02 batteries


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  • (Electricity from muscle or metal???)The year was 1780 and the region was Northern Italy. The hot topic, at least among the scientific community, was a little disagreement between Luigi Galvani, a professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna and Allesandro Volta, a physicist from Como. Galvani was especially interested in a phenomenon that he had recently observed in his laboratory. While dissecting a frog held by a brass hook, Galvani noticed that as he touched the nerve of the frog with his metal knife that the frog’s leg would twitch (note – he had been doing some experiments with static electricity and the knife most likely was charged). The connection for Galvani was that perhaps the source of electricity might be contained within the organism which led to his theory of “animal electricity”. This discovery ultimately led to discussions with Volta who was skeptical of Galvani’s theory. Through his experiments, Volta demonstrated that electricity did not come from animal tissue but rather that the twitching was a result of current generated from the contact of dissimilar metals and that the frog leg was only acting as a detector. Building upon this principle, Volta constructed the Voltaic Pile in 1800 by stacking round plates of copper and zinc separated by disks of cardboard moistened with salt solution; the forerunner to what would become one of the most useful technological discoveries of the time: “the battery”. To see what impact this new technological device had on the scientific community just travel down the timeline of later scientists and inventors such as Andre-Marie Ampere (electrodynamics), Hans Oersted (electromagnetism), Michael Faraday (electromagnetic induction), Samuel Morse ( telegraph), Thomas Edison (light bulb) and Shockley, Brattain & Bardeen (transistor). In the labs of each of these scientists or inventors the battery was the technological building block that enabled these persons in their discoveries of new electronics technology and theories of electricity. In fact, a study of the history of electricity shows that technology and science have long maintained an “enabling” relationship. The development of new technology has enabled scientists to continue their discoveries of electricity which in turn has led to the development of new electronic technologies such as the transformer, light bulb and electric motor which have in turn had a dramatic impact on the way we live.
  • 02 batteries

    1. 1. Batteries Grob Basic Electronics: Chapter 12 Google: Galvanic Cell or electrochemical cells http://www.batteryeducation.com/battery_article_index/ http://www.howstuffworks.com/battery.htm http://www.energizer.com/learning-center/Pages/how-batteries-work.aspx
    2. 2. Materials Needed <ul><li>Shum make sure you have the following to teach this lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Cu and Zn plate with table salt, water and cloth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sack of potatoes, Cu, Zn plates, LED containers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of jumper wires </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Galvani vs Volta
    4. 4. Volta’s Battery
    5. 5. How Batteries Work
    6. 6. Electromotive Force … the force which produces, or tends to produce, electricity, or an electric current; sometimes used to express the degree of electrification as equivalent to potential, or more properly difference of potential. This end has more conductance This side has some conductance, but not as much as the opposite end.
    7. 7. Types of Batteries <ul><li>Primary: One time use (disposable) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc Carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: Rechargeable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NiCad: Nickel Cadmium (Early as 1899) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NiMH: Nickel Metal Hydride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium ion: currently most popular, High energy, popular in Laptops, iPods, PDA’s (some cases of exploding, only last a few years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead Acid (wet cell) High Amps!! Heavy! </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Battery Ratings <ul><li>Basic NiCad Cell= 1.25 V @ 500 mAH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce 500 ma for one hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 mA for 50 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 mA for 30 minutes (might get warm) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Primary
    10. 10. Batteries & Environmental Issues <ul><li>Americans use an average of 5 cordless products per day (RBRC 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 200 million cell phones were used in the U.S. with 130 million cell phones discarded annually (eartheasy 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of cell phone batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfills: Leakage from single cell phone battery can pollute up to 158,000 gal of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incinerators: If burned release toxic dioxins and furan into atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling programs: Verizon, AT&T, office supply stores </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Secondary: Wet Cell
    12. 12. Series Voltage Sources
    13. 13. Parallel Voltage Sources
    14. 14. Series-Parallel Voltage Sources #2