New media literacy and new
forms of knowledge
Megan Poore
Overview
๏ Old practices and new
  learning
๏ ICT literacy definitions
  and standards
๏ Digital divide and
  inclusive pra...
Old practices
๏   Not much has changed in schooling since the
    19th century
    ‣ Unchanged curriculum (facts, memorisa...
Old practices
 ๏   Characterised by
     ‣ Inflexibility
     ‣ Passivity
     ‣ One-to-many instruction
     ‣ The notion ...
How does it look?
A cynic might say this is preparation
 for the military-industrial complex
Well, at least they seem happy
 ... and the teacher is pretty
This ain’t funny, kids
“[w]ith good discipline, it is
       always possible to pump into
       the minds of a class a certain
        quantity ...
New learning
New learning
๏ There are numerous calls for new approaches
  to teaching and learning.
๏ And most of them recognise the ce...
Rationales for ICT in education
 ๏ Type A: Encouraging the acquisition of ICT skills
   as an end in themselves
 ๏ Type B:...
Rationales for ICT in education
 ๏ Type C: Using ICTs to enhance students’
   abilities as an integral component of broade...
New learning
๏ Well, let’s not be too radical (Type D)
๏ But not too conservative (Type B)
๏ So ...
The problem
 ๏ Current curriculum has remained largely
   unchanged
 ๏ It focuses on learning large bodies of facts
   (wh...
Sierra, Kathy. 2006. Why does engineering/math/science education in the US suck? Available at http://
headrush.typepad.com...
The problem
 ๏ But new technologies demand a fundamental
   shift in how we conceptualise curricula
 ๏ We shouldn’t be map...
“A new technology does not add
      or subtract something. It
   changes everything. In the year
  1500, fifty years after...
The problem
๏   So, what might our ‘different Europe’, i.e., our
    ‘new learning’ look like?
OLD LEARNING                              NEW LEARNING POTENTIAL
    Teacher-centric                                      ...
"[there should be] more
  opportunity for conjoint activities
   in which those instructed take
  part, so that they may a...
The new basics
 ... are knowing how to
    ๏ Generate
    ๏ Think
    ๏ Inquire
    ๏ Collaborate
    ๏ Critique
    ๏ Com...
New learning
 ๏ MCEETYA developed a set of principles for
   creating learning spaces. These principles can
   be easily d...
New learning
 ๏   Flexibility - supporting
     ‣ multiple users and use
     ‣ physical, virtual and blended learning
   ...
New learning
 ๏   Inclusivity – accommodating
     ‣ access and participation for all
     ‣ local demographic needs
     ...
New learning
 ๏   Collaboration – enabling
     ‣ co-operative learning, teamwork and
       enterprise
     ‣ community, ...
New learning
 ๏   Creativity – achieving
     ‣ engagement, innovation and learning
     ‣ community and environmental har...
New learning
 ๏   Efficiency – delivering
     ‣ faster, deeper learning
     ‣ sustainable, cost-effective utilities and d...
What has this to do with
digital literacy?
๏   Quite simply, new learning cannot happen
    without adequate digital liter...
Digital media literacy
What is digital media literacy?
  ๏ “Digital literacy is the ability to locate, organize,
    understand, evaluate, and cr...
MCEETYA: ICT proficiency
๏ MCEETYA says being ICT proficient involves
1. Working with information
2. Creating and sharing in...
MCEETYA: ICT literacy
 1. Accessing info (identification, retrieval)
 2. Managing info (organising, storing)
 3. Evaluating...
MCEETYA: ICT literacy
 Patterns
 ๏ Low socio-economic background
 ๏ Indigeneity
 ๏ Remote locality
 ๏ Gender not an issue
...
MCEETYA: ICT literacy
 Findings
 1. Communication is a frequent use
    BUT
 2. Less use of applications for creating,
   ...
ICT proficiency levels
“Challenging but reasonable” expectation:
๏ Year 6: 49%
๏ Year 10: 61%




MCEETYA. 2007. National A...
A bit low?
๏   Not really, when we ask about older students ...
