A"PROJECT"REPORT"
ON"
!
“THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY"
ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND!
PERSONALITY:"AN"EMPIRICAL"
STUDY"ON"UNILEVER’S"LUX...
A"PROJECT"REPORT"
ON"
!
“THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY"
ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND!
PERSONALITY:"AN"EMPIRICAL"
STUDY"ON"UNILEVER’S"LUX...
THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY"
ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND"
PERSONALITY:"AN"
EMPIRICAL"STUDY"ON"
UNILEVER’S"LUX"ON"BEING"
BEAUTY"BAR"OF...
FOR MY FAMILY
"
ABSTRACT"
"
What"Is"The"Project"About?"
"
Celebrity"endorsement"is"a"highly"researched"field"in"marketing."Having"its"
roo...
preferences"with"a"study"on"Unilever’s"Lux"brand,"which"is"today"perceived"
as"a"‘Beauty"bar"for"film"stars’"
"
Thus" we" ...
DECLARATION"
I"wish"to"state"the"work"embodied"in"this"project"titled"“THE!IMPACT!OF!
CELEBRITY! ENDORSEMENT! ON! BRAND! P...
CERTIFICATE"
This"is"to"certify"that"Mr."Raj"Bhambhani"of"Vivekananda"Education"Society’s"
Institute"of"Management"Studies...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT"
"
This"project"bears"the"imprint"of"many"people."The"satiation"and"euphoria"that"
accompany" the" success...
TABLE&OF&CONTENTS"
Index" Page"No."
1."Executive"Summary" 1A2"
2."Introduction" 3A6"
3."Celebrity"Endorsement"&"Brand"Pers...
• Origins," History" and" Brand" Image" Through" The"
Years"
10."Lux"Branding"Strategies"&"Brand"Equity"
• Lux"Brand"Eleme...
16."Directions"for"Future"Research" 113"
17."Conclusion" 114A116"
18."Reference" 117A118"
19."Appendix:"Questionnaire" 119...
"
"
"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
2! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
equal! market! share! as! Hindustan! Le...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
4! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
be!more!likely!to!reject!brand!associat...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
6! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
process!that!Nike!has!been!practicing!c...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
8! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
Brand)personality)
A!set!of!human!chara...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
10! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
andEsuch!an!actress,”!or!“the!official...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
12! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
opportunities!come!about.!People!want!...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
14! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
Marketers! believe! that! star! endors...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
16! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
based!on!many!different!parameters!E!a...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
18! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
User)Associations:)Brands!acquire!imag...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
20! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
Quick)connect:)There!needs!to!be!no!in...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
22! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
RESEARCH'OBJECTIVES!
Objective! of! th...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
24! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
Source!Credibility!of!Communication!
T...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
26! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
)
The)Meaning)Transfer)Model.!Because!...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
28! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
reduces!search!costs,!effort!and!perce...
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!...
30! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!
RESEARCH'METHODOLOGY!
Questionnaire!ba...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEI...
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"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEING BEAUTY BAR OF FILM STARS!” - Raj Bhambhani

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Celebrity endorsement has been established as one of the most popular tools of advertising in recent time. It has become a trend and perceived as a winning formula for any successful product marketing mix and brand building. Say, when it comes to celebrity endorsement, the first brand that comes to the mind is that of Unilever’s one of the most popular brand LUX, the Beauty Bar of the Stars. Since its inception, Lux the brand has grown positioning itself thus. It is probably the only brand that has had endorsement from nearly 50 Indian film stars and lot of stars all over the world. Based on an empirical study, I try to find out whether the same personality dimensions exist for the celebrity and the brand Lux respectively. It is easy to choose a celebrity but it is tough to establish a strong association between the product and the endorser. While the magnitude of the impact of celebrity endorsement remains under the purview of gray spectacles, this paper is an effort to analyze the impact of celebrity endorsements on brands. Thus, objective of this study is to examine the relationship between celebrity endorsements and brands, and the impact of celebrity personality on brand personality, consumerʹs buying behaviour taking Unilever’s Lux brand, which is today perceived as a ‘Beauty bar for film stars’. Does it bring out the star in consumer's mind? Have a look! The study is supposed to generate research interest because of its novelty of idea.

