POLI 352: International Relations/Foreign Policy of Africa           June 2011<br />Becoming a Scholar: Integrity and Rese...
We live in a continuous flow of information. Evaluation skills are essential to stay afloat.<br />
Joining the scholarly conversation<br />
When you find an article, how do you decide if it’s “good”?<br />
Evaluation<br />….not just a question of good/bad or black/white<br />
Peer review… <br />…no longer sacred.<br />
Hoax! <br />Read more<br />
Points to consider<br />Currency<br />Reliability<br />Authority<br />Purpose<br />
Evaluation task<br />Look at the characteristics of your article. (No need to read it thoroughly!)<br />Using the evaluati...
Scenario<br />Task: I’m writing a 3 page policy brief<br />Topic: state formation in Zimbabwe<br />“Context” = type of arg...
Let’s talk about cookies<br />What’s in your cookies?<br />What’s in your assignment???<br />
What is plagiarism?<br />
Principles of academic integrity<br />When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it. <br />When you rely on ...
Academic integrity at McGill<br />“McGill University values academic integrity. Therefore all students must understand the...
Fairplay: A Guide to Academic Integrity<br />http://www.mcgill.ca/students/srr/honest/students/<br />Important guide provi...
Is this cheating?<br />:: Submitting a paper that you wrote in a previous course.<br />Yes!<br />
Plagiarism?<br />:: Using diagrams and images from websites in a class presentation.<br />Yes!<br />(Without proper citati...
Use Flickr and <br />Advanced Google Image Search to find Creative Commons images<br />
True or False?<br />:: PARAPHRASING AND SUMMARIZINGYou read about an idea that you really like in a book chapter. You thin...
Can plagiarism be unintentional?<br />
If in doubt…<br />Cite it or ask for advice<br />You don’t want to end up like Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg…<br />
“You Quote It, You Note It”<br />You Quote It, You Note ItPlagiarism Tutorial from Acadia University <br />http://library....
Paraphrasing tips<br />Read carefully and make notes<br />Put the original aside<br />Convey the author’s idea in your own...
Original passage<br />Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotation...
Is this a paraphrase?<br />Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of th...
Legitimate paraphrase<br />In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a ...
Paraphrasing<br />“Understanding Patchwriting” video:<br />http://www.rebeccamoorehoward.com/videos/video-4<br />More tips...
Citation: What’s the biggest challenge?<br />
Why cite?<br />
Necessary bibliographic information:<br />Books: author, title, publishing info, date<br />Journal articles: author, title...
Citation Styles<br />APA<br />   A set of rules and guidelines for how to include references to information sources in the...
Citation practice<br />http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org<br />
Journal article<br />1.Baimu, Evarist, and Kathryn Sturman, “Amendment to the African Union’s Right to Intervene: A Shift ...
Book chapter<br />2. KizitoSabala, Aisha Ahmad, and Edwin Rutto, “The Somali Peace Process from Arta to Eldoret to Mbagath...
Report<br />3. United Nations Development Programme, Building Bridges Between The State & The People: An Overview of UNDP’...
Take away<br />Evaluate.  [Garbage in…garbage out!]<br />Citation is not just torture; it’s central to academic communicat...
A favour: give me feedback!<br />http://bit.ly/poli352comments<br />
Megan Fitzgibbons<br />Liaison Librarian<br />megan.fitzgibbons@mcgill.ca<br />514-398-4696<br />What are your questions?<...
Credits<br />This presentation is based on materials used and created by various McGill librarians for earlier information...
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  • Show this as students are coming in??? http://vimeo.com/9641036http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6MfnuvH4Rs
  • We live in a world that’s awash in information. It’s always flowing around us. It’s easy to find information, but the hard part is finding the RIGHT information. When you’re working with academic information in particular, it’s essential to have a critical eye and take a systematic approach to evaluating the information. At this level, I think it goes without saying that—writing skills aside--the quality of your final product depends on the quality of the information that goes in.
  • We live in a world that’s awash in information. It’s always flowing around us. It’s easy to find information, but the hard part is finding the RIGHT information. When you’re working with academic information in particular, it’s essential to have a critical eye and take a systematic approach to evaluating the information. At this level, I think it goes without saying that—writing skills aside--the quality of your final product depends on the quality of the information that goes in.
  • A common challenge in research is knowing how to identify the “best” information. The objectives of the session today are going to look at the larger context of what it means to join the scholarly conversation. So our first task is to provide you with a tool for critically appraising the quality of an article. The context is mainly for academic information, but it can apply to other situations as well.  We’re then going to look at some specific techniques for identifying key authors and publications in a particular field. Then we’ll move on to a discussion of academic integrity and what that means for researchers, and finally we’ll talk about how to manage your information so that you can build an appropriate “scholarly apparatus”--notes and citations—that scaffold your work.In tandem with the first session, the goal is to build your toolkit of resources and to develop a way of engaging in scholarship that takes you beyond the usual role of a student in an undergrad course.
