiling: Are you Affected?” NursingEconomics.2. Castro, Ida L., Furchtgott-Roth, Diana. (1997). “Should Women be WorriedAbout the Glass Ceiling in the Workplace?” Insight on the News. v13 n5 p24. 32DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page
  33. 33. GLASS CEILING3. Feldman, Gayle. (1997). “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women Have Had a LongHard Struggle to Reach Their Current Stutus in the Industry”. Publishers Weekly.v244 n31 p82.4. Himelstein, Linda. (1997). “Breaking Through”. Business Week. n3514 p64. 33DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, SIMS, PANDESHWAR, MANGALORE Page