Parkinson’s disease affects your motor functions, causing it to become hard to move around and hard to grab or hold things. With this disease being progressive, it gets worse over time. Neurotransmitters are imbalanced.
In Parkinson’s patients, the acetylcholine levels are high and dopamine levels are low.Fun Fact!: Michael J. Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1991, 22 years ago! He made his condition known to the public in 1999. In 2000 he semi-retired and started searching for a cure by starting The Michael J. Fox Foundation. In 2010, Sweden's Karolinska Institute awarded Michael with a doctorate of medicine degree for all the work he has done in finding a cure.
Stage 1- symptoms: tremors or shaking in one limb; Stage 2- problems walking or maintaining balance, inability to complete day to day tasks become more apparent; Stage 3- inability to walk or stand and slowing of physical movements; Stage 4- walking may still occur but is limited, bradykinesa and rigidity are visible, unable to complete day to day tasks, usually cannot live alone; Stage 5- patients need one on one nursing care and are unable to take care of themselves
Accroding to The Michael J. Fox Foundation:Motor Symptoms- bradykinesia (slowed movement), rigidity (stiffness), resting tremor (uncontrollable movement while at rest), postural instability (impaired balance and stability, or problems standing or walking)Non-motor Symptoms- cognitive impairment (inability to multi-task and/or concentrate), mood disorders (anxiety and depression), sleeping problems (REM sleep disorder), hopsomia (loss of sense of smell), constipation, speech impairment, unexplained pain, and low BP when standing
#2 dopamine helps ease symptoms such as shaking, muscle stiffness, and slow movement. #3 levodopa enters the brain and is converted to dopamine while carbidopa increases its effectiveness and prevents or lessens many of the side effects of levodopa, such as nausea, vomiting, and occasional heart rhythm disturbances. #4 used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control in Parkinson’s patients.
Parkinson’s- Movement disorder that can eventually result in memory problems.Alzheimer’s- Memory disorder that rarely involves any type of movement impairments.Similarities- usually after 50, slowly degenerates neurons, meaning the neurons die over the course of the disease, gets worse over time,
In Alzheimer’s patients, the dopamine levels are high and acetylcholine levels are low.Fun Fact!: Ronald Regan, our 40th president left office in 1989. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease in 1994. He died in 2004 at the age of 93.
Parkinsons megan raven_phm1810
What is Parkinson’s Disease
• Motor system disorder
• Imbalance of the
dopamine in the brain
Dopamine imbalance exhibited in
(Michael J. Fox)
5 Stages of Parkinson’s Disease
• Stage 1 – Mild symptoms that inconvenience
day to day tasks.
• Stage 2 – Bilateral symptoms, affecting both
limbs on both sides of the body.
• Stage 3 – Severe symptoms.
• Stage 4 – Severe symptoms progress.
• Stage 5 - Complete immobility
Treatment of Parkinson’s
• Currently there is no cure.
• There is a wide variety of medications on the
market use to treat the symptoms of
Drugs Used to Treat Parkinson’s
Route Pharmacokinetics regarding
Dopamine agonist- increases the amt.
of dopamine in brain
Dopamine receptor stimulantencourages the release of dopamine
Enters the brain, then converted to
Produces the same effects as
Stimulates dopamine receptors
Inhibits nerve responses
Increases dopaminergic activity
Selective inhibitor- slows the
metabolism of levodopa, prolonging
Parkinson’s Disease Research
• NINDS is using animal models to study the
progression of Parkinson’s.
• NINDS is searching for the cause of
Parkinson’s, such as; environmental factors,
(i.e. toxins) and genetic factors.
Differences between Parkinson’s and
• Loss of dopamine
• Onset late in life
• Memory disorder
Acetylcholine imbalance exhibited in
Parkinson’s disease mainly affects the elderly,
but can occur at any age. The main cause results
from gradual degeneration of nerve cells in the
portion of the midbrain that controls motor
skills. Early signs are likely to be barely
noticeable, such as: weakness or stiffness of
limbs or a trembling of the hands when they are
at rest. This disease is more commonly seen in
men than in women, and it is not directly life
NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page. (n.d.). Parkinson's Disease
Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Retrieved October 30, 2013, from
Stages of Parkinson's: Stages 1-5 Symptoms. (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved October 30,
2013, from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/parkinsons-stages
Moini, Jahangir. "Drug Therapy for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's
Disease." Fundamental Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians. Clifton Park, NY:
Delmar Cengage Learning, 2013. 106-16. Print.
Parkinson's Disease/Parkinsonism Causes, Age, and More. (n.d.). WebMD.
Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsonsdisease/guide/understanding-parkinsons-disease-basics
Parkinson's Disease Symptoms. (n.d.). The Michael J. Fox Foundation for
Parkinson's Research. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from