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"A PROJECT REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT ON BRAND PERSONALITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON UNILEVER’S LUX ON BEING BEAUTY BAR OF FILM STARS!” - Raj Bhambhani

  1. 1. A"PROJECT"REPORT" ON" ! “THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY" ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND! PERSONALITY:"AN"EMPIRICAL" STUDY"ON"UNILEVER’S"LUX"ON" BEING"BEAUTY"BAR"OF" FILMSTARS!” " BY" " RAJ"BHAMBHANI" PGDM"(2012A2014)" " UNDER"GUIDANCE"OF" Prof."DEBJANI"BANERJEE" " IN"PARTIAL"FULFILMENT"OF"POST"GRADUATED" DIPLOMA"IN"MANAGEMENT(PGDM)" " VIVEKANAND"EDUCATION"SOCIETY’s" INSTITUTE"OF"MANEGMENT"STUDIES" AND"RESEARCH" " [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND! PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ! BHAMBHANI]!
  2. 2. A"PROJECT"REPORT" ON" ! “THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY" ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND! PERSONALITY:"AN"EMPIRICAL" STUDY"ON"UNILEVER’S"LUX"ON" BEING"BEAUTY"BAR"OF" FILMSTARS!” " BY" " RAJ"BHAMBHANI" PGDM"(2012A2014)" " UNDER"GUIDANCE"OF" Prof."DEBJANI"BANERJEE" " IN"PARTIAL"FULFILMENT"OF"POST"GRADUATED" DIPLOMA"IN"MANAGEMENT(PGDM)" " VIVEKANAND"EDUCATION"SOCIETY’s" INSTITUTE"OF"MANEGMENT"STUDIES" AND"RESEA"
  3. 3. THE"IMPACT"OF"CELEBRITY" ENDORSEMENT"ON"BRAND" PERSONALITY:"AN" EMPIRICAL"STUDY"ON" UNILEVER’S"LUX"ON"BEING" BEAUTY"BAR"OF" FILMSTARS!" " DOES"IT"BRING"OUT"THE"STAR"IN" YOU?" " " RAJ"BHAMBHANI" "
  4. 4. FOR MY FAMILY "
  5. 5. ABSTRACT" " What"Is"The"Project"About?" " Celebrity"endorsement"is"a"highly"researched"field"in"marketing."Having"its" roots" in" psychology" and" the" source" credibility" of" communication" (Hovland" and" Weiss," 1952;" McCroskey" and" Young," 1981)" it" has" come" up" a" long" way" since" the" early" research" was" done" in" the" seventies" (Friedman," et" aI.," 1976;" Kamen"et"aI.,"1975)."Researchers"have"delved"into"various"issues"of"celebrity" endorsements" such" as" source" credibility" of" the" celebrity," celebrityAbrand" congruence" and" meaning" transfer" model" (McCracken," 1989)." Research" in" Brand"Personality"is"relatively"new."The"works"of"Aaker"and"Fournier"(1995)," Aaker" (1997)" and" Ourgee" (1998)" initiated" the" interest," which" ultimately" resulted" in" the" construction" of" a" Brand" Personality" Scale" by" Aaker" (1997)." However,"researchers"have"not"looked"into"the"issue"of"Celebrity"Personality" affecting"the"Brand"Personality"even"in"congruence"studies."In"this"paper"we" try"to"address"the"issue"of"celebrity"personality"affecting"brand"personality." Following"which"we"have"tried"to"see"whether"celebrity"endorsement"has"an" effect" on" brand" personality" &" image" and" impact" on" consumer" buying" behavior."The"study"is"supposed"to"generate"research"interest"because"of"its" novelty"of"idea."" " What"Is"The"Goal"Of"The"Project?" " Celebrity"endorsement"has"been"established"as"one"of"the"most"popular"tools" of" advertising" in" recent" time." It" has" become" a" trend" and" perceived" as" a" winning"formula"for"product"marketing"mix"and"brand"building."For"example" when" it" comes" to" celebrity" endorsement," the" first" brand" that" comes" to" the" Indian" mind" is" that" of" Unilever’s" one" of" the" most" popular" brand" LUX," the" Beauty" Bar" of" the" Stars." Since" its" inception," Lux" the" brand" has" grown" positioning" itself" thus." It" is" probably" the" only" brand" that" has" had" an" endorsement" from" nearly" 