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# Volcano stations

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### Volcano stations

1. 1. Station #1:• At this station you will:1. Fill out information on eruptions2. Draw the various parts of a volcano
2. 2. Volcanoes in GeneralWhat is an eruption?• Volcanic eruptions occur whenmagma from deep inside the earthpushes up through the mantle andcrust.• Volcanic eruptions release lava,steam, and gases into theatmosphereParts of a volcano
3. 3. Station #2:• At this station you will:1. Describe the different classification of volcanoes2. Write down examples of volcanoes that are active, dormant,or extinct3. Complete a math problem on eruptions
4. 4. Volcanoes in GeneralDormant: Has noterupted for sometime, but is expectedto erupt in the futureClassifyingvolcanoesActive: One eruptionin the last 10,000 yrs.Extinct: Has noterupted in the past10,000 yrs. and is notexpected to eruptagainKilauea Volcano, HawaiiMount Ararat, TurkeyMorne Diablotins, Dominica
5. 5. PROBLEM#1Some volcanoes erupt on a regularschedule. Scientists believe that YellowstoneNational Park in Wyoming sits on top of asupervolcano that first erupted 2 million years ago.They believe that it has erupted every 700,000years since.The Eyjafjallajokull volcano in southernIceland erupted on March 20,2010. This was thesame day it erupted 200 years earlier.If a volcano erupted in the year 1055 forthe first time and has erupted every 225 yearssince, how may times has it erupted since 1055?What was the most recent year it erupted? Whenis the next eruption due if it continues to erupt onschedule?
6. 6. Station #3:• At this station you will:1. Describe the VEI scale2. Discover how volcanoes are described based on the VEI3. Determine if other planets have volcanoes4. Research on the computer5. Complete the math problem on Io
7. 7. Volcanoes in GeneralPlotting the Power?The Volcanic Explosivity Index(VEI) scale is used to plot thepower of a volcano.VEI = 0Nonexplosive underwater volcanoes calledseamounts score a “0” on the VEI scaleLoihi Seamount pictured above.VEI = 8Volcanoes that score an “8” on the VEIscale are referred to as supervolcanoesAsh/debriscover fromYellowstone
8. 8. Volcanoes in GeneralDootherplanetshavevolcanoes?VenusMercuryMarsVenus is covered in volcanoesthat are potentially still active!Craters caused by volcaniceruptions also cover the surfaceof Mercury and are believed tobe extinct.Volcanoes on Mars are 10 to 100times larger than those on Earth.Olympus Mons is the largest inthe solar system.
9. 9. PROBLEM#2Jupiter‟s moon Io is home to all types of volcanicactivity. Scientists have observed eruptive centers,which are locations of major volcanic activity, as well asdepressions in the ground called paterae. Io also hasmany lava flows. The following chart is a list of sevenlava flows on Io. Use the chart to answer the questionsbelow.a. What is the total length of the lava flows?b. What is the difference between the longest lavaflows and the shortest?Name of lava flow Length of lava flow (Km)Acala 411Donar 222Euboea 105Fjorgynn 414Lei-Kung 386Masubi 501Sobo 58
10. 10. Station #4:• At this station you will:1. Differentiate between explosive and non-explosive eruptionsby filling out the chart2. Research an example of a seamount3. Complete the math problem on traveling volcanic ash
11. 11. Non-Explosive EruptionsNon-explosive eruptions arethe most common type oferuption.* Sometimes, non-explosivevolcanoes spray lava into the air.This is known as a lava fountain.* Typically, these eruptionsproduce relatively calm lavaflows.
12. 12. Non-Explosive EruptionsNon-explosive Eruptions• The Northwest region of the UnitedStates and the sea floor is coveredfrom lava of non-explosive eruptions• Seamounts account for more than20% of the Earth‟s volcanoesEstimated locations ofseamounts throughout theEarth‟s oceans.
13. 13. Explosive EruptionsExplosive eruptions are rarecompared to non-explosiveeruptions.• Clouds of hot debris, ash, and gasrapidly shoot out of the volcano• Effects of explosive eruptions canbe incredibly destructive• Can demolish an entire mountainsideExample: Mount St. Helensbefore and after split picture.
