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  1. 1. Presented by Arfanara NajninM2012188@isegi.unl.p t MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  2. 2. "As global populationcontinues togrow, mankind must learnto balance consumptionand conservation of theplanets scarcecommodities. GIStechnology brings a newperspective to thechallenges faced bynatural resourcemanagers...“ Laura Lang MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  3. 3. Natural ResourcesWhat is PGISStudy aim & objectivesKnowledge Discovery Brief history of PPGIS Reflection of NRM&P Why PGIS in NRM&P? Approaches of good PGIS Methods of PGIS in NRM Some negative aspects of PGISCase studiesDocumentaries & initiativesCritical reasoning & conclusionReferences MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  4. 4. Natural resources are naturally occurringsubstances that are considered valuable in theirrelatively unmodified natural form(Source, Wikipedia)NRM is the management of land, water, soil, plants& animals, with a particular focus on sustainabilityLike energy, conservation of natural resources isequally importantSpatial based Information is the base for naturalresource management & planning (NRM&P) MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  5. 5. PGIS combines a range of geo-spatial managementtools and methods such as sketch maps, participatory3D Modelling, aerial photographs, satelliteimagery, GPS & GISIt represents people’s spatial knowledge in the form ofvirtual or physical, 2 or 3 dimensional maps used asinteractive vehicles for spatiallearning, discussion, information exchange, analysisdecision making & advocacy (Rambaldi et al., 2006)Giving Voice to the Unspoken…….. MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  6. 6. Agriculture and food securityEndangered speciesForestry and wildfireClean waterReclaiming brown fieldsDisaster planning and recoveryDeforestation Identifying resources at risk MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  7. 7. The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about theimportance of GIS technology through people’sparticipation to ensure sustainable NRM & PThe specific objectives of this study are: Identify the importance of PGIS for natural resources management Review knowhow about the PGIS tools & techniques for ensuring sustainable NRM Identify the application of PGIS in the filed of NRM&P MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  8. 8. Brief history of PPGIS or PGISReflection of NRM&PWhy PGIS in NRM&P?Approaches of good PGISMethods of PGIS in NRMSome negative aspects of PGIS MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  9. 9. Participatory map creation started at late 1980s sketch mapping using PRA Using local knowledge to facilitate insider & outsider Little charting course of action to the local peopleThe status of mapping changed in the 90s due to flow ofmodern GI technologies i.e. GIS, GPS, RS, Open sources (Internet) & web based GIS Availability of low cost and user friendly software & computer hardwareThe new environment promote communityinvolvement in GIT&S which is known as PGIS MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  10. 10. NRM&P by considering land as 3different but inter-relatedperspectives (bind a societytogether, the societal values, theeconomy & ecology)Bridges the gap between them bywhich resources could be carefullyutilised for the benefits of the present The Trintarian Approach& the future generations to NRM (Latu, 2009). MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  11. 11. Ensuring good governance & Sustainable NRM & Developmentsustainable resources management Good Governanceto enable developmentpractitioners, government officials & PGISlocal level people to work together toplan appropriate programs 1 PublicEnsure community-based natural (Grass root GIS)resource management (CBNRM) 2 3structural knowledge distortion & Participat ion GIScommunity empowerment (Collabora tive process of (new technolog y GIS) GIS) 3 x-cutting view of PPGIS Source: Tim Nyerges 2007 MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  12. 12. Conceptual Understanding the local political context, culture, people & problems Defining good practice (including communities’ empowerment) data models to address natural resources & ownership rightsPractical Networking to share experiences & to help practitionersInstitutional Institutionalizing PGIS at various levels & in different contexts Influencing policy makingFinancial ResourcesTechnical (Rambaldi and Weiner, 2004) Training & need for expertise MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  13. 13. Ephemeral (temporary) maps drawing maps on the ground by using raw materials like soil, pebbles, sticksSketch Mapping large sheets of Kraft paper & marker pens or chalkScale Mapping ISK superimposed on a geo-coded & scaled mapPGIS spatial Analysis local spatially referenced & non spatial data are integrated & analyzedParticipatory 3-Dimentioanal Mapping (P3DM) large-scale relief maps made of locally available materials (e.g. carton, paper, cork)Photomaps Photomaps are printouts of geometrically corrected aerial photographsMobile devices (PDA-GPS) pinpoint positioning and instant visual data capture MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  14. 14. According to Dr. Robert Chambers who elaborates on PGIS practice, Need to learn many things that are wrong with respect to PRA and avoid that Taking peoples time without any recompense Raising peoples expectation & endangering or disempowering them Conflict within or between a group or community through PGIS Ethical commitment of the facilitators Sources: http://www.iapad.org/chambers.htm MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  15. 15. 1. Reducing the Risk of Disasters through Participatory 3D Mapping, Philippine2. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: spatial mitigation planning with GIS & public participation3. Application of PGIS for Rural Community Development & Local Level Spatial Planning System in Sri Lanka4. An analysis of the relationships between multiple values & physical landscapes at a regional scale using public participation GIS and landscape character classification MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  16. 16. Steps of P3DM (as an Integrative tool for DRR) http://www.pacificdisast er.net/pdnadmin/data/d ocuments/6667.html Source: http://www.iapad.org/publications/ppgis/ MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  17. 