  • Partner/three. I expect that they’ll mention peer-review, etc.
  • Discuss that things are often not black and white, and seldom as simple as a checklist (though there is value in using the checklist as an essential starting point).
  • There is always a grey area.Peer-review is criticized, e.g., retraction watch and research funding scandals. New publishing models, e.g., SSRN and other repositories. Ads on scholarly sites, e.g., Springer. Intentional misinformation on the web.
  • There is always a grey area.Peer-review is criticized, e.g., retraction watch and research funding scandals. New publishing models, e.g., SSRN and other repositories. Ads on scholarly sites, e.g., Springer. Intentional misinformation on the web. Mention Lancet one, too. Ghost writing, authorship.
  • There is always a grey area.Peer-review is criticized, e.g., retraction watch and research funding scandals. New publishing models, e.g., SSRN and other repositories. Ads on scholarly sites, e.g., Springer. Intentional misinformation on the web. Fake article? http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c6931.fullFrom wikipedia: “The Sokal affair, also known as the Sokal hoax,[1] was a publishing hoax perpetrated by Alan Sokal, a physics professor at New York University. In 1996, Sokal submitted an article toSocial Text, an academic journal of postmodern cultural studies. The submission was an experiment to test the publication&apos;s intellectual rigor and, specifically, to learn if such a journal would &quot;publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if it (a) sounded good and (b) flattered the editors&apos; ideological preconceptions.&quot;[2]The article &quot;Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity&quot;, published in the Social Text Spring/Summer 1996 &quot;Science Wars&quot; issue, proposed that quantum gravity is a social and linguistic construct. At that time, the journal did not practice academic peer review and did not submit the article for outside expert review by a physicist.[3][4] The journal&apos;s editorial collective did, however, express concerns to Sokal about the piece, and requested changes, which Sokal refused to make. Wishing to include the work of a physicist, the editors decided to accept the article on the basis of Sokal&apos;s credentials. On its date of publication (May 1996), Sokal revealed in Lingua Franca that the article was a hoax, identifying it as &quot;a pastiche of Left-wing cant, fawning references, grandiose quotations, and outright nonsense . . . structured around the silliest quotations [by postmodernist academics] he could find about mathematics and physics&quot;.[2]The resultant academic and public quarrels concerned the scholarly merit, or lack thereof, of humanistic commentary about the physical sciences; the influence of postmodernphilosophy on social disciplines in general; academic ethics, including whether Sokal was wrong to deceive the editors and readers of Social Text; and whether the journal had exercised the appropriate intellectual rigor before publishing the pseudoscientific article.”
  • There is always a grey area.Peer-review is criticized, e.g., retraction watch and research funding scandals. New publishing models, e.g., SSRN and other repositories. Ads on scholarly sites, e.g., Springer. Intentional misinformation on the web. We usually think about “popular” magazines as having lots of ads and so on, but what if ads appear on publisher’s websites? What do we do when businesses are funding researchers and journals?
  • We usually think about “popular” magazines as having lots of ads and so on, but what if ads appear on publisher’s websites? What do we do when businesses are funding researchers and journals?
  • Of course, these examples are very extreme. Usually the lines between appropriate scholarly information and lower quality are hard to discern.Again, things are often not black and white, and seldom as simple as a checklist (though there is value in using the checklist as an essential starting point). Today we’re going to give you a critical appraisal tool that you can apply when you’re reading to gauge the quality of an article.
  • The point of the matrix: there’s not a yes/no checkbox—we have to look at the larger picture
  • Academic writing is distinguished from other types of writing by the importance of identifying your sources. To not identify and properly cite your sources in academic writing is considered a crime. The crime is plagiarism. Citation allows future scholars to trace lines of thinking – citations are the breadcrumbs we follow. Citing is not just about crediting others for their ideas, it is also about creating a framework in your writing that allows YOUR ideas to stand out and be readily apparent to your reader. --- makes it easy to distinguish the ideas and originality that are yours…That which is NOT cited is all you.
  • Responsible research and writing implies that we respect the intellectual property rights of others: this is the essence of academic integrity.
  • Self-plagiarism is just as serious as plagiarism of another’s intellectual output. That stated, you will likely build on ideas that you’ve previously written about, especially as you find the area that you’ll specialize in as an academic, but it is expected that each piece of academic writing you produce will be a unique entity.