50" Indian" film" stars" and" lot" of" stars" all" over" the" world." Based" on" an" empirical" study," we" try" to" find" out" whether" the" same" personality"dimensions"exist"for"the"celebrity"and"the"brand"Lux"respectively." It"is"easy"to"choose"a"celebrity"but"it"is"tough"to"establish"a"strong"association" between"the"product"and"the"endorser."While"the"magnitude"of"the"impact"of" celebrity" endorsement" remains" under" the" purview" of" gray" spectacles," this" paper"is"an"effort"to"analyze"the"impact"of"celebrity"endorsements"on"brands." Objective" of" this" project" is" to" examine" the" relationship" between" celebrity" endorsements" and" brands," and" the" impact" of" celebrity" endorsement" on" consumeris" buying" behavior" as" well" as" how" consumer" makes" brand"
  6. 6. preferences"with"a"study"on"Unilever’s"Lux"brand,"which"is"today"perceived" as"a"‘Beauty"bar"for"film"stars’" " Thus" we" define" the" objective" of" the" study," which" is" to" examine" whether" celebrity"personality"has"an"impact"on"the"brand"personality"with"the"example" of" the" celebrities" endorsing" Lux" brand" that" has" a" positive" impact" on" the" personality" of" a" brand" and" how" it" has" helped" create" an" image" that" it" is" a" beauty"bar"of"film"stars."Hence,"we"define"our"hypothesis,"which"states:" " Hypothesis:" The" personality" of" a" celebrity" endorsing" brand" have" a" positive" impact" on" the" personality" of" a" brand" taking" example" of" the" Celebrities" endorsing"Lux"brand"had"a"positive"impact"on"the"personality"of"a"brand"and" has"helped"create"a"image"that"it"is"a"beauty"bar"of"stars." " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
  7. 7. DECLARATION" I"wish"to"state"the"work"embodied"in"this"project"titled"“THE!IMPACT!OF! CELEBRITY! ENDORSEMENT! ON! BRAND! PERSONALITY:! AN! EMPIRICAL!STUDY!ON!UNILEVER’S!LUX!ON!BEING!BEAUTY!BAR!OF! FILMSTARS!;! Submitted" to" Vivekanand" Education" Society’s" Institute" of" Management" Studies" and" Research" College," Chembur," Mumbai" during" the" academic" year" 2012" –" 2014" forms" my" own" contribution" to" management." Wherever" reference" have" been" made" to" intellectual" properties" of" any" individual/" institution/" government/" private/" public" bodies/" universities," research" paper," text" books," reference" books," research" monographs" and" any" other" source" of" intellectual" properties" viz." speeches," quotations," conference" proceedings,"extracts"from"website,"working"paper,"seminal"work"et"al,"have" been"clearly"indicated,"duly"acknowledged"and"included"in"the"bibliography." Raj Bhambhani Roll no. - 63 PGDM (Marketing) " "
  8. 8. CERTIFICATE" This"is"to"certify"that"Mr."Raj"Bhambhani"of"Vivekananda"Education"Society’s" Institute"of"Management"Studies"&"Research,"Mumbai"majoring"in"Marketing" has"completed"his"Research"project"on" “THE" IMPACT" OF" CELEBRITY" ENDORSEMENT" ON" BRAND" PERSONALITY:"AN"EMPIRICAL"STUDY"ON"UNILEVER’S"LUX"ON"BEING" BEAUTY"BAR"OF"FILMSTARS!n"" The"information"submitted"is"true"and"original"to"the"best"of"my"knowledge." " " " Prof." Debjani" Banerjee" VESIMSR" " " " " " " " " " " "
