Publishing and Open Access by Danny Kingsley

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Publishing and Open Access by Danny Kingsley

  1. 1. 1 Publish! Publish! Publish! How the scholarly publishing system works & how it fits into your career Dr Danny Kingsley Executive Officer, Australian Open Access Support Group eo@aoasg.org.au
  2. 2. Lifecycle of scholarly information 2 Formation Registration Evaluation DisseminationPreservation Reuse Measurement
  3. 3. Getting information into the system 3 Formation Registration Evaluation DisseminationPreservation Reuse Measurement
  4. 4. So you have finished your paper… •  What next? –  Choosing an appropriate publication outlet –  Formatting for submission –  Submitting for review –  Waiting –  Reworking/response to reviews –  Resubmitting (to another outlet? - see ‘Formatting for submission’) –  Waiting –  Accepted –  Waiting –  [Eventually] Publication – [Economics can be five years, know of books taking longer than nine years, some disciplines within a month] 4
  5. 5. Where to publish? Spectrum of scholarly communication •  Hard science •  ‘Urban’ •  Arts & humanities •  ‘Rural’ ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 5 Journal articles Conference papers Monographs
  6. 6. The process 6 •  From Journal publishing - what happens between submission and publication? http://www.sgm.ac.uk/en/publications/microbiology-today/past-issues.cfm/publication/antimicrobials/article/ 9A5C69BE-1895-4AC2-AE3C135723789259
  7. 7. It’s not you it’s them •  Rejection rates are very high –  JAMA rejection rate is as high as 92% (DeAngelis & Musacchio 2004) –  All journals in the Nature stable have an acceptance rate of less than 10% (McCook, 2006) –  Nature itself has to reject about 95% of biomedical papers (P. Lawrence, 2003) –  The Economic Record rejection rates for 2001- 2004 ranged from 56% to 70% of completed submissions (Editors, 2005) –  The rejection rate for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was approximately 55% (Goldwyn, 2005) 7
  8. 8. Who are the peer reviewers? 8 Invisible colleges are described in Diane Crane’s 1972 book which built on Derek J de Solla’s work on citation networks
  9. 9. Peer review •  Has two purposes: –  to verify the research & –  to improve the paper •  Is usually double blind –  they don’t know who you are & –  you don’t know who they are •  Is time consuming –  Some people take a whole day to review a longer work •  Is unrecognised work –  No payment for or registration of reviews so some people do a huge amount (300 per year) others do none •  Seen as part of the ‘academic gift’ •  Takes a long time (from the author’s PoV) 9
  10. 10. Publication ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 10 Formation Registration Evaluation DisseminationPreservation Reuse Measurement
  11. 11. Generally Authors can’t sign away their moral rights they just sign away their right to make money!!
  12. 12. Copyright is different in academia This  copyright  symbol  is  copyrighted  
  13. 13. Authorship = responsibility Author Paper
  14. 14. Citation - Getting people to see your work ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 14 Formation Registration Evaluation DisseminationPreservation Reuse Measurement
  15. 15. 15 Regular publishing Institutional reader Library $ Publisher Non-institutional readerX Author
  16. 16. Who are non-institutional readers? •  Policy makers in government •  Practitioners – nurses, economists, teachers, pharmacists •  Start-up technology companies •  Ex-students (that could be you soon!) •  Researchers in smaller universities •  Average people wanting to look something up 16
  17. 17. Fewer institutional readers too 17
  18. 18. Scholarly publishing = failed economy
  19. 19. Academic credit
  20. 20. Open Access to the rescue! “the  results  of  publicly  funded   scholarly  research  should  be  freely   available  to  anyone  with  access  to   the  internet”   Open  access  images  are  available  under  a  Crea<ve  Commons  licence.  I  don’t  have  to  seek  permission.  
  21. 21. Green and Gold roads to open access 21
  22. 22. 22 Gold (open access) publishing Institutional reader free Publisher Non- institutional reader Author Funding body free Article processing charges
  23. 23. 23 Publishing in an open access journal Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org/ Currently about 10-15% of journals are OA. Many subscription journals offer a ‘hybrid’ option
  24. 24. 24 Article processing charges (APCs) •  The Gold model moves the cost from the READER to the AUTHOR. –  Advertising works this way •  This means from the LIBRARY to the FUNDER. •  Funding bodies are increasingly requiring research publications be available OA –  eg: UK Finch report which is adding BP10 million to cover this
  25. 25. 25 The business model works - PLoS One Interactive open-access journal for the communication of all peer-reviewed scientific and medical research. • Short peer review period • Multi-disciplinary • Estab 2007, by 2010 world’s largest journal (6749 articles) • Lower article processing costs
  26. 26. 26 Green open access publishing Institutional reader Library $ Publisher Non-institutional reader Author Repositoryfree free
  27. 27. 27 Green road Disseminate by putting a version in an a repository: – Institutional Repository Eg: ANU Research repository – Subject-based repository ArXiv RepEc PubMed Central About 60% of publishers allow this
  28. 28. 28 Office Hours: Open Access •  4 April 2013 - Harvard Professors Gary King and Stuart Shieber provide advice to graduate students about open access, dissertations, and journal publishing. •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jD6CcFxRelY •  1.35 – Should dissertations be made open access? •  3.23 – Won’t people steal my ideas?
  29. 29. What can you do with your work? •  Have a look at the Copyright Transfer Agreement •  Sherpa Romeo can give you this information - http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ •  Publisher websites will have this information – look for ‘Information for authors’ or ‘re-use rights’ or ‘copyright’ •  Eg: http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/ green-open-access ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 29
