Taxonomy

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Taxonomy

  1. 1. TAXONOMY
  2. 2. Terminology Taxonomy: science ofdescribing, naming, and classifyingorganisms Taxon: particular group within a taxonomicsystem
  3. 3. Aristotle Classified organisms into 2taxa (plants and animals) Animals classified by livingon land, sea, or in the air Plants classified by stems Organisms were discoveredthat did not fit into thegroups, became recognizedas an inadequate system
  4. 4. LINNAEAN SYSTEM Carolus Linnaeus Devised system of classificationaccording to form and structure oforganisms (2 kingdoms- plants andanimals) Traits are heavily influenced bygenes, providing clues to commonancestry Each category represented a levelmoving from larger general to smallermore specific classification
  5. 5. LEVELS OFCLASSIFICATION
  6. 6. HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Duuuuude King Philip Came Over For Green Soup
  7. 7.  An example… General to specificclassificationcategories Domain- Eukarya
  8. 8. SPECIESMembers of same species are: morphologically similar able to produce fertile offspring
  9. 9. Binomial Nomenclature Genus name followed bythe species identifier Written in italics withgenus name capitalized Subspecies: variations of aspecies living in differentgeographic areas Name follows the speciesidentifiers Ex. Orcinus orcalatirostris
  10. 10. SUBSPECIES
  11. 11. MEMBERS OF DIFFERENT SPECIESCAN INTERBREED, BUT . . .
  12. 12. THEY PRODUCE STERILE OFFSPRING!Duh – it’s only, like, my favorite animal.
  13. 13. Phylogenetics: analysis ofevolutionary or ancestralrelationships among taxaPhylogenetic TreesShow how closelyrelated taxa are to oneanotherSystematics
  14. 14. MODERN CLASSIFICATIONSimilarities in…MorphologyFossilsEmbryosChromosomesMacromolecules
  15. 15. CLADISTICSClade: group of organismsthat includes an ancestorplus all of it’s descendantsCLADOGRAM
  16. 16. Shared Character: Feature that all members of a group havein commonExamples: mammals=hair, birds=feathersDerived Character: feature that evolved only within the groupunder consideration
  17. 17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=46L_2RI1k3k
  18. 18.  Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes All organisms in each group not equally alike Carl Woese Revised classification of Earth’s diversity from 6 kingdoms Grouped organisms based on rRNA sequences into domains All living organisms (even prokaryotes) have ribosomesModern Classification
  19. 19. 3 DOMAINS Bacteria Small single celled organisms (prokaryotes) Archaea Prokaryotes with unique biochemical and genetic properties Often inhabit harsh environments Hot springs, thermal vents, salty lakes, etc. Believed to be among earliest organisms on Earth Eukarya Eukaryotes Plants, animals, fungi, single-celled organisms
  20. 20.  Domain Bacteria: Kingdom Eubacteria“true bacteria”Domain Archaea: Kingdom Archaebacteria“ancient bacteria”
  21. 21. DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdom Protista Classified by what they aren’t (fungi, animals, plants) Not very useful, several new taxa being considered Amoebas, paramecia, seaweeds, molds Kingdom Fungi Absorb nutrients, not ingest (heterotrophic) Mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, mildews, molds]
  22. 22. DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdom Plantae Multicellular plants Most autotrophic, some parasitic Mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants Kingdom Animalia Heterotrophic, multicellular, develop from embryos Symmetrical body organization
  23. 23. MISS FINNIs awesomedon’t leave 

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