17. Materials uses are push-pins (for point features, yarns(for linear features), acrylic paint (for arealfeatures), glue, scissors, cutter, pencils, feltpens, masking tape, paintbrushes, carbon paper , woodand plywood for the table, corrugated cartons, etc.building of a 2.74 m x 2.74 m 3-dimensional mapcovering the whole village of Macawayan with a landarea of 333.33 ha.Overlapping hazard-prone areas & vulnerable assetsallows people to mitigate disaster risk in theirimmediate environmentResulted in concerted actions including both bottom-upand top-down measures to enhance DRR MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  18. 18. Easy-to-update disaster risk assessment in Dagupan, Philippines, in July 2009 DRR planning in Masantol, Philippines, in August 2009 Volcanologist, municipal planning officer, school principal, village chief and locals discussing DRR inIrosin, Philippines, Jan. 2010 MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  19. 19. Spatial deep tubewell planning with PPGIS techniques Selected focus-groups for group discussion MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  20. 20. the focus-group participantsconsidered different parametersfor deep tubewell planningThey drew maps (participatorysketching) for the locations ofdeep tubewells with their bufferzones (300 m)Transforming the mental maps Participatory views on Map of spatial deep tube-well planninginto a GIS shows a number ofoverlapping & unservedsettlement areasone deep tubewell for each 350people, generally who livewithin a buffer distance of300 m were considered for theplanning Transforming participatory views of spatial deep tube-well planning Composite mental mapping and expert views of spatial deep tube-well planningGeospatial into a GIS. MSc in Technologies
  21. 21. Pursuing social goalsthrough PGISEmploying a ParticipatoryApproach in applying Geo-Information to SpatialPlanningDevelopment of regional GIIfor theState, INGO, NGO, or anyother developmentpractitionersThis can be used as a villageplan & the livelihoodactivitiesBottom-up planning process MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  22. 22. Villageboundary, distributionof roadnetwork, housingunits, water streamsetc. are drawn by thecommunity on thegroundBottom-up planningprocess MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  23. 23. Steps of PPGISTo prepare the spatial data for analysis intersected Map of study area Otago and Southland region in the 8 PPGIS landscape values with the 6 NZLC New Zealand that includes the Otago and Southland landscape components (landform, land regions. Mapped landscape values (n ≈ 9000) appearcover, dominant land cover, water, water view & in the study region as points. infrastructure) & landscape classes. MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  24. 24. In New Zealand the residents &visitors identified the locations ofdifferent landscape values(e.g., aesthetic, recreation, economic, ecological, social, historical, &wilderness values) in two regionson the South IslandThe landscape values mapped in theprocess are perceptual, but groundedin local knowledge & humanexperience.They analyzed the relationshipsbetween these perceived values &physical landscape features–wherehuman geography meets physical From the empirical landscape value/featuregeography. relationships, they generated (extrapolated) social landscape value maps for the entire country of New Zealand (Browna and Brabynb, 2012) MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  25. 25. 1. Localisation, Participation and Communication: anIntroduction to Good PGIS Practicehttp://www.iapad.org/video_good-practice.htm2. Participatory 3D Modelling the Future in Boe Boe Community, Solomon Islandshttps://vimeo.com/groups/23214/videos/32145985 Source: www.iapad.org MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  26. 26. The donor agencies need to understand PGIS & required nottoo much, fast & bigger scaleUnderstanding the importance of training & not trying to rushtrainingTraining to the communities as well as the training facilitatorsEmbedding of a whole set of questions Who gains & who loses Whose model or map is it & who keeps it Whose legend on the map Who is empowered and who is disempoweredRegional Level Computer based Information System should beestablished in the local administrative office with GIStechnology for project planning & monitoring (Source: Dr. Robert Chambers) MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  27. 27. A PPGIS would meet ‘its claims’ as a tool for good practiceonly when it can meetaccountability, legitimacy, ownership, equity &competencewe need integrated approaches as we are the world & it isnot too late to do something for us allTo make people informed in decision making processpublic participatory GIS & techniques are suitable tools forsustainable resources managementIt helps to empowering the local community & awarenessraising MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  28. 28. B.A.U.I.KUMARA. 2008. Application of Participatory GIS for Rural Community Developmentand Local Level Spatial Planning System in Sri Lanka.BROWNA, G. & BRABYNB, L. 2012. An analysis of the relationships between multiple valuesand physical landscapes at a regional scale using public participation GIS and landscapecharacter classification. Landscape and Urban Planning.CHAMBERS, D. R. Dr. Robert Chambers elaborates on Participatory GIS (PGIS) practice.Available from: http://www.iapad.org/chambers.htm [Accessed 15 th December 2012].GAILLARD, J., CADAG, J. R. D., FELLIZAR-CAGAY, M., FRANCISCO, A. & GLIPO, A. 2011.Reducing the Risk of Disasters through Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping inIrosin, Philippine. Philippines: Center for Disaster Preparedness, Philippines.HASSAN, M. M. 2005. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: Spatial Mitigation Planning with GISand Public Participation. Health Policy, , 74, 247-260.LANG, L. 2003. Managing Natural Resources with GIS. New York Street, Redlands, California:ESRI.Rambaldi, G., & Weiner, D. (2004). Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference onPublic Participation GIS, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.RAMBALDI, G., MCCALL, M., KYEM, P. A. K. & WEINER, D. 2006. Participatory SpatialInformation Management and Communication in Developing Countries Electronic Journal onInformation System in Developing Countries (EJISDC), 25, 1-9.https://vimeo.com/ctavideo/p3dm-ovalau MSc in Geospatial Technologies
  29. 29. I want to be alive…..Thank you all…… MSc in Geospatial Technologies