  • Yes, images, charts, and diagrams also must be cited, no matter where they come from. In addition, images are often under copyright and so cannot be reused. A convenient source for images are images that the creators have given Creative Commons licenses to. Creative Commons allows for various levels of reuse, with attribution, i.e. citing. Use the advanced google image search and flickr to find images like these. Talk about creative commons for images, etc. - students don’t have to rely on the public domain for materials that they can repurpose without fear or risk of copyright infringement. - Can circumvent copyright issues and trying to clear images through the use of Creative Commons material…
  • You must cite, even if you are not using the author’s words, you are borrowing ideas…
  • Taking background material directly from a website. The student claims she didn’t know that Web material of this type had to be referenced. If it’s unintentional, and expects to receive a warning only. Case of historians
  • “He was voted Germany&apos;s most popular politician, a chisel-jawed, gelled-haired aristocrat who held such rock-star status that his party used to play an AC/DC track every time he took to the stage. But Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg has resigned as defence minister after being engulfed by a plagiarism scandal…”Extremely popular German politician who had to resign after the authenticity of his PhD was called into question. He became known as the Minister for Cut and Paste…
  • One of the most common violations is use of minor paraphrasing …..  the end result is too close to the original in perspective, depth and style …..  and thus cannot be attributed to the student as his or her own original work.Paraphrasing means that you capture the ideas of the original material, but change the sentence structure and language. It involves more than changing a few words… Summarizing is similar to paraphrasing, but involves leaving out a lot of the detail. Both are difficult if not impossible to do unless you really understand the ideas of the original material. If you are struggling with understanding ideas or vocabulary in something you’re reading and wanting to paraphrase, consult subject encyclopedias – they give you a succinct overview of concepts and often contain glossaries. Where to find these? Subject guides…
  • One of the most common violations is use of minor paraphrasing …..  the end result is too close to the original in perspective, depth and style …..  and thus cannot be attributed to the student as his or her own original work.Paraphrasing means that you capture the ideas of the original material, but change the sentence structure and language. It involves more than changing a few words… Summarizing is similar to paraphrasing, but involves leaving out a lot of the detail. Both are difficult if not impossible to do unless you really understand the ideas of the original material. If you are struggling with understanding ideas or vocabulary in something you’re reading and wanting to paraphrase, consult subject encyclopedias – they give you a succinct overview of concepts and often contain glossaries. Where to find these? Subject guides…
  • Take down the necessary bibliographic information as you go, and take notes that allow you to clearly distinguish your ideas from those found in your sources.
  • Academic integrity

    1. 1. POLI 352: International Relations/Foreign Policy of Africa June 2011<br />Becoming a Scholar: Integrity and Research<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. We live in a continuous flow of information. Evaluation skills are essential to stay afloat.<br />
    4. 4. Joining the scholarly conversation<br />
    5. 5. When you find an article, how do you decide if it’s “good”?<br />
    6. 6. Evaluation<br />….not just a question of good/bad or black/white<br />
    7. 7. Peer review… <br />…no longer sacred.<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Hoax! <br />Read more<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12. Points to consider<br />Currency<br />Reliability<br />Authority<br />Purpose<br />
    13. 13. Evaluation task<br />Look at the characteristics of your article. (No need to read it thoroughly!)<br />Using the evaluation matrix, assess the currency, reliability, authority, and purpose of the article<br />Make a judgment: would you use this article in an academic paper?<br />http://www.aei.org/paper/22804<br />
    14. 14. Scenario<br />Task: I’m writing a 3 page policy brief<br />Topic: state formation in Zimbabwe<br />“Context” = type of argument <br />Ask yourself: Is it empirical? Experimental? Content analysis? Literature review? Is this appropriate for my task?<br />
    15. 15. Let’s talk about cookies<br />What’s in your cookies?<br />What’s in your assignment???<br />
    16. 16. What is plagiarism?<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Principles of academic integrity<br />When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it. <br />When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it. When you use their words, you quote them openly and accurately, and you cite them too.<br />When you present research materials, you present them fairly and truthfully. <br />(Charles Lipson. Doing honest work in college, p. 3)<br />
    19. 19. Academic integrity at McGill<br />“McGill University values academic integrity. Therefore all students must understand the meaning and consequences of cheating, plagiarism and other academic offences under the Code of Student Conduct and Disciplinary Procedures.”<br />
