Chapter 10 (2)

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Chapter 10 (2)

  1. 1. Chapter 10. Plant AnatomyAP Biology 2005-2006
  2. 2. Basic anatomy  root  shoot (stem)  leavesAP Biology 2005-2006
  3. 3. Expanded anatomy  root  root tip  root hairs  shoot (stem)  nodes  internodes  apical buds  axillary buds  flowers  leaves  veinsAP Biology 2005-2006
  4. 4. Shoots  Shoots consist of stems, leaves & buds  Stems  nodes = points at which leaves are attached  internodes = stem segments between nodes  Buds  growth of shoot  terminal or apical bud = at tip of plant  axillary bud = in nodes on stemAP Biology 2005-2006
  5. 5. Modified shoots stolons (strawberries) rhizome (ginger)AP Biology 2005-2006 tuber (potato) bulb (onion)
  6. 6. 1 Roots  Roots anchor plant in soil, absorb minerals & water, & store food  fibrous roots (1)  mat of thin roots that spread out  monocots  tap roots (2)  1 large vertical root  also produces many small lateral, or branch roots  dicots  root hairs (3) 2  increase absorptive surface areaAP Biology 3 2005-2006
  7. 7. Leaves  Function of leaves?  photosynthesis  energy production  CHO production  gas exchange  transpiration simple vs. compoundAP Biology 2005-2006
  8. 8. AP Biology 2005-2006
  9. 9. AP Biology
  10. 10. CollenchymaAP Biology
  11. 11. Stomates Function of stomates?AP Biology 2005-2006
  12. 12. Modified leaves tendrils (peas) spines (cacti) succulent leavesAP Biology colored leaves (poinsetta) 2005-2006
  13. 13. Interdependent systems  Both systems depend sugars on the other  roots receive sugars & other nutrients from photosynthetic parts  shoot system depends on water & minerals absorbed from the soil by roots waterAP Biology 2005-2006
  14. 14. Putting it all together  Obtaining raw materials  sunlight  leaves = solar collectors  CO2  stomates = gas exchange  H2O  uptake from roots  nutrients  uptake from rootsAP Biology 2005-2006
  15. 15. Plant tissues  Dermal  “skin” of plant  single layer of tightly packed cells that covers & protects plant  Vascular  transport materials between roots & shoots  xylem & phloem  Ground  everything else: storage, photosynthetic  bulk of plant tissueAP Biology 2005-2006
  16. 16. Plant cell types in tissuesAP Biology 2005-2006
  17. 17. Those would’ve Plant cell types in tissues been great names for my kids!  Parenchyma  “typical” plant cells = least specialized  photosynthetic cells, storage cells  tissue of leaves, stem, fruit, storage roots  Collenchyma  unevenly thickened primary walls = support  Sclerenchyma  very thick, “woody” secondary walls = support  rigid cells that can’t elongate  dead at functional maturityAP Biology 2005-2006
  18. 18. Parenchyma  Parenchyma cells are relatively unspecialized, thin, flexible & carry out many metabolic functions  all types of cells develop from parenchymaAP Biology 2005-2006
  19. 19. Collenchyma  Collenchyma cells have thicker primary walls & provide support  help support without restraining growth  remain alive in maturityAP Biology 2005-2006
  20. 20. the strings in celery stalksAP Biology are collenchyma 2005-2006
  21. 21. Sclerenchyma  Thick, rigid cell wall  lignin (wood)  cannot elongate  mostly dead at maturity  Support cells  xylem vessels  tracheids  fibers  rope fibers  sclereids  nutshells  seed coats  grittiness in pearsAP Biology 2005-2006
  22. 22. Vascular tissue  Transports materials in roots, stems & leaves  Xylem  carry water & minerals up from roots  tube-shaped dead cells  only their walls provide a system of microscopic water pipes  Phloem  carry nutrients throughout plant  sugars (sucrose), amino acids…  tube-shaped living cellsAP Biology 2005-2006
  23. 23. vessel elements Xylemtracheids dead cells → water-conducting cells of xylemAP Biology 2005-2006
  24. 24. Aaaaah… Xylem Structure-Function again!  Dead at functional maturity  Cell elongated into tubes  tracheids  long, thin cells with tapered ends  walls reinforced with lignin = support  thinner pits in end walls allows water flow  vessel elements  wider, shorter, thinner walled & less tapered  perforated ends walls allows free water flowAP Biology 2005-2006
  25. 25. Phloem: food-conducting cells  sieve tube elements & companion cellsAP Biology 2005-2006
  26. 26. Phloem: food-conducting cells  sieve tube elements & companion cellsAP Biology 2005-2006
  27. 27. Aaaaah… Phloem Structure-Function again!  Living cells at functional maturity  lack nucleus, ribosomes & vacuole  more room: specialized for liquid food (sucrose) transport  Cells  sieve tubes  end walls, sieve plates, have pores to facilitate flow of fluid between cells  companion cells  nucleated cells connected to the sieve-tube  help sieve tubesAP Biology 2005-2006
  28. 28. Phloem sieve platesievetubesAP Biology 2005-2006
  29. 29. Vascular tissue in herbaceous stems dicot monocot trees & shrubs grasses & liliesAP Biology 2005-2006
  30. 30. Root structure: dicotphloem xylemAP Biology 2005-2006
  31. 31. Root structure: monocotAP Biology 2005-2006
  32. 32. Any Questions??AP Biology 2005-2006

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