Experiences of older students
Student experiences
๏ Reasons for use: convenience and control, not
  learning
๏ Uncertain about how to map current learni...
Student beliefs in proficiency
๏   ECAR study shows that students think they are
    more ICT proficient than they are




S...
A graph!
Information
behaviour
Information behaviour
๏ Increase in full-phrase searching
๏ Satisfied with basic forms of search
๏ Spend little time evalua...
Information behaviour
๏ Have difficulty prioritising and evaluating search
  results
๏ No evidence that information is wors...
Information behaviour
๏ Young people are concerned about the
  ‘unmanageable scale’ of the web
๏ They are seeking guidance...
Information behaviour
 ๏ Not expert searchers – Youngsters have always
   had trouble evaluating info
 ๏ Behaviour is now ...
Information behaviour
 ๏ Young people are concerned about the
   ‘unmanageable scale’ of the Web.
 ๏ They find it difficult ...
Implications
 ๏ Facility does not mean ICT literacy
 ๏ Need to be careful about assumptions we make




MCEETYA. 2007. Nat...
Implications
 ๏ Need to build ICT literacy through “systematic
   teaching rather than incidental use”
 ๏ More personalise...
Implications
 ๏   “[Educational institutions] could benefit from
     delivering training which highlights the way
     stu...
Implications
๏   You need to be ICT literate, too.
Implications
 ๏ Competent or just confident?
 ๏ How to find the right info, then assess, validate,
   interpret, analyse, sy...
The digital divide
The digital divide
 ๏ Is about access to knowledge, not PCs
 ๏ It needs to be about relationships and
   networks: not har...
The digital divide
 ๏   “... Students who do not have the economic,
     cultural and social capital to achieve meaningful...
Digital inclusion
What is inclusion?
 ๏ “Inclusive education refers to the focus of a
   learning institution on meeting the individual
   n...
Digital inclusion
 Who count as ‘different groups’?
 ๏ girls and boys
 ๏ minority ethnic and faith groups,
 ๏ asylum seeke...
Digital inclusion
 Who count as ‘different groups’?
 ๏ children ‘looked after’ by the local authority
 ๏ other children, i...
ICT can support
 ๏ Visual and auditory material rather than text, as
   some students’ [traditional] literacy levels may
 ...
Benefits of using ICT
 ๏ Making connections
 ๏ Fostering collaboration
 ๏ Encouraging communication
 ๏ Providing a dynamic ...
Enhancing practice
 ๏ Mobile devices
 ๏ Audio-visual technology
 ๏ Online communities




Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digit...
Mobile
devices
Mobile devices can assist with
 ๏ Collaborative projects and fieldwork
 ๏ Providing an alternative to books or computers
 ๏...
Mobile devices can assist with
 ๏ Providing meaningful content from outside the
   classroom
 ๏ Promoting or campaign to a...
Audio-visual technology
AV technology can assist with
 ๏ Forming and maintaining links and cultural identity
 ๏ Authentic learning experiences, wi...
Online communities
Online communities ...
 ๏ Offer new opportunities for learners to take
   more control of their learning and to access
   ...
Online communities ...
 ๏ Can engage learners who are tentative
   contributors in class or who have special needs
 ๏ Supp...
Online communities ...
 ๏ Can enhance learner autonomy and encourage
   extended learning through open-ended tasks
 ๏ Bein...
Online communities
 ๏ Some educators also use Web 2.0 activities as
   an opportunity for peer assessment, with
   learner...
Literacy
Literacy
๏ We need to think about how we should develop
  amongst young people a literacy that will help
  them navigate t...
Why type of literacy?
๏   Here I am talking about the type of literacy that
    Richard Hoggart campaigned for when he sai...
“It is easier for a few to improve
    the material conditions of many
    than for a few to waken a great
        many fr...
“[t]here are other ways of being in the
   truth. The strongest objection to the
  more trivial popular entertainments is
...
Literacy
๏ In other words, we need not a literacy that tells
  us how to critique (really, ‘criticise’) digital
  media.
๏...
“To wish that a majority of the
  population will ever read The Times is
    to wish that human beings were
   constitutio...
Digital literacy
๏ Instead, we should aim higher than that.