    20. 20. Fairplay: A Guide to Academic Integrity<br />http://www.mcgill.ca/students/srr/honest/students/<br />Important guide providing case scenarios and examples of academic integrity and plagiarism <br />
    21. 21. Is this cheating?<br />:: Submitting a paper that you wrote in a previous course.<br />Yes!<br />
    22. 22. Plagiarism?<br />:: Using diagrams and images from websites in a class presentation.<br />Yes!<br />(Without proper citation)<br />
    23. 23. Use Flickr and <br />Advanced Google Image Search to find Creative Commons images<br />
    24. 24. True or False?<br />:: PARAPHRASING AND SUMMARIZINGYou read about an idea that you really like in a book chapter. You think about it a lot and it starts to feel like your own. You use it in your paper, but in your own words. Therefore, you don’t need to cite the source. <br />False!<br />
    25. 25. Can plagiarism be unintentional?<br />
    26. 26. If in doubt…<br />Cite it or ask for advice<br />You don’t want to end up like Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg…<br />
    27. 27. “You Quote It, You Note It”<br />You Quote It, You Note ItPlagiarism Tutorial from Acadia University <br />http://library.acadiau.ca/tutorials/plagiarism/<br />
    28. 28. Paraphrasing tips<br />Read carefully and make notes<br />Put the original aside<br />Convey the author’s idea in your own words<br />Check the original for accuracy<br />Record the source<br />
    29. 29. Original passage<br />Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.<br />©1995-2011 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University<br />
    30. 30. Is this a paraphrase?<br />Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.<br />©1995-2011 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University<br />
    31. 31. Legitimate paraphrase<br />In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).<br />©1995-2011 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University<br />
    32. 32. Paraphrasing<br />“Understanding Patchwriting” video:<br />http://www.rebeccamoorehoward.com/videos/video-4<br />More tips: OWL at Purdue<br />
    33. 33. Citation: What’s the biggest challenge?<br />
    34. 34.
    35. 35. Why cite?<br />
    36. 36. Necessary bibliographic information:<br />Books: author, title, publishing info, date<br />Journal articles: author, title, journal name, volume, issue, date, page numbers<br />Electronic articles: add URL, DOI, or database name, access date<br />Web sites: author (if mentioned), title, date (if found), URL, access date<br />Use EndNote & other tools to stay organized<br />Keep track of your stuff<br />
    37. 37. Citation Styles<br />APA<br /> A set of rules and guidelines for how to include references to information sources in the document text and bibliography<br />
    38. 38. Citation practice<br />http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org<br />
    39. 39. Journal article<br />1.Baimu, Evarist, and Kathryn Sturman, “Amendment to the African Union’s Right to Intervene: A Shift from Human Security to Regime Security?,” African Security Review 12, no. 2: 37-45 (2003), doi: 10.1080/10246029.2003.9627218. <br />
    40. 40. Book chapter<br />2. KizitoSabala, Aisha Ahmad, and Edwin Rutto, “The Somali Peace Process from Arta to Eldoret to Mbagathi Opportunities and Challenges,” in The Resolution of African Conflicts: The Management of Conflict Resolution & Post-Conflict Reconstruction, ed. Alfred G. Nhema and TiyambeZeleza (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2008), 134-157. <br />
    41. 41. Report<br />3. United Nations Development Programme, Building Bridges Between The State & The People: An Overview of UNDP’s Recent and Current Interventions in Public Administration and Local Governance in Africa (New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2010), accessed June 10, 2011, http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/download/publication/?version=live&id=2672816. <br />
    42. 42. Take away<br />Evaluate. [Garbage in…garbage out!]<br />Citation is not just torture; it’s central to academic communication<br />Ask for help!<br />
    43. 43. A favour: give me feedback!<br />http://bit.ly/poli352comments<br />
    44. 44. Megan Fitzgibbons<br />Liaison Librarian<br />megan.fitzgibbons@mcgill.ca<br />514-398-4696<br />What are your questions?<br />
    45. 45. Credits<br />This presentation is based on materials used and created by various McGill librarians for earlier information literacy workshops.<br />Binary flow image by adrenalinhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/adrenalin/4250667/ License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic<br />Crime scene do not cross. By voteprime. http://www.flickr.com/photos/voteprime/4871645231/ Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic <br />Cookies by Mrs Magichttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mrsmagic/1117398599/ License: Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic<br />Citation flowchart: Gaunt, Jessica, Nigel Morgan, Rowland Somers, Rosemary Soper, and Erica Swain. Handbook for Information Literacy Teaching. Cardiff, Wales: Cardiff University, 2007. http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/insrv/educationandtraining/infolit/hilt/index.html (accessed May 14, 2008).<br />[Frustration] An unhealthy relationship http://www.flickr.com/photos/31001240@N00/516902570/ by  baking_in_pearls Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic<br />

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