  30. 30. ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 30 It comes down to the version Preprint Submitted Version Work sent to publishers for review Postprint Accepted Version/ Accepted Manuscript Author’s peer reviewed and corrected final version Published Version Version of Record
  31. 31. ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 31 For green OA the accepted version is gold! Preprint Submitted Version Work sent to publishers for review Postprint Accepted Version/ Accepted Manuscript Author’s peer reviewed and corrected final version Published Version Version of Record
  32. 32. Creative Commons •  Very good video •  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=AeTlXtEOplA (5:33) ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 32
  33. 33. What publication means ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 33 Formation Registration Evaluation DisseminationPreservation Reuse Measurement
  34. 34. ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 34 Unit of scholarly communication – scholarly article 1665 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society est. 2012 Electronic–only journals
  35. 35. Publication is embedded in the reward system •  Higher Education Research Data Collection (HERDC) –  Annual –  Feeds back to block grant funding –  Numbers of papers is all that counts –  Administered by Dept of Innovation •  Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) –  Every few years (next in 2014) –  Provides a comparison to show which areas are excellent –  It matters where you publish –  Administered by ARC •  Grant allocations from ARC & NHMRC •  Promotion within institutions •  Acceptance into Royal Societies etc 35
  36. 36. Paper Reward = peer recognition Reward ≠ $ Authorship  means  reward  
  37. 37. Multi-authored papers hBp://inbp.org/images2/scien<sts_group.jpg  
  38. 38. Author Paper Reward = peer recognition Reward ≠ $ Credit   Authorship  means  credit  
  39. 39. ASSESSING RESEARCH(ERS) Credit is important because of how reward is distributed 39
  40. 40. 40 Traditional ways to assess value –  1955 – Eugene Garfield founded Institute for Scientific Information & Science Citation Index •  Based on a calculation of no of citations –  1972 – Journal Impact Factor •  Averages the number of citations per article in a journal –  early 2000’s – bought by Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science and Web of Knowledge •  Still based on citations & JIF
  41. 41. Journal Impact Factor is flawed •  The JIF is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a given period of time. •  But the JIF measures the citations of articles only against all items that count as scholarly work in the journal. •  Impact factor 2010 = A/B when: –  A = the number of times articles published in 2010-11 were cited in indexed journals during 2012 –  B = the number of articles, reviews, proceedings or notes published in 2010-2011 •  There are also problems for disciplines which have publishing turnaround times of over two years, or which has long half‐lives of papers ‐ like some geosciences. 41
  42. 42. Jumping on the assessment bandwagon •  Between 2004-2009 started up: –  Elsevier’s SciVerse Scopus •  http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus –  Google Scholar •  http://scholar.google.com.au/ –  Microsoft’s Academic Search •  http://academic.research.microsoft.com/ •  Variations on a theme - still relying on citation data from bibliographic databases •  IFs rank journals, not articles 42
  43. 43. Moves to article-level metrics •  Changing ways to assess usage: –  MESUR •  http://mesur.informatics.indiana.edu/ •  (Metrics for Scholarly Usage of Resources) 2006 Andrew W Mellon Foundation grant –  Eigenfactor •  Uni of Washington –  altmetrics.org •  ‘community is striving to understand and measure the products and practices of scholarly communication on the web’ 43
  44. 44. PLoS One metrics page (1) ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 44
  45. 45. PLoS metrics view (2) ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 45
  46. 46. Free & simple - Google citations ANU Office of Scholarly Communication 46
  47. 47. OPEN ACCESS IS A HOT TOPIC 47
  48. 48. Open Access is on the world agenda •  UNESCO announces open access policy (13 May 2013) •  Research Councils of UK’s open access policy in effect (1 April 2013) –  Researchers are to publish either in an open access journal or to have a copy of work deposited into a repository within 6 months of publication (12 months from some humanities fields). •  Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) plans to change rules (25 February 2013) –  only work that is deposited in a repository on acceptance would be eligible for consideration in the post-2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF). •  Obama Administration new policy (22 February 2013) –  U.S. Federal agencies spending over $100 million in research and development have to have a plan to “support increased public access to the results of research funded by the Federal Government” within 12 months. •  The European Commission –  Under their Research & Innovation funding programme, all articles produced with funding from Horizon 2020 . €80-billion (US$98-billion) research-funding programme for 2014–20 will have to be accessible as of 2014 48
  49. 49. Publisher’s response? •  Elsevier –  Green – ‘You may if you may but not if you must’ –  Gold – ‘opportunity’ to publish open access •  Wiley Blackwell –  Green – ONLY if they have an agreement with a funding body –  Gold – Only option for OA •  Taylor & Francis –  Agreement for Green in some library licenses 49
  50. 50. ARC & NHMRC - OA policies •  ARC (introduced 1 January 2013) – All outputs (including books) – 2013 grants onward (we will not see OA output for several years) •  NHMRC (introduced 1 July 2012) – Journal articles only – Any publication after 1 July 2012 regardless of the grant
  51. 51. Summary •  If you want to follow an academic career you need to publish •  Choose carefully where you publish: –  Time between submission & acceptance & publication –  Quality of the journal –  Publisher permissions •  Ensure you keep your name consistent •  Make your work available – think of the eyeballs. 51
  52. 52. More info? Dr Danny Kingsley Executive Officer Australian Open Access Support Group w: http://aoasg.org.au e: eo@aoasg.org.au t: @openaccess_oz p: 02 6125 6839 52

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