๏ We need a literacy that teaches us how to
  participate in, ...
Digital literacy
๏   In other words, schools should be showing
    young people how to make the most of
    electronic and...
Human flourishing
Why literacy?
๏ Literacy is the key to unlocking an individual’s
  potential
๏ Literacy is about building citizens
๏ Liter...
Human flourishing
๏ Everything we do as teachers needs to be
  about helping young people come to know
  themselves
๏ It’s ...
Human flourishing
๏ It’s about recognising that the self is part of
  something bigger
๏ It’s about recognising and respond...
Human flourishing
๏   As teachers, then, we should be aiming at
    helping young people recognise their autonomy,
    but ...
Human flourishing
๏   As teachers, we are the catalysts for discovery
    and the guides for exploration
Classroom praxis
Classroom praxis
๏   The next is to consider how to occupy students
    so they build technical and intellectual digital
 ...
Classroom praxis
๏ Whatever form this takes, it must involve
  teaching students how to distinguish active,
  deep and eth...
Classroom praxis
๏ There is no formula.
๏ It’s about you employing your imagination,
  artistry, inventiveness to create m...
Your digital literacy
Technical digital literacy
๏ Skilling up in the technology
๏ Workshops, training, ‘pushing buttons’
  BUT the harder work ...
Intellectual digital literacy
๏ Interrogation of how the digital world works
๏ Critical engagement with
  ‣ Humanist philo...
Wrapping up
Wrapping up
๏ New technologies are a game-changer for
  education
๏ We need to move beyond old practices and
  mindsets an...
Wrapping up
๏ New technologies have great potential to
  include marginalised groups
๏ However, an encroaching ‘digital di...
Picture refs
๏   Military-industrial complex http://www.eriding.net/media/photos/
    history/victorian/school/
    080712...
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Lecture 3. New Media Literacy and New Knowledge

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Lecture 3. New Media Literacy and New Knowledge

  1. 1. New media literacy and new forms of knowledge Megan Poore
  2. 2. Overview ๏ Old practices and new learning ๏ ICT literacy definitions and standards ๏ Digital divide and inclusive practice ๏ Literacy and human flourishing ๏ Classroom praxis
  3. 3. Old practices ๏ Not much has changed in schooling since the 19th century ‣ Unchanged curriculum (facts, memorisation for tests) ‣ Old technologies (effective whiteboard and digital media use a rarity, not the norm) ‣ Transmission practices (I speak, you listen) ‣ Teacher-centric (teacher as the main repository of information in the room)
  4. 4. Old practices ๏ Characterised by ‣ Inflexibility ‣ Passivity ‣ One-to-many instruction ‣ The notion of the monolithic learner ‣ Competition ‣ Memorisation ‣ Separation Based on Churches, Andrew. 21st century learning spaces. Available at http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/ 21st+Century+Learning+Spaces. Accessed 23 July 2009
  5. 5. How does it look?
  6. 6. A cynic might say this is preparation for the military-industrial complex
  7. 7. Well, at least they seem happy ... and the teacher is pretty
  8. 8. This ain’t funny, kids
  9. 9. “[w]ith good discipline, it is always possible to pump into the minds of a class a certain quantity of inert knowledge" Whitehead, Alfred North. 1929 [1967]. The Aims of Education. New York: The Free Press. p. 5
  10. 10. New learning
  11. 11. New learning ๏ There are numerous calls for new approaches to teaching and learning. ๏ And most of them recognise the centrality of ICTs in education. ๏ But as we know from last week, there are often different rationales presented for using ICT in education.
  12. 12. Rationales for ICT in education ๏ Type A: Encouraging the acquisition of ICT skills as an end in themselves ๏ Type B: Using ICTs to enhance students’ abilities within the existing curriculum Downes, Toni, et al. 2001. Making better connections. Available at http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/ school_education/publications_resources/profiles/making_better_connections.htm. Accessed 1 Febraury 2010.
