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  1. 1. EPIGENETICSBy Megan Ries
  2. 2. What is Epigenetics?  The study of changes in the way a gene is carried out without any actual changes to the DNA occurring  Literally Epigenetics means “above genetics”
  3. 3. So what’s the background?  Epigenetics doesn’t have very much history to it since it is such a new field to study!  Conrad Waddington first coined the term Epigentics in the 1940’s .  In 1975 two groups announced that DNA methylation could affect gene expression.
  4. 4. What does it do? Think of it this way, if the genome The was a computer, the hardware of epigenome the computer, then the epigenome never actually would be the soft ware of the does the work. The computer. It tells the computer genome when to work, how to work and how does the work that the much of that work to do. epigenome tells it to do.
  5. 5. How it works. Methyl groups  (made of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms), latch onto DNA near a gene and tells it whether to express the trait or not Histones also play a part  Histones are a type of protein that genes coil around  Tightly wound= gene is expressed less  Loosely wound= gene is expressed more
  6. 6. Techniques/Methods Methylation  Most common of the techniques  Adds a methyl group Phosphorylation  Regulates genes Acetylation  Induced transcription
  7. 7. The difference is?Genome Epigenome Your actual gene  Attaches itself to your gene Does the work  Tells your gene what assigned to it to do (like how to express a trait)
  8. 8. InheritanceSo if you do  Sometimes yes and sometimessomethingduring your no…life that  Someepigenetic tags stay in placegives you aspecific when someone has offspringepigenome  This is epigenetic inheritancewill it bepassed  Others are completely wiped away sodown? the child can start from scratch->
  9. 9. Example of this is: An experiment was done with genetically identical mice. Most were fat but some were skinny. Both these mice have a one gene called agouti but in the yellow mouse it stays on all of the time, and this causes obesity. So why is the thin mouse thin, if they are genetically identical?  Well, in the brown (thin) mouse there is a tiny chemical “tag” that has attached itself to the agouti gene shutting it down.  In order to get thin brown mice instead of fat yellow mice, you can feed the pregnant mothers a diet rich in methyl groups to form tags and ultimately turn the gene off. This dramatically shifted the coat color from yellow to brown and produced many more brown mice.  This is important because the coat color is a tracer, or an indicator that the gene is in fact turned off. This shift of the phenotype is called an epigenetic fix, and it was also inherited by the next generation of mice, regardless of what their mothers ate.
  10. 10. Future Implications When the chemical tags in control of our genes change it opens the door for cells to become abnormal, which can trigger diseases like cancer. So technically, a few misplaced tags can kill you, but this could be a good thing. Traditionally cancer has been thought to only come from broken genes. It is a lot harder to fix broken genes than to reposition some epigenetic tags. Amazingly enough, there are already some drugs that will work in rearranging the tags. The results are incredible, there are no horrible side effects and in one trial half the patients went into remission.