14. 14. Explosive EruptionsExplosive Eruptions• Causes molten rock to be blown intotiny particles that harden in the air• Dust-sized particles called ash canreach the upper atmosphere andcircle the Earth for yearsVolcanic eruptions in Iceland show how thecloud of ash looks from satellite imagery(above) and how it can travel (below).
15. 15. PROBLEM#3A new volcano erupted for the first time on June 4,2011 in Chile. Ash from the volcano reached theAustralian island of Tasmania on June 13. IfTasmania and Chile are about 6,000 miles apart,how many miles did the ash cloud travel each day?
16. 16. Station #5:• At this station you will:1. Sketch different parts of the volcano that are involved inmagma storage and eruptions2. Determine what components of magma influence the level ofexplosivity3. Research on „Volcano Explorer‟ how viscosity and gasconcentration influence the eruption -http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer
17. 17. MagmaWhere is magma located?• Magma is stored in a deepunderground section of the Earththat feeds the volcano known as themagma chamber• Magma rises from the magmachamber through cracks in theEarth‟s crust known as vents• Magma is released from the ventsduring an eruption
18. 18. ** The key to explosive eruptions lies in thesilica, water, and gas content of the magma**What makesup magma?The compositionof magmadetermineswhether or notan eruption isexplosive.Magma
19. 19. Station #6:• At this station you will:1. Describe how water and silica influence magma2. Discover various lava types3. Use your textbook or the internet to determine the viscosityof the various lava types4. Complete the math problem on Krakatoa and sound
20. 20. MagmaHigh Water Content High Silica Content• Water that is dissolved inmagma quickly turns to gas andexpands during an eruption• The rapid change causes anexplosion* Similar to shaking a can of sodaand then opening*• Silica-rich magma is extremelystiff and flows slowly• The magma hardens in thevents and causes pressure tobuild up• The build up of pressure, gas,and magma causes an explosion
21. 21. There are several types of lava:Aa(Brittle crust)Pahoehoe(Rounded wrinkles)Pillow lava(Underwater formation, rounded lumps)Blocky lava(Sharp-edged chunks)Magma will beconsidered lava ifit is liquid andflowing from thevolcanic vent.** Non-explosiveeruptions producemostly lava **Magma and Lava
22. 22. PROBLEM#4The speed of sound is a measure of how fast soundwaves travel. Sound waves travel at differentspeeds through air or through liquid. If the soundof Krakatoa volcano traveled through the air at720 miles an hour; how far did it travel in 1 minute?How far did the sound travel in 2.8 hours?
23. 23. Station #7:• At this station you will:1. Describe when magma is considered pyroclastic material2. Describe pyroclastic flows and the dangers3. Watch a clip from Dante‟s Peak and determine somethingrealistic and dramatized in the movie
24. 24. Four types of pyroclastic material:Volcanic Bombs(Large magma blobs)Volcanic Blocks(Large pieces of solid rock)Lapilli(“Little rocks”)Volcanic ash(Majority of materialcaused by rapid expansion of gas)Magma will beconsideredpyroclasticmaterial if it isblasted into theair and hardens.** Explosiveeruptions producemostly pyroclasticmaterial **Magma and Pyroclastic Material
25. 25. Pyroclastic flows are produced when enormousamounts of hot ash, dust, and gases areejected from a volcano.Pyroclasticflow is particularlydangerous because itcan travel faster thanhurricane forcewinds!Pyroclastic FlowAbove: Pyroclastic flow of the 1991eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines
26. 26. Station #8:• At this station you will:1. Describe the benefits of volcanoes2. Complete the math problem on researching volcanoes** You will only have benefits filled out on the table by the endof this station, hazards are at station #9 **
27. 27. BENEFITSVolcano Hazards and BenefitsInformation about the EarthVolcanologists and other scientists can gain informationabout the Earth‟s interior.Geothermal heatThe underground heat can be harnessed to heat water andto power cities.Rich soil to grow cropsSome volcanic soils are rich in minerals that can help growrice, vegetables, and fruit crops.Rock for materials/productsBuilding materials such as cement and concrete blocks canbe made from rocks such as pumice. It is also used to makecleaners, soaps, and cosmetics.