  13. 13. Rationales for ICT in education ๏ Type C: Using ICTs to enhance students’ abilities as an integral component of broader curriculum reforms that are changing not only how learning occurs but what is learned ๏ Type D: Using ICTs as an integral component of the reforms that alter the organisational structure of schooling itself Downes, Toni, et al. 2001. Making better connections. Available at http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/ school_education/publications_resources/profiles/making_better_connections.htm. Accessed 1 Febraury 2010.
  14. 14. New learning ๏ Well, let’s not be too radical (Type D) ๏ But not too conservative (Type B) ๏ So ...
  15. 15. The problem ๏ Current curriculum has remained largely unchanged ๏ It focuses on learning large bodies of facts (which are easy to test) ๏ The structure of our education system supports this type of learning and this type of curriculum Yelland. 2007. The millennials. Chapter 1 in Shift to the Future. Rethinking learning with new technologies in Education. New York: Routledge.
  16. 16. Sierra, Kathy. 2006. Why does engineering/math/science education in the US suck? Available at http:// headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/2006/11/why_does_engine.html. Accessed 4 February 2010
  17. 17. The problem ๏ But new technologies demand a fundamental shift in how we conceptualise curricula ๏ We shouldn’t be mapping new technologies onto old curricula ๏ Instead, we need to rethink curricula and pedagogies in light of new technologies ๏ And this means interrogating what it means to be knowledgeable in the 21st century and how technology can support that Yelland. 2007. The millennials. Chapter 1 in Shift to the Future. Rethinking learning with new technologies in Education. New York: Routledge. pp 1 - 2
  18. 18. “A new technology does not add or subtract something. It changes everything. In the year 1500, fifty years after the printing press was invented, we did not have old Europe plus the printing press. We had a different Europe.” Postman, Neil. Technopoly. The surrender of culture to technology. New York: Vintage BOoks. p 18
  19. 19. The problem ๏ So, what might our ‘different Europe’, i.e., our ‘new learning’ look like?
  20. 20. OLD LEARNING NEW LEARNING POTENTIAL Teacher-centric Learner-centric Passive Active and interactive One-to-many Individualised learning Lack of flexibility Flexible Monolithic learner Learning communities Competition Sharing and networking Memorisation Creativity, discovery, exploration Separation Participation and collaboration Based on Churches, Andrew. 21st century learning spaces. Available at http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/ 21st+Century+Learning+Spaces. Accessed 23 July 2009
  21. 21. "[there should be] more opportunity for conjoint activities in which those instructed take part, so that they may acquire a social sense of their own powers and of the materials and appliances used." Dewey, John. 1916 [2004]. Democracy and Education. Mineola, NewYork: Dover Publications. p. 39
  22. 22. The new basics ... are knowing how to ๏ Generate ๏ Think ๏ Inquire ๏ Collaborate ๏ Critique ๏ Communicate ... ideas and knowledge in all disciplines & domains Yelland. 2007. The millennials. Chapter 1 in Shift to the Future. Rethinking learning with new technologies in Education. New York: Routledge. p 8
  23. 23. New learning ๏ MCEETYA developed a set of principles for creating learning spaces. These principles can be easily describe new learning: ๏ Flexibility ๏ Inclusivity ๏ Collaboration ๏ Creativity ๏ Efficiency MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  24. 24. New learning ๏ Flexibility - supporting ‣ multiple users and use ‣ physical, virtual and blended learning environments ‣ space re-allocation and re-configuration MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  25. 25. New learning ๏ Inclusivity – accommodating ‣ access and participation for all ‣ local demographic needs ‣ personalised learning MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  26. 26. New learning ๏ Collaboration – enabling ‣ co-operative learning, teamwork and enterprise ‣ community, professional and expert engagement ‣ local, national and global networks, partnerships and learning communities MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  27. 27. New learning ๏ Creativity – achieving ‣ engagement, innovation and learning ‣ community and environmental harmony ‣ growth of social capital MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  28. 28. New learning ๏ Efficiency – delivering ‣ faster, deeper learning ‣ sustainable, cost-effective utilities and delivery ‣ effective management and administration MCEETYA. Learning Spaces Framework. Learning in an Online World. 2008. Ministerial Council on Education, employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Available at http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/ Jahia/home/cache/offonce/pid/777. Accessed 23 July 2009.
