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# Walking - Gait Cycle

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Walking is the 2nd most common conscious function of our body. Explore this very complex motion.

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### Walking - Gait Cycle

1. 1. Walking<br />The Gait-Cycle<br />Michael E. Graham, DPM, FACFAS, FASPS<br />
2. 2. Walking is a series of interrupted falls.<br />
3. 3. Did you know…<br />
4. 4. …walking is the second most common conscious function of our body next to breathing.<br />
5. 5. The Average Person takes:<br />Nearly 7,000 steps a day<br />2,555,000 steps a year<br />25,550,000 steps every ten years<br />
6. 6. Let’s do some simple math.<br />
7. 7. Average number of steps taken for the average, non-sportive, person.<br />10 years of walking = 25,550,000 steps<br />20 years of walking = 51,100,000 steps<br />30 years of walking = 76,650,000 steps<br />40 years of walking = 102,200,000 steps<br />50 years of walking = 127,750,000 steps<br />60 years of walking = 153,300,000 steps<br />70 years of walking = 178,850,000 steps<br />
8. 8. Walking should be easy and effortless, just like breathing. <br />
9. 9. Our feet shouldn’t hurt after we use them.<br />
10. 10. There are 2 main phasesof walking.<br />Non-weight bearing No-Contact Swing Phase<br />(no weight on the foot)<br />Weight-bearing<br />Contact Phase <br />(weight on the foot)<br />
11. 11. Non-Contact Phase<br />Foot has just left the ground and is advancing forward until the heel is about to touch the ground again.<br />No weight on the foot from the body above.<br />
12. 12. Contact Phase<br />Foot/heel makes contact with the weightbearing surface below.<br />4 to 8 times the weight of the body is passing through the foot.<br />3 main parts to this phase of walking<br />
13. 13. Contact Phase <br />Heel Strike<br />Mid-stance<br />Push-off/Toe-off<br />
14. 14. There are complex motions of the foot that are essential for an optimum functioning foot. <br />
15. 15. These motions result ina locking and unlocking of the joints within the foot.<br />Pronation<br />and<br />Supination<br />
16. 16. The amount of pronation & supination is very important as there are specific periods during the walking cycle when the foot should be supinated and other times when it needs to be pronated.<br />
17. 17. Supination - Pronation<br />Opposite movements between the ankle bone and the foot.<br />Think of it as a winding and unwinding of the foot mechanism.<br />A period of stability and less stability of the foot structures while walking.<br />
18. 18. These motions should occur like a well played symphony. <br />
19. 19. There are so many different individual components working with and against each other for the end result of a <br />dynamic unified effort.<br />
20. 20. What is supination?<br />Ankle bone (talus) <br />Foot angles inward<br />This is an over-supinated foot.<br />
21. 21. This is pronation.<br />Talus goes this way<br />Foot angles out-ward<br />This is a severely pronated foot.<br />
22. 22. During pronation the foot is a Mobile Adapter<br />This is a very important aspect of the foot to allow slight accommodation to an uneven weightbearing surface below the foot. <br />During this time there is a normal amount of adaptation that is acceptable and built into the mechanics of the foot.<br />
23. 23. What is the normal amount of motion ?<br />Pronation should only have a few degrees.<br />Supination should be two times the amount of pronation.<br />
24. 24. What controls how much pronation or supination occurs in the foot?<br />
25. 25. It starts with the talus (ankle bone).<br />
26. 26. And its stability/connections to two hindfoot bones.<br />
27. 27. There is a specific point when the foot needs to be supinating.<br />
28. 28. During the contact phase of walking the hindfoot lands supinated, quickly pronates, and re-supinates for toe-off.<br />
29. 29. At mid-stance the foot needs to transition from its supinated position into a pronated position.<br />
30. 30. Finally, the hindfoot must transition back into supination in order to prepare the foot for lift-off.<br />
31. 31. Can the bottom of our feet tell us anything?<br />
32. 32. A foot print only tells a very small part of the story of foot motion.<br />
33. 33. When walking we land on our outer heel.<br />
34. 34. Then the outside of the foot makes contact.<br />
35. 35. Before you know it your whole foot in on the ground.<br />
36. 36. So when we are walking the forces from our body travel through the back and outside of our foot.<br />
37. 37. Then these forces should make their way through our big toe joint.<br />
38. 38. But that is just what is happening on the bottom of our foot.<br />
39. 39. Just imaging what is happening above the bottom of our foot- a lot of very important things.<br />
40. 40. When the individual parts are working/functioning in harmony walking is easy, however, if there is a prolonged period of pronation, symptoms will occur. It is just a matter of time. <br />
41. 41. The mechanics of these feetare not right. <br />
42. 42. This results in a prolonged period of pronationor over-pronation.But that is another slide presentation.<br />
43. 43. Life is motion <br />and <br />when you can’t walk, <br />your quality of life <br />quickly fades.<br />
44. 44. “Changing Lives, One Step at a Time”<br />For more info please visit: www.hyprocure.com<br />View our on-line training<br />www.hyprocuredoctors.com<br />