CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? WHAT IS PATTERN RECOGNITION? HISTORY OF AI AND CONTRIBUTION OF JOHN Mc CARTHY. THE TEST THAT CHANGED AI FOR ONCE AND FOR ALL. BRANCHES OF AI. APPLICATIONS OF AI. CONCLUSION.
WHAT IS AI• Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.• It is also defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents“ where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.• John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."
DEFINITIONS :• AI is a branch of computer science dealing with symbolic, non algorithmic methods of problem solving• AI is a branch of computer science that deals with ways of knowledge using symbols rather than numbers and with Heuristics, method for processing information.• AI works with pattern matching methods which attempt to describe objects , events or processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and computational Relationship.
What is Pattern Recognition • In machine learning, pattern recognition is the assignment of a label to a given input value. An example of pattern recognition is classification, which attempts to assign each input value to one of a given set of classes (for example, determine whether a given email is "spam" or "non- spam"). • However, pattern recognition is a more general problem that encompasses other types of output as well.
• Other examples are regression, which assigns a real-valued output to each input; sequence labeling, which assigns a class to each member of a sequence of values (for example, part of speech tagging, which assigns a part of speech to each word in an input sentence); and parsing, which assigns a parse tree to an input sentence, describing the syntactic structure of the sentence
History of AI• In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The logic Theorist, the first AI program.• This was a crucial stepping stone in Developing the AI field.• From its birth 4 decades ago, there have been a variety of AI programs, and they have impacted other technological advancements.• In the early seventies, the capabilities of AI programs were limited. Even the most impressive could only handle trivial versions of the problems they were supposed to solve; all the programs were, in some sense, "toys"
“THE TEST THATCHANGED ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE ONCEAND FOR ALL”
Google artificial intelligence invents cat • Google scientists have claimed a breakthrough in technology that is able to “learn” like a human brain by building a computer able to recognize a picture of a cat • The computer is based on a “neural network” of 16,000 processing cores with more than a billion interconnections, each very roughly simulating a connection in a human brain. • A team from Google’s cutting-edge research lab, Google X, and Stanford University, fed the system 10 million thumbnail images taken from YouTube as “training” and then tested whether it was able to recognize 20,000 objects in new images.
• Among the objects the system learned to recognize was a cat, one of the most regulars star of viral clips uploaded by YouTube members.• “We never told it during the training, ‘This is a cat,’” said Google fellow Dr. Jeff Dean. “It basically invented the concept of a cat.”• Overall, the neural network achieved 15.8 per cent accuracy. As well as cats’ faces, it learned the “concepts” of human faces and bodies, by compiling a ghostly image of their general features.
MAJOR BRANCHES OF AI• LOGICAL AI :What a program knows about the world.In general the facts of the specificsituation in which it must act and it’sgoals are all represented by sentences ofsome mathematical logical language.• PATTERN RECOGNITION :When a program makes observation ofsome kind, it is often programmed tocompare what it sees with alreadystored patterns.
• PLANNING :Planning programs start with general facts aboutthe world. They generate a strategy for achievingthe goal, the strategy is just a sequence ofaction.• EPISTEMOLOGY :This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that arerequired for solving problems in the world.• ONTOLOGY :It is the study of kinds of things that exist. In AI,things deal with various kinds of object
APPLICATIONS OF AI• GAME PLAYING :You can buy machines that can play master levelchess for a few hundred dollars.• SPEECH RECOGNITION :In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reacheda practical level for limited purposes. Thus UnitedAirlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flightinformation by a system using speech recognition offlight numbers and city names. It is quiteconvenient.
• NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSORThe goal of NLP is to enable people andcomputers to communicate in a natural(humanly) language(such as, English)rather than in a computer language.The field of NLP is divided in 2categories— Natural Language understanding. Natural Language generation
• AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING : Programming is a process of telling a computerexactly what you want it to do. Writing a programis a tedious job. It must be designed, written,tested, debugged and evaluated. The goal of automatic planning is to createspecial programs that act intelligent tools to assistprogrammers and expedite each phase ofprogramming process. Ultimate aim is computeritself should develop a program in accordancewith specifications of programmer.
• ROBOTICS :A Robot is an electro-mechanicaldevice that can be programmed toperform manual tasks or areprogrammable multi functionalmanipulator designed to movematerials, parts, tools, or specializeddevices through variableprogrammed motions forperformance of variety of tasks.
• COMPUTER VISIONPeople generally use vision as theirprimary means of sensing theirenvironment, we generally see morethan we hear, feel or smell or tasteThe goal of computer vision researchis to give computers this samepowerful facility for understandingtheir surrounding.Here AI helps computer tounderstand what they see throughattached cameras.