  29. 29. What has this to do with digital literacy? ๏ Quite simply, new learning cannot happen without adequate digital literacy levels
  30. 30. Digital media literacy
  31. 31. What is digital media literacy? ๏ “Digital literacy is the ability to locate, organize, understand, evaluate, and create information using digital technology.” ๏ The Northwest Learning Grid adds, importantly, 1) the ability to define the task, and, 2) the ability to communicate Wikipedia. Defintion of ‘Digital Literacy’. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_literacy Accessed 11 September 2009. NWLG. Teachers Notes on Digital Literacy. Northwest Learning Grid. Available at http://www.nwlg.org/ digitalliteracy/teachernotes.html Accessed 11 September 2009.
  32. 32. MCEETYA: ICT proficiency ๏ MCEETYA says being ICT proficient involves 1. Working with information 2. Creating and sharing information 3. Using ICT responsibly MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html Accessed 21 October 2008.
  33. 33. MCEETYA: ICT literacy 1. Accessing info (identification, retrieval) 2. Managing info (organising, storing) 3. Evaluating info (integrity, relevance, usefulness) 4. New understandings (creating knowledge, authoring) 5. Communicating with others (sharing, creating products) 6. Using ICT appropriately (critical, reflective, strategic, ethics, legals) MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html Accessed 21 October 2008.
  34. 34. MCEETYA: ICT literacy Patterns ๏ Low socio-economic background ๏ Indigeneity ๏ Remote locality ๏ Gender not an issue MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html Accessed 21 October 2008.
  35. 35. MCEETYA: ICT literacy Findings 1. Communication is a frequent use BUT 2. Less use of applications for creating, analysing, transforming information MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html Accessed 21 October 2008.
  36. 36. ICT proficiency levels “Challenging but reasonable” expectation: ๏ Year 6: 49% ๏ Year 10: 61% MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program -- ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html Accessed 21 October 2008.
  37. 37. A bit low? ๏ Not really, when we ask about older students ...
  38. 38. Experiences of older students
  39. 39. Student experiences ๏ Reasons for use: convenience and control, not learning ๏ Uncertain about how to map current learning experience onto university study ๏ Cannot see how ICT and learning can work together ๏ ICT is seen either as a platform for admin or delivery University of Melbourne. 2006. First year students’ experiences with technology: Are they really Digital Natives? http://www.bmu.unimelb.edu.au/research/munatives/natives_report2006.pdf. Accessed 12 February 2008. JISC. 2007. Student expectations study: Findings from preliminary research. (Joint Information Systems Committee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/studentexpectationsbp.aspx. Accessed 12 February 2008.
  40. 40. Student beliefs in proficiency ๏ ECAR study shows that students think they are more ICT proficient than they are Salaway, Gail, and Judith B. Caruso, with Mark R. Nelson. 2009. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2008 (Research Study, Vol. 8). Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Available at http://www.educause.edu/ECAR/TheECARStudyofUndergraduateStu/ 163283 Accessed 9 July 2009.
  41. 41. A graph!
  42. 42. Information behaviour
  43. 43. Information behaviour ๏ Increase in full-phrase searching ๏ Satisfied with basic forms of search ๏ Spend little time evaluating for accuracy, relevance, authority (but this is also pre-web) ๏ Good parallel processing skills, but sequential for reading? CIBER. 2008. Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future. Available at http://www.bl.uk/news/ pdf/googlegen.pdf Accessed 21 October 2008.
  44. 44. Information behaviour ๏ Have difficulty prioritising and evaluating search results ๏ No evidence that information is worse than before ๏ Youngsters do not come online fully-formed as expert searchers: they have always had trouble evaluating information ๏ Intellectual practices are now more visible and public Green, Hannah, and Celia Hannon. 2007. Their Space. Education for a digital generation. Available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/theirspace Accessed 21 October 2008.