28. 28. PROBLEM#5Robots have been used to work in areas such asMount Erebus in Antarctica, the southernmostactive volcano on earth. Suppose it costs \$3.14million to operate one robot for one year inAntarctica. It costs \$3.14 million for twovolcanologists including their equipment to do thesame job. The cost of their equipment is \$2.12million . How much does it cost for onevolcanologist to work for a year in Antarctica, notincluding equipment?
29. 29. Station #9:• At this station you will:1. Describe the hazards of volcanoes2. Research an additional hazard or benefit and add it to thetable
30. 30. HAZARDS Volcano Hazards and BenefitsClimate ChangeThe volcanic ash and gases that spread throughoutthe atmosphere can alter the average globaltemperature.Loss of lifeVolcanoes have killed more than 225,000 peopleduring the past 400 years.Cost of destructionThe cost of destruction by volcanoes is almostimpossible to calculate since the damage caused tothe environment may not be known for years.
31. 31. Station #10:• At this station you will:1. Describe characteristics of three volcano types2. Sketch the volcano types3. Write an example of each volcano type
32. 32. ShieldVolcanoes:Shield volcanoes arebuilt of layers of lavafrom non-explosiveeruptions.Types of Volcanoes• Runny lava• Spreads over a wide area• Gently sloping sidesMauna Kea in Hawaii is the tallest mountain on Earth
33. 33. Cinder ConeVolcanoes:Made from pyroclasticmaterial producedfrom moderatelyexplosive eruptions.Types of Volcanoes• Typically occur in clusters• Small• Erupt for a short time• Steep slopesParicutin erupted for only nine years
34. 34. CompositeVolcanoes:Form from explosiveeruptions of pyroclasticmaterial followed byquieter lava flows.Types of Volcanoes• Referred to as “Stratovolcanoes”• Most common type of volcano• Alternating layers of pyroclasticmaterial and lava• Broad bases and sides• Steeper towards the topThere are several stratovolcanoes along the westernportion of the U.S. including Mount Hood pictured above.
35. 35. Station #11:• At this station you will:1. Describe landforms formed from volcanic activity2. Sketch the various landforms3. Research an example of each landform using the Internet
36. 36. Volcanic activitymay produceother landforms:Other Volcanic Landforms• Craters A funnel-shaped pit around thecentral vent at the top of thevolcano.• Calderas A large, semicircular depressionthat forms when the magmachamber‟s roof collapses.• Lava Plateaus A flat landform that results fromthe spreading of lava over largerareas.
37. 37. End of stations• Below are warm-ups used the two days following thestations.
38. 38. WARM-UP:• Discuss the difference between lavaand pyroclastic material• List as many types of lava andpyroclastic material that you can
39. 39. There are several types of lava:Aa(Brittle crust)Pahoehoe(Rounded wrinkles)Pillow lava(Underwater formation, rounded lumps)Blocky lava(Sharp-edged chunks)Magma will beconsidered lava ifit is liquid andflowing from thevolcanic vent.** Non-explosiveeruptions producemostly lava **Magma and Lava
40. 40. Four types of pyroclastic material:Volcanic Bombs(Large magma blobs)Volcanic Blocks(Large pieces of solid rock)Lapilli(“Little rocks”)Volcanic ash(Majority of materialcaused by rapid expansion of gas)Magma will beconsideredpyroclasticmaterial if it isblasted into theair and hardens.** Explosiveeruptions producemostly pyroclasticmaterial **Magma and Pyroclastic Material
41. 41. Directions:1. Use the Play-doh to construct the three types of volcanoes2. Designate one color to be lava and the other to be pyroclasticmaterial3. Construct the volcano and then sketch your drawing on yourpaper-- Please keep the play-doh in separate colors!** Underneath your drawing list the types of eruptions that mustoccur for those volcano types to form **
42. 42. Shield Volcano• Made of runny lava• Large areas covered• Gently sloping dome• Largest (by area covered) and flattest• Loosely arranged• Usually are in clusters• Not very high• Made of cinders, bombs, ash, dust• Smallest and steepest type of volcanoCinder ConeVolcanoCompositeVolcano• Made of alternate layers of cinders and lava• Tallest of all volcano types (medium-sizedbase)• Broad bases and sides• Steeper towards the top