Review of literature


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Review of literature

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Research is a major force in nursing </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge generated from research is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing nursing practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research is never conducted in an intellectual vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Studies are done with in the context of existing knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>To familiarize with the knowledge base, reviewing the literature is very essential </li></ul>
  3. 3. Literature Review <ul><li>Summary of current theoretical and empirical sources </li></ul><ul><li>Generates a picture of known and unknown problem </li></ul><ul><li>A critical summary of research topic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>Reviewing helps in determining current knowledge about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A particular practice problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known and not known/past and current problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To summarize knowledge for use in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a basis for conducting study. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Scope should be broad enough to- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarize the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow enough to include relevant source </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1. Source of research article: </li></ul><ul><li>Once the problem is formulated, undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. </li></ul>PART –A DETAILS ABOUT RESEARCH ARTICLE
  7. 7. <ul><li>I. Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Based on theory rather than experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources found in periodicals, monographs – written ones </li></ul><ul><li>II Empirical </li></ul><ul><li>Based on observations </li></ul><ul><li>Based on experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant studies published in journals, books, unpublished studies </li></ul>Source of research article: Cont…. Predominantly two important sources
  8. 8. <ul><li>Source of research article: Cont…………. </li></ul><ul><li>These two include </li></ul><ul><li>Concept analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects on the current understanding of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides basis for study framework </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Source of research article: Cont…….. Other published information <ul><li>Description of critical situation </li></ul><ul><li>Educational literature </li></ul><ul><li>Position paper </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed but rarely cited as they are more subjective (Pinch, 1995) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Source of research article: Cont………….. Theoretical and empirical sources <ul><li>A. Primary source </li></ul><ul><li>Written by the researcher himself who </li></ul><ul><li>conducted the study </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for generating ideas </li></ul><ul><li>published – e.g.: empirical publications </li></ul><ul><li>Cont……. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>B. Secondary source </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries or quotes from primary source </li></ul><ul><li>Authors paraphrase the works of researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Writing article is subjective – influenced by the author’s perception and bias </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to provide details about study </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary source is not substitute for primary source </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: original qualitative experience in the ICU- Primary </li></ul><ul><li>source </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing literature on patients, experience in ICU – </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary source </li></ul>Theoretical and empirical sources may be available as Cont….
  12. 12. <ul><li>Theoretical and empirical sources may be available as Cont…. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sources are cited predominantly </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sources are used only if- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source is not located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source does not provide creative idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique organization is not found in Primary source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source is consulted whenever possible </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>II Style of research article </li></ul><ul><li>Four factors in the style </li></ul><ul><li>Compactness: </li></ul><ul><li>Compress many ideas and concepts into short space </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting and personalized aspects of investigation not reported due to short space </li></ul><ul><li>Jargon: </li></ul><ul><li>Authors use research terms that are esoteric (mode of speech) </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Normally avoid subjectivity </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Style of research article Cont…… </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical information </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical symbols </li></ul><ul><li>For beginning researchers, </li></ul><ul><li>Report may seem stuffy </li></ul><ul><li>Bewildering (confusing) </li></ul><ul><li>Pedantic (strict adherence to the literal meaning) </li></ul>
  15. 15. III . Reading/ Critiquing/ The Literature Article For Review <ul><li>Research reports need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and critiquing for quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source should be relevant and current (last 5 to 10 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before writing review know how to read research report </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. III Reading/ Critiquing/ The Literature Article For Review Cont…. <ul><li>Organization of report / review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consisting of six areas with four major sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results M ajor sections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Organization of report / review Cont……. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquainting readers with research problem and its content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be labeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow immediately after the abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes central phenomena, concepts/ variables understudy/ problem areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of related literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge relating to study problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How study fits with previous findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution of the new study / importance to nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction sets stage for description of what is done and what was learned by researcher </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Organization of report / review Cont……. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Method </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for collecting data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps adapted to minimize bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects – population under study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specification of the criteria of sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actual sample – selection and number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures and data collection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method and procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operationalization of variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To conduct study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of rights of human subjects </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Organization of report / review Cont……. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Results </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries of the findings with tables and figures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight of note worthy results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key variables using simple statistics. Eg:- prenatal drug exposure on birth outcomes of infant describes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>average birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APGAR score of infants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Results Cont……. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results of statistical test – probably valid and </li></ul><ul><li>replicable with new sample of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Level of significance – how probable the findings </li></ul><ul><li>are reliable .e.g.:- findings are significant at 0.05 level </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>4. Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative and quantitative report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draws conclusions about meaning of the findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of findings into practical, conceptual and theoretical meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study limitations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample deficiencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness in data collection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates that author was aware of limitation and interprets the findings based on the results </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>5.Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Brief description of the study placed in the beginning of the article </li></ul><ul><li>Is about 100 – 200 words </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method used to address the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implication for nursing practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional organization of abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>6.Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Article conclude with a list of –books, </li></ul><ul><li>reports referred </li></ul><ul><li>Reference is an excellent place to begin in </li></ul><ul><li>perusing information / additional </li></ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tips For Reading Research Article <ul><li>1. Preliminary hints on digesting report and dealing with issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get accustomed to the style by repeated frequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read slowly and carefully to get major points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read critically while preparing a written review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep underlying rationale of research in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use highlighter for underlining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write questions/ notes in the margin </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Tips For Reading Research Article Cont…….. <ul><ul><li>Train yourself to become active reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask research instructor/ faculty member for clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if problem in comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up unfamiliar terms in glossary/index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasp the gist of the story without letting formulas and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate them mentally/ in writing till you accustom to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the style and Jargon of article </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>IV Depth And Breadth Of Literature Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>How broad the literature should be? </li></ul><ul><li>No convenient formula for the number of reference and also pages </li></ul><ul><li>Extensiveness / Depth depends on number of factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major determinants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of document being prepared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1. A review included in a research report </li></ul><ul><li>2. A review included in a research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>3. A review is a Thesis / dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Free – standing LR </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Breadth of LR </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the topic and extensivity of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>For some topic – non nursing literature (sociology, psychology, biology/medicine)reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance and quality are the key criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Literature related to the problems merits more detailed coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Study indirectly related – summarized/ omitted if page is restricted </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Locating relevant literature articles for review </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to identify and locate document is important , skill </li></ul><ul><li>It requires adaptability to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid technological changes – internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual method of findings of information from print source </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Internet / online search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An important bibliographic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessed through , Yahoo, Google etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet bibliographic information is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May create frustration with searching </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Internet / online search Cont…….. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting a computer search of relevant databases </li></ul><ul><li>Generates list of references with bibliographic information </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to determine quickly the relevancy of study </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage – comprehensive, affordable, accessible and easy to conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Students provided with an account for accessibility to internet </li></ul><ul><li>World wide web (www) information service access to internet resource by content </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Internet / online search Cont…….. </li></ul><ul><li>For nurses the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CINHAL (Cumulative Index to Nursing Allied Health Literature) initiated in 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDLARS(Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System)offered by National Library of Medicine(NAL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDLINE- Medical literature on-line – 6million articles from 3500 Biomedical Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHID- Combined health information data base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATLINE- Catalogue on line </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Locating source </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the list of identified sources </li></ul><ul><li>Search for the source </li></ul><ul><li>Recording reference systematically </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>2.Using the Library / Library sources </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Masters thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Doctorial dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of professional organization </li></ul><ul><li>Government documents </li></ul><ul><li>Cont…….. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>International nursing Index </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing study index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index medicus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital literature index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indexes are published periodically through out the year with annual cumulative index </li></ul><ul><li>Index provides assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the appropriate subject heading in the index </li></ul><ul><li>Cont……… </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>International nursing Index Cont……. </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed to the subject section of the interest </li></ul><ul><li>Searching the catalogue and indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue identifies what is available in the library and on an online computer </li></ul><ul><li>Books are excellent sources (do not over look the value believing the content is too old) for qualitative research. </li></ul><ul><li>Books include extensive bibliography </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Tips for locating </li></ul><ul><li>Locating information is like being a detective </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of sifting and sorting of the clues to knowledge on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared for slenthing </li></ul><ul><li>Ask help from library for detective work </li></ul>
  37. 37. Part- B Preparing a written literature review
  38. 38. FLOW OF TASK IN LITERATURE REVIEW Preparing a written literature review Identify key words and concepts Identify potential references through electronic or manual search Retrieve promising references Screen references for relevance and appropriateness Read relevant reference and take notes Organize reference Analyze and integrate materials Write review Identify new references through citations Discard irrelevant and inappropriate references
  39. 39. <ul><li>1 . Screening reference </li></ul><ul><li>Literature search needs screening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the list readily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance of the reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies methodologic quality </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>2. Abstracting and recording notes </li></ul><ul><li>Read the entire report carefully and critically </li></ul><ul><li>Identify material observing </li></ul><ul><li>Flows in the study </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps in the report </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>3.Organizing the review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature is extensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a summary table </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Table provides quick over view of mass of information </li></ul><ul><li>Tips- Figure out a way to cluster and compare studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for important themes </li></ul></ul>Sl. No Author Type of study Sample Design Data collection approach Key findings
  42. 42. <ul><li>3.Organizing the review Cont……. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a literature review- Is not complete until draft and edited a written product </li></ul><ul><li>Content of written literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Provide objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Well organized summary on stock of knowledge on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Series of quotes or a series of abstract </li></ul><ul><li>No need of giving extensive coverage for every reference </li></ul><ul><li>Information of prevalence of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>build a core for there new study </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Style of research review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students will have trouble adjusting to the standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis are not proved, they are supported by research findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories are not verified but tentatively accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tips- Phrases are in need while describing study findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several studies have found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds thus far suggested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from a landmark study indicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data support the hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There appears to be strong evidence that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A related stylistic problem is an inclination of novice reviewers to interpret opinion into the review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewers own opinion do not belong in a review with exception of assessment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Methodology may defer but basic approach remains the same </li></ul><ul><li>2. Review literature is essential and an important part in a research study </li></ul><ul><li>3. Don’t forget to have the following points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. The significance of research lies in its quality and not in quantity </li></ul>
  45. 45. THANK YOU !