  45. 45. Information behaviour ๏ Young people are concerned about the ‘unmanageable scale’ of the web ๏ They are seeking guidance not on how to use the technology itself, but on how to think with information Green, Hannah, and Celia Hannon. 2007. Their Space. Education for a digital generation. Available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/theirspace Accessed 21 October 2008. and JISC. 2008. Great expectations of ICT: How Higher Education institutions are measuring up. Joint Information Systems Committee Available at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/ greatexpectations. Accessed on 7 Feb 2009. p. 12.
  46. 46. Information behaviour ๏ Not expert searchers – Youngsters have always had trouble evaluating info ๏ Behaviour is now more public ๏ Skills gap between using media to create and how to create meaningful content CIBER. 2008. Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future. Available from www.bl.uk/news/pdf/ googlegen.pdf. Accessed 21 October 2008.
  47. 47. Information behaviour ๏ Young people are concerned about the ‘unmanageable scale’ of the Web. ๏ They find it difficult to prioritse and evaluate search results. Green, Hannah, and Celia Hannon. 2007. Their Space. Education for a digital generation. Available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/theirspace. Accessed 21 October 2008.
  48. 48. Implications ๏ Facility does not mean ICT literacy ๏ Need to be careful about assumptions we make MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program – ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html . Accessed on 21 October 2008.
  49. 49. Implications ๏ Need to build ICT literacy through “systematic teaching rather than incidental use” ๏ More personalised assessment MCEETYA. 2007. National Assessment Program – ICT Literacy Years 6 & 10. Report 2005. Available at http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/nap_ictl_2005_years_6_and_10_report-press_release,22065.html . Accessed on 21 October 2008.
  50. 50. Implications ๏ “[Educational institutions] could benefit from delivering training which highlights the way students think about information, rather than the way they use technology itself.” Joint Information Systems Committee. 2008. Great expectations of ICT: How Higher Education institutions are measuring up. Available at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/greatexpectations. Accessed on 7 Feb 2009. p. 12.
  51. 51. Implications ๏ You need to be ICT literate, too.
  52. 52. Implications ๏ Competent or just confident? ๏ How to find the right info, then assess, validate, interpret, analyse, synthesise, critique, evaluate, put in context ๏ The need to apply problem-solving and critical thinking skills Oblinger, Diana G. and Brian L. Hawkins. 2006. The myth about student competency: Our students are technically competent. EDUCAUSE Review 41(2): 12-13. Available at http://connect.educause.edu/Library/ EDUCAUSE+Review/TheMythAboutStudentCompet/40622. Accessed on 7 February 2009.
  53. 53. The digital divide
  54. 54. The digital divide ๏ Is about access to knowledge, not PCs ๏ It needs to be about relationships and networks: not hardware Green, Hannah, and Celia Hannon. 2007. Their Space. Education for a digital generation. Available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/theirspace. Accessed 21 October 2008. pp 59 - 60
  55. 55. The digital divide ๏ “... Students who do not have the economic, cultural and social capital to achieve meaningful and effective engagement with ICTs out of school ... may find themselves disadvantaged as a new literacies paradigm becomes increasingly important for participation in social routines.” Grant, Lyndsay. 2007. “Learning to be part of the knowledge economy: digital divides and media literacy.” Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/discussion-papers/ Discussion-Paper816. Accessed on 9 July 2009.