  9. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT" " This"project"bears"the"imprint"of"many"people."The"satiation"and"euphoria"that" accompany" the" successful" completion" of" the" project" would" be" incomplete" without"the"mention"of"the"people"who"made"it"possible."I"would"like"to"thank" my" sister" and" parents" for" inspiring" me" to" show" an" ability" I" never" really" envisaged."Without"their"blessing,"carrying"out"this"research"would"have"been" rather"difficult." " I"would"like"to"take"the"opportunity"to"thank"and"express"my"deep"sense"of" gratitude"to"my"project"mentor"Prof."Debjani"Banerjee."I"am"greatly"indebted" to" her" for" providing" his" valuable" guidance" at" all" stages" of" the" study," her" advice," constructive" suggestions," positive" and" supportive" attitude" and" continuous"encouragement,"without"which"it"would"have"not"been"possible"to" complete"the"project."Thank"you,"Dear"Ma’am!" " I"would"also"like"to"sincerely"thank"all"the"interviewees"for"their"precious"time" and"useful"insights"on"the"research"topic"and"who"have"patiently"expressed" their"views"to"help"me"carry"on"with"my"dissertation." " I"consider"myself"very"lucky"and"honored"to"have"so"many"wonderful"people" lead" me" through" in" completion" of" this" project" and" I" owe" my" wholehearted" thanks" and" appreciation" to" the" all" professors" of" my" college" for" their" cooperation"and"assistance"during"the"course"of"my"project."" " I"hope"that"I"can"build"upon"the"experience"and"knowledge"that"I"have"gained" and"make"a"valuable"contribution"towards"this"industry"in"coming"future." "
  10. 10. TABLE&OF&CONTENTS" Index" Page"No." 1."Executive"Summary" 1A2" 2."Introduction" 3A6" 3."Celebrity"Endorsement"&"Brand"Personality" 7A21" 4."Research"Objectives" 22" 5."Literature"Review" 23A29" 6."Research"Methodology" • Sampling"Technique" • Sample"Design" • Data"Collection"&"Analysis"Methods" 30A32" 7."Industry"Profile" • Industry" Analysis" and" Opportunities" in" Next" 10" Years" • Head"room"for"growth" • Competitors"and"Major"Players" 33A37" 8."Company"Introduction" • History" • Product"Portfolio"and"Performance" • Financial"Performance"&"Analysis" 1. Ration"&"Trend"Analysis:" • P/E ratio" • P/BV ratio" • EPS • ROE (Return on Equity) • ROCE (Return on Capital Employed) • Operating Profit Margins • Current Ratio • Sales Growth • Working Capital • Return on Assets/Assets Turnover Ratio 38A47" 9."Lux"Overview" 48A53"
  11. 11. • Origins," History" and" Brand" Image" Through" The" Years" 10."Lux"Branding"Strategies"&"Brand"Equity" • Lux"Brand"Elements:"Form,"Feature,"Style" • Leveraging"Secondary"Brand"Associations" • Brand"Equity:"Awareness,"Image"&"Loyalty" • Lux"Brand"Identity:"Core"and"Extended" 54A61" 11."Lux"Marketing"Mix:"The"4P’s" • Product,"PLC,"Product"Mix" • Promotion:" The" Integrated" Marketing" Communication"Promotion"mix" 1. Advertising:" LUX" ADVERTISEMENTS" THROUGH"THE"AGES,"Ad"Analysis" 2. Sales"Promotion" 3. Public"Relations" • Price" • Place:"Distribution"Channel" 62A82" 12."Lux"Analysis" • Market"and"Segmentation" • BCG"Matrix" • Porter’s"5"Forces"of"Lux"soapSales"Promotion" • Ansoff"model"for"Lux:Price" • Perceptual"Mapping"of"Soap"Brands" • SWOT"Analysis" 83A94" 13."Data"Analysis" • Questionnaire"Analysis"&"Interpretation" 95A106" 14."Findings"and"Managerial"Implications" • Recommendations" 107A111" 15."Limitations"of"the"Project" 112"
