Parkinsons megan raven_phm1810

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  • Parkinson’s disease affects your motor functions, causing it to become hard to move around and hard to grab or hold things. With this disease being progressive, it gets worse over time. Neurotransmitters are imbalanced.
  • In Parkinson’s patients, the acetylcholine levels are high and dopamine levels are low.Fun Fact!: Michael J. Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1991, 22 years ago! He made his condition known to the public in 1999. In 2000 he semi-retired and started searching for a cure by starting The Michael J. Fox Foundation. In 2010, Sweden's Karolinska Institute awarded Michael with a doctorate of medicine degree for all the work he has done in finding a cure.
  • Stage 1- symptoms: tremors or shaking in one limb; Stage 2- problems walking or maintaining balance, inability to complete day to day tasks become more apparent; Stage 3- inability to walk or stand and slowing of physical movements; Stage 4- walking may still occur but is limited, bradykinesa and rigidity are visible, unable to complete day to day tasks, usually cannot live alone; Stage 5- patients need one on one nursing care and are unable to take care of themselves
  • Accroding to The Michael J. Fox Foundation:Motor Symptoms- bradykinesia (slowed movement), rigidity (stiffness), resting tremor (uncontrollable movement while at rest), postural instability (impaired balance and stability, or problems standing or walking)Non-motor Symptoms- cognitive impairment (inability to multi-task and/or concentrate), mood disorders (anxiety and depression), sleeping problems (REM sleep disorder), hopsomia (loss of sense of smell), constipation, speech impairment, unexplained pain, and low BP when standing
  • #2 dopamine helps ease symptoms such as shaking, muscle stiffness, and slow movement. #3 levodopa enters the brain and is converted to dopamine while carbidopa increases its effectiveness and prevents or lessens many of the side effects of levodopa, such as nausea, vomiting, and occasional heart rhythm disturbances. #4 used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control in Parkinson’s patients.
  • Parkinson’s- Movement disorder that can eventually result in memory problems.Alzheimer’s- Memory disorder that rarely involves any type of movement impairments.Similarities- usually after 50, slowly degenerates neurons, meaning the neurons die over the course of the disease, gets worse over time,
  • In Alzheimer’s patients, the dopamine levels are high and acetylcholine levels are low.Fun Fact!: Ronald Regan, our 40th president left office in 1989. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease in 1994. He died in 2004 at the age of 93.
  • Parkinsons megan raven_phm1810

    1. 1. By: Megan Foster and Raven Leonard
    2. 2. What is Parkinson’s Disease • Motor system disorder • Progressive degenerative disorder • Imbalance of the neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain
    3. 3. Dopamine imbalance exhibited in Parkinson’s Disease Acetylcholine Dopamine Normal balance (Average Joe) Acetylcholine Dopamine Parkinson’s Disease (Michael J. Fox)
    4. 4. 5 Stages of Parkinson’s Disease • Stage 1 – Mild symptoms that inconvenience day to day tasks. • Stage 2 – Bilateral symptoms, affecting both limbs on both sides of the body. • Stage 3 – Severe symptoms. • Stage 4 – Severe symptoms progress. • Stage 5 - Complete immobility
    5. 5. Major Symptoms
    6. 6. Treatment of Parkinson’s • Currently there is no cure. • There is a wide variety of medications on the market use to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease.
    7. 7. Drugs Used to Treat Parkinson’s Dopaminergic Drugs Generic Name Brand Name Route Pharmacokinetics regarding Parkinson’s Disease Amantadine HCl Symmetrel PO Dopamine agonist- increases the amt. of dopamine in brain Bromocriptine mesylate Parlodel PO Dopamine receptor stimulantencourages the release of dopamine Carbidopalevodopa Sinemet PO Enters the brain, then converted to dopamine Pergolide myselate Permax PO Produces the same effects as dopamine Pramipexole Mirapex PO Stimulates dopamine receptors Ropinirole HCl Requip PO Inhibits nerve responses Selegiline HCl Carbex, Eldepryl PO Increases dopaminergic activity Tolcapone Tasmar PO Selective inhibitor- slows the metabolism of levodopa, prolonging
    8. 8. Parkinson’s Disease Research • NINDS is using animal models to study the progression of Parkinson’s. • NINDS is searching for the cause of Parkinson’s, such as; environmental factors, (i.e. toxins) and genetic factors.
    9. 9. Differences between Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s • Movement disorder • Loss of dopamine producing neurons • Onset late in life • Neurodegenerative diseases • Progressive • Memory disorder • Acetylcholine progressively diminishes overtime
    10. 10. Acetylcholine imbalance exhibited in Alzheimer’s Disease Acetylcholine Dopamine Normal balance (Average Joe) Acetylcholine Alzheimer’s Disease (Ronald Regan) Dopamine
    11. 11. Summary Parkinson’s disease mainly affects the elderly, but can occur at any age. The main cause results from gradual degeneration of nerve cells in the portion of the midbrain that controls motor skills. Early signs are likely to be barely noticeable, such as: weakness or stiffness of limbs or a trembling of the hands when they are at rest. This disease is more commonly seen in men than in women, and it is not directly life threatening.
    12. 12. References • • • • • NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page. (n.d.). Parkinson's Disease Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm Stages of Parkinson's: Stages 1-5 Symptoms. (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/parkinsons-stages Moini, Jahangir. "Drug Therapy for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Disease." Fundamental Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2013. 106-16. Print. Parkinson's Disease/Parkinsonism Causes, Age, and More. (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsonsdisease/guide/understanding-parkinsons-disease-basics Parkinson's Disease Symptoms. (n.d.). The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from https://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-withpd/topic.php?symptoms

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