  56. 56. Digital inclusion
  57. 57. What is inclusion? ๏ “Inclusive education refers to the focus of a learning institution on meeting the individual needs of its learners.” Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 9
  58. 58. Digital inclusion Who count as ‘different groups’? ๏ girls and boys ๏ minority ethnic and faith groups, ๏ asylum seekers and refugees ๏ pupils who need support to learn English as an additional language (EAL) ๏ pupils with special educational needs ๏ gifted and talented pupils Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 4
  59. 59. Digital inclusion Who count as ‘different groups’? ๏ children ‘looked after’ by the local authority ๏ other children, including sick children, young carers, and those children from families under stress ๏ pregnant school girls and teenage mothers ๏ any pupils who are at risk of disaffection and exclusion Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 4
  60. 60. ICT can support ๏ Visual and auditory material rather than text, as some students’ [traditional] literacy levels may be low ๏ Authentic and real-life experiences, where students are engaging with people and working on aspects that have real aim and purpose ๏ Creative opportunities that allow students to explore and create in the areas of music, art, design and drama, for example Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 13
  61. 61. Benefits of using ICT ๏ Making connections ๏ Fostering collaboration ๏ Encouraging communication ๏ Providing a dynamic repository of learning resources Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 36
  62. 62. Enhancing practice ๏ Mobile devices ๏ Audio-visual technology ๏ Online communities Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 38 - 39
  63. 63. Mobile devices
  64. 64. Mobile devices can assist with ๏ Collaborative projects and fieldwork ๏ Providing an alternative to books or computers ๏ Bringing together learners who are widely dispersed or who have movement difficulties ๏ Engaging learners who in the past may have felt excluded Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 38
  65. 65. Mobile devices can assist with ๏ Providing meaningful content from outside the classroom ๏ Promoting or campaign to a wide and diverse audience Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 38
  66. 66. Audio-visual technology
  67. 67. AV technology can assist with ๏ Forming and maintaining links and cultural identity ๏ Authentic learning experiences, with learners hearing from ‘the horse’s mouth’ and being able to respond immediately with their own thoughts ๏ Greater participation, as a ‘real’ audience means learners take their participation seriously Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 38
  68. 68. Online communities
  69. 69. Online communities ... ๏ Offer new opportunities for learners to take more control of their learning and to access their own customised information, resources, tools and services ๏ Encourage a wider range of expressive capability ๏ Facilitate more collaborative ways of working, community creation, dialogue and knowledge sharing Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 39
  70. 70. Online communities ... ๏ Can engage learners who are tentative contributors in class or who have special needs ๏ Support learners’ natural curiosity by enabling expression through different media and a sense of audience ๏ Can encourage simultaneous, learner-directed discussions that extend beyond the lesson ๏ The ‘anytime-anywhere’ availability of Web 2.0 can also be highly motivating Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 39
  71. 71. Online communities ... ๏ Can enhance learner autonomy and encourage extended learning through open-ended tasks ๏ Being published on the web can help learners feel a sense of ownership, engagement and awareness of audience Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 39
  72. 72. Online communities ๏ Some educators also use Web 2.0 activities as an opportunity for peer assessment, with learners giving feedback on one another’s work; this can encourage learners to pay more attention to detail and improved the quality of their work Walker, Leila. 2009. Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Available at http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/ DigitalParticipation.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2010. p 39
  73. 73. Literacy
  74. 74. Literacy ๏ We need to think about how we should develop amongst young people a literacy that will help them navigate the unfolding digital spaces. ๏ In other words, we need to help them become digitally literate
  75. 75. Why type of literacy? ๏ Here I am talking about the type of literacy that Richard Hoggart campaigned for when he said that people must be able to become wise in their own way, and to help themselves.
  76. 76. “It is easier for a few to improve the material conditions of many than for a few to waken a great many from the hypnosis of immature emotional satisfactions. People in this situation have somehow to be taught to help themselves.” Hoggart, Richard. 2008 [1957]. The Uses of Literacy. New Brunswick (USA): Transaction Publishers. p. 250.
  77. 77. “[t]here are other ways of being in the truth. The strongest objection to the more trivial popular entertainments is not that they prevent their readers from becoming highbrow, but that they make it harder for people without an intellectual bent to become wise in their own way.” Hoggart, Richard. 2008 [1957]. The Uses of Literacy. New Brunswick (USA): Transaction Publishers. p. 250.
  78. 78. Literacy ๏ In other words, we need not a literacy that tells us how to critique (really, ‘criticise’) digital media. ๏ As Hoggart would say, that’s a defensive, false literacy that privileges the tastes of the intellectual/cultural elites and actually prevents people from becoming ‘wise in their own way’.
  79. 79. “To wish that a majority of the population will ever read The Times is to wish that human beings were constitutionally different, and that is to fall into an intellectual snobbery. The ability to read the decent weeklies is not a sine qua non of the good life” Hoggart, Richard. 2008 [1957]. The Uses of Literacy. New Brunswick (USA): Transaction Publishers. p. 262.
  80. 80. Digital literacy ๏ Instead, we should aim higher than that. ๏ We need a literacy that teaches us how to participate in, and to produce (as well as consume), digital culture because it is this type of literacy that will be essential to helping us navigate the digital world.