  12. 12. 16."Directions"for"Future"Research" 113" 17."Conclusion" 114A116" 18."Reference" 117A118" 19."Appendix:"Questionnaire" 119A120" ! " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
  13. 13. " " "
  14. 14. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!1! EXECUTIVE(SUMMARY! Aristotle)said,!“Beauty!is!a!greater!recommendation!than!any!letter!of! introduction.”! This! could! aptly! summarize! why! innumerable! products! are! endorsed!by!celebrities,!with!or!without!a!significant!need!or!benefit!from!the! same.!Similarly!every!product!has!an!image.!The!consumer!tries!to!consume!a! brand,!which!has!the!maximum!fit!with!his/her!own!personality/image.!The! celebrity! endorser! fits! in! between! these! two! interactions,! where! he! tries! to! bring!the!image!of!the!product!closer!to!the!expectation!of!the!consumer,!by! transferring! some! of! the! cultural! meanings! residing! in! his! image! to! the! product.! Now,!despite!the!potential!benefits!derived!from!celebrity!endorsements,!they! increase!a!marketer’s!risk!manifolds!and!should!be!treated!with!full!attention! and! aptitude.! A! brand! should! be! cautious! when! employing! celebrities! to! ensure!promise!believability!and!delivery!of!the!intended!effect.!The!growing! importance!of!mythical!characters!as!celebrities!and!their!sway!over!the!target! segments!are!ample!proof!of!public!demand!for!icons!to!look!up!to.!As!the! celebrities! traverse! from! a! mere! commercial! presence! to! public! welfare! message!endorsements,!a!whole!new!dimension!is!added!to!this!process!and! helps!us!in!achieving!a!holistic!view!of!the!impact!which!celebrities!generate! in!every!sphere!and!segment!through!their!wellEversed!endorsements.! ! Endorsements!by!celebrities!have!started!since!a!long!time.!The!very!fact!that! their! use! has! continued! for! so! long! is! proof! enough! of! its! immense! advantages,! but! they! have! several! disadvantages! too.! Living! a! seemingly! luxurious! life! as! that! of! a! celebrity! is! everybody’s! hidden! desire,! and! by! adopting!the!same!product/service!as!endorsed!by!one’s!favorite!celebrity,!the! consumers!feel!like!being!in!the!same!league!as!the!celebrity.!It!is!but!obvious! that!marketing!firms!are!aware!of!this!inherent!desire!of!people,!and!so,!more! and! more! Indian! firms! are! competing! to! showcase! their! celebrityEendorsed! brands!on!TV.!When!it!comes!to!celebrity!endorsement,!the!first!brand!that! comes!to!the!Indian!mind!is!that!of!Unilever’s!one!of!the!most!popular!brand! LUX,!the!Beauty!Bar!of!the!Stars.!Since!its!inception,!Lux!the!brand!has!grown! positioning! itself! thus.! It! is! probably! the! only! brand! that! has! had! an! endorsement!from!nearly!50!Indian!film!stars.!The!brand!promise!has!evolved! from!“the!beauty!bar!of!film!stars”!to!“brings!out!the!star!in!you”.! They!segment!LUX.’s!market!according!to!geographical!locations.!It!further! differentiates!these!segments!into!Socio!Economic!Cluster!(SEC),!which!takes! into! account! the! criteria! of! education! and! profession,! which! ultimately! measures! the! financial! ability! of! consumers.! HUL! leads! the! market! in! the! toilet!soap!category!with!54.3%!market!share.!Lux!has!inched!up!to!be!on!par! with!Lifebuoy!in!HULVs!soaps!portfolio.!The!Lux!brand!now!has!an!almost!
  15. 15. 2! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! equal! market! share! as! Hindustan! LeverVs! largest! selling! soap! brand! E! Lifebuoy.!This!report!gives!an!overview!of!the!history!of!the!Soap!industry,! company!and!the!brand!XLuxX,!the!various!strategies!adopted!to!survive!in! the! market! for! over! the! years! and! the! various! competing! brands.! The! promotional!activities!adopted,!the!brandVs!strengths!and!weaknesses,!threats! faced!are!also!analyzed.!!A!Compressive!and!empirical!study!of!Secondary! and! Primary! data! (Surveys/Interviews)! was! collected! through! specific! questionnaires!for!consumers!to!find!out!whether!celebrity!personality!has!an! impact!on!the!brand!personality!with!the!example!of!the!celebrities!endorsing! Lux!brand!that!has!a!positive!impact!on!the!personality!of!a!brand!and!how!it! has!helped!create!an!image!that!it!is!a!beauty!bar!of!film!stars.!The!conceptual! model!explaining!how!does!it!actually!happen!is!given!below:! ! Well,! it! sure! brings! out! the! star! in! Indian! consumer’s! mind! so! to! speak! as! living!a!seemingly!luxurious!life!as!that!of!a!celebrity!is!everybody’s!hidden! desire,! and! by! adopting! the! same! product/service! as! endorsed! by! one’s! favorite! celebrity,! the! consumers! feel! like! being! in! the! same! league! as! the! celebrity.!What!therefore!seems!relevant!by!the!study!is!that,!yes,!definitely! celebrity!personality!does!have!an!impact!on!the!brand!personality!and!the! personality! &! meaning! transfers! from! the! celebrity! to! the! consumer’s! mind! about!the!brand.!And,!the!Lux!brand!has!been!enjoying!a!positive!impact!on! the! personality! of! a! brand! after! being! endorsed! by! celebrities! and! it! has! helped!create!an!image!that!it!is!a!beauty!bar!of!stars.!Also,!celebrity!endorsee! influence! consumer! buying! behavior! and! brand! building! but! while! using! celebrity! endorsee,! marketer! has! to! take! care! of! all! the! aspect! that! whether! they! brought! personality! and! image! of! celebrity! matches! or! not,! whether! celebrity!endorsee!has!deep!penetration!among!the!masses!or!not,!whether!he! is!considered!as!credible!source!or!not!and!so!forth.! ! !
  16. 16. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!3! INTRODUCTION! The!practice!of!using!celebrities!in!advertisements!to!promote!products! dates!back!to!more!than!a!hundred!years!and!continues!till!date.!Some!studies! have!found!out!that!as!much!as!25!%!of!the!total!advertisements!aired!use! celebrity! endorsements! (Shimp! 2000).! The! scenario! is! not! too! different! in! India.! Celebrities! from! the! field! of! sports! and! movies! have! a! string! of! endorsements! under! their! belt.! Products! ranging! from! cement! to! pens! use! celebrities! for! communication.! A! top! celebrity! can! get! as! many! as! 21! advertisers! to! endorse! products! (AdEx! India! Report! 2007).! Thus! celebrity! endorsements! become! a! relevant! field! of! research! in! India.! One! of! the! key! streams! of! research! in! celebrity! endorsements! is! the! Xsource! credibilityX! research!that!primarily!looked!into!finding!out!the!dimensions!of!a!celebrity! source! which! affect! the! consumer! in! the! communication! process.! The! other! important!stream!of!research!is!the!celebrityE!brand!congruence!studies.!The! congruence! studies! have! delved! into! the! similarities! or! correspondence! between!the!product!or!brand!and!the!celebrity!which!is!popularly!known!as! the!XmatchEupX!hypothesis!(Kamins!1990;!Kamins!and!Gupta!1994;!Kirmani! and! Shiv! 1998;! Misra! and! Beatty! 1990;! Mittelstaedt! and! Riesz! 