  81. 81. Digital literacy ๏ In other words, schools should be showing young people how to make the most of electronic and digital media -- not how to make the least of them. Hartley, John. 2009. The Uses of Digital Literacy. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. p. 20.
  82. 82. Human flourishing
  83. 83. Why literacy? ๏ Literacy is the key to unlocking an individual’s potential ๏ Literacy is about building citizens ๏ Literacy is about intellectual, ethical wealth ๏ Literacy is about dignity ๏ Literacy is a right ๏ Literacy is about human flourishing
  84. 84. Human flourishing ๏ Everything we do as teachers needs to be about helping young people come to know themselves ๏ It’s about helping them become aware of how they are socially constructed, how they construct themselves, and how they construct others ๏ It’s a realisation of the social forces that act upon us and how we ourselves contribute to them and can shape them
  85. 85. Human flourishing ๏ It’s about recognising that the self is part of something bigger ๏ It’s about recognising and responding to the human condition ๏ It’s about people’s ability to succeed with others ๏ It’s about contributing to a greater kowledge of oneself and a shared knowledge of others
  86. 86. Human flourishing ๏ As teachers, then, we should be aiming at helping young people recognise their autonomy, but also their interdependence.
  87. 87. Human flourishing ๏ As teachers, we are the catalysts for discovery and the guides for exploration
  88. 88. Classroom praxis
  89. 89. Classroom praxis ๏ The next is to consider how to occupy students so they build technical and intellectual digital literacy for encounters in digital and new media spaces.
  90. 90. Classroom praxis ๏ Whatever form this takes, it must involve teaching students how to distinguish active, deep and ethical intellectual pursuit from frivilous, simple, cosmetic obsessions. ๏ Students need to be taught how to produce as well as consume digital culture and how to use digital tools for communication and collaboration in the collective knowledge space.
  91. 91. Classroom praxis ๏ There is no formula. ๏ It’s about you employing your imagination, artistry, inventiveness to create meaningful and ethically proper learning experiences for your students.
  92. 92. Your digital literacy
  93. 93. Technical digital literacy ๏ Skilling up in the technology ๏ Workshops, training, ‘pushing buttons’ BUT the harder work is ๏ Changing mindsets ๏ Adjusting attitudes ๏ Overcoming fear ๏ Building self-esteem ๏ Embracing new ways of thinking
  94. 94. Intellectual digital literacy ๏ Interrogation of how the digital world works ๏ Critical engagement with ‣ Humanist philosophy ‣ Educational theory ‣ Cultural studies ‣ Popular non-fiction on digital culture
  95. 95. Wrapping up
  96. 96. Wrapping up ๏ New technologies are a game-changer for education ๏ We need to move beyond old practices and mindsets and look to ‘new learning’ ๏ For students to be successful in the new learning environment, they will have to be digitally literate ๏ So will you ...
  97. 97. Wrapping up ๏ New technologies have great potential to include marginalised groups ๏ However, an encroaching ‘digital divide’ could still prevent some groups from participating meaningfully in the digital world ๏ As educators, our responsibility is to human flourishing ๏ Therefore, you need to work on your own digital literacy -- both technical and intellectual
  98. 98. Picture refs ๏ Military-industrial complex http://www.eriding.net/media/photos/ history/victorian/school/ 080712_rfoster_mp_his_vict_school_class.jpg ๏ Pretty teacher http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_VZaVT03Q2G0/ SwRvHlAqM5I/AAAAAAAAKdY/yXygCc8uqB4/s1600/RG+2-1+PS +203.jpg ๏ This ain’t funny, kids http://www.victorianschool.org.uk/ public_html/images/class.JPG ๏ Thinking man http://www.asu.edu/clas/shs/aald/Pix/Thinking %20Man.jpg ๏ Digital divide http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/ newmediadev/files/worlddotblack.jpg ๏ iPhone http://kottkegae.appspot.com/images/iphone-parallels.jpg ๏ Online communities http://www.karagwe.com/images/content/ Community.jpg ๏ All other pictures are copyright and royalty-free.

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