2000).! Again,! each! and! every! celebrity! has! a! personality! of! his/her! own.! Through! the! endorsement! a! part! of! that! is! supposed! to! rub! off! onto! the! brand.! The! Meaning! Transfer! Model! of! McCracken! (1989)! suggests! this,! though! not! directly.!However,!this!aspect!of!the!effect!of!celebrity!personality!on!Brand! Personality! has! not! been! studied! yet! in! consumer! research.! Even! in! case! of! Brand! Personality! (BP)! research,! there! are! not! many! studies! as! in! celebrity! endorsements.!The!BP!construct!however,!has!been!studied!from!a!conceptual! (Durgee!1998;!Gardner!and!Levy!1955)!and!at!an!empirical!level!(Aaker!1997;! Diamantopoulos,! Smith! and! Grime! 2005;! lohar,! Sengupta,! and! Aaker! 2005;! etc).!Aaker!(1997)!had!constructed!and!validated!a!scale!to!measure!BP!which! was! loosely! based! on! the! Big! Five! personality! traits! (Goldberg! 1990).! However,!there!has!been!no!effort!as!per!the!knowledge!of!the!researchers!to! integrate! both! aspects! of! celebrity! endorsements! and! BP.! Thus! the! current! study! aims! to! fill! such! a! gap! in! the! literature.! The! study! tries! to! examine! whether!the!personality!of!a!celebrity!endorsing!brand!have!a!positive!impact! on!the!personality!of!a!brand,!taking!example!of!the!celebrities!endorsing!Lux! brand! has! a! positive! impact! on! the! personality! of! a! brand! and! has! helped! create!a!image!that!it!is!a!beauty!bar!of!film!stars.! McCracken’s!(1989)!view!also!suggests!that!a!symbolic!“match”!should! exist! between! the! celebrity! image! and! the! brand! image! in! order! for! the! celebrity! endorsement! to! be! effective.! Consumers! with! strong! selfE enhancement! goals! tend! to! form! selfEbrand! connections! to! brands! used! by! aspiration!groups,!that!is,!groups!for!which!the!consumer!wishes!to!become!a! member!(Escalas!and!Bettman!2003).!On!the!other!hand,!selfEenhancers!will!
  17. 17. 4! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! be!more!likely!to!reject!brand!associations!created!by!a!celebrity!endorsement! where!the!celebrity!associations!are!rejected!(i.e.,!a!nonEaspirational!celebrity),! compared! to! consumers! who! do! not! have! active! selfE! enhancement! goals.! Companies!invest!large!sums!of!money!to!align!their!brands!and!themselves! with!endorsers.!Such!endorsers!are!seen!as!dynamic!with!both!attractive!and! likeable! qualities! (Atkin! and! Block,! 1983),! and! companies! plan! that! these! qualities! are! transferred! to! products! via! marcom! activities! (Langmeyer! &! Walker,! 1991a,! McCracken,! 1989).! Furthermore,! because! of! their! fame,! celebrities!serve!not!only!to!create!and!maintain!attention!but!also!to!achieve! high! recall! rates! for! marcom! messages! in! todayVs! highly! cluttered! environments!(Croft!et!al,!1996,!Friedman!and!Friedman,!1979).!Some!brands! can!reject!celebrity!endorsement!outright!and!emerge!in!a!better!off!position! than! their! rivals.! An! example! of! a! brand! that! has! got! it! right! is! Singapore! Airlines.! Statistically! the! airline! provides! no! more! legroom! than! any! other! carrier.!Yet!in!survey!after!survey!flyers!consistently!vote!Singapore!Airlines! the!best!carrier.!Could!this!be!in!part!due!to!the!branded!fragrance!that!has! been!subtly!infused!in!all!its!planes?!This!smell!is!integrated!into!the!hand! towels!and!sprayed!in!all!the!cabins!before!passengers’!board.!The!reason!is! that!smell!has!a!direct!emotional!impact!on!consumers,!bypassing!the!rational! part!of!the!brain,!making!consumers!feel!good.!A!branded!fragrance!–!now! isn’t!that!cheaper!than!paying!a!celebrity?! The! celebrity’s! role! is! the! most! explicit! and! profound! in! incarnating! user! associations!among!the!aboveEmentioned!points.!To!comprehend!this,!let!us! analyze!the!multiplier!effect!formula!for!a!successful!brand:!S)=)P)*)D)*)AV! Where!! S) is! a! Successful! Brand,! P) is! an! Effective! Product,! D) is! Distinctive! Identity,!AV)is!Added!Values! IMPACT)OF)CELEBRITIES)ON)CONSUMER)WORLDWIDE) Celebrity!endorsement!may!not!be!as!effective!as!many!believe,!and!in! some!major!western!markets,!has!no!strong!influence!on!a!consumer!to!make! a!purchase,!according!to!a!poll!conducted!by!GMI!Inc.,!the!world’s!leading! provider!of!global!online!market!research!services!and!software!(Couzens!and! Ablett,!2005).!The!effectiveness!of!Celebrity!endorsement!in!promoting!brands! varies! across! the! globe! reveals! the! research.! Western! nations! were! most! indifferent! to! the! use! of! Celebrities! in! advertising.! In! the! US,! 79%! of! respondents!said!that!Celebrity!endorsement!does!not!have!any!effect!on!how! valuable!they!think!a!product!is!and!only!13%!thought!that!it!made!a!product! more! valuable.! 79%! of! German! and! 71%! of! French! and! British! also! said! Celebrity!endorsement!did!not!work!for!them.!In!China!and!Japan,!however,! there!is!a!stark!contrast.!In!Japan,!60%!of!respondents!think!that!the!use!of! Celebrities! in! advertising! makes! a! product! more! valuable! and! a! similar! number!of!respondents!in!China!(52%)!and!in!Russia!(58%)!agreed.!The!GMI! poll!also!found!that!Celebrity!endorsement!was!rated!below!other!techniques!
  18. 18. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!5! (like!free!samples,!wordEofEmouth,!testEruns,!etc.)!to!influence!the!purchasing! decision! of! consumers.! The! country! which! most! valued! Celebrity! endorsement!was!Russia!with!12%!of!respondents!claiming!it!influenced!their! buying!decisions,!making!it!the!third!most!popular!form!of!promotion!there! after!free!samples!(46%)!and!wordEofEmouth!promotion!(30%).! Global!media!can!make!global!stars,!but!it!does!not!mean!they!translate!into! universal!marketing!assets!that!can!transform!any!brand’s!value!and!market! share! in! any! country! anywhere.! Worldwide,! people! are! becoming! more! sophisticated! consumers! who! are! less! ready! to! accept! simple,! uniform! marketing!messages.!Very!strong!indifference!to!the!power!of!the!Celebrity!in! some!western!markets!may!even!point!to!how!overt!Celebrity!endorsement! may! be! working! in! the! reverse,! turning! consumers! away! from! the! very! products!being!endorsed!and!so!having!a!negative!impact.! The! use! of! a! Celebrity! is! one! of! the! most! successful! ways! of! gaining! the! consumer’s!attention!and!getting!him!or!her!to!infer!the!right!message!in!a! limited!amount!of!space!and!time.!Celebrities!are!used!by!marketers!to!build! their!brands.!Branded!products!are!successful!because!consumers!prefer!them! to!„ordinary‟!unbranded!products.!In!addition!to!the!psychological!factors,! brands! give! consumers! the! means! whereby! they! can! make! choices! and! judgements.!The!secret!to!successful!branding!is!to!influence!the!decisions,!i.e.! the!way!consumers!perceive!the!product,!and!brands!can!affect!the!minds!of! the!consumers!by!appealing!to!the!information!acquired!and!analysed.!And! this! is! what! a! Celebrity! does.! He/she! tries! to! manipulate! the! purchase! behavioral! intention! of! a! customer! by! promoting! the! endorsed! brand.! Friedman! and! Friedman! (1979)! suggested! that! the! promotion! of! branded! luxury! goods! by! Celebrity! endorsers! would! lead! to! a! significantly! more! positive!purchase!intention!than!advertisements!using!an!“expert”!or!“typical! consumer”!endorser.!Further,!in!a!study!concerning!adolescents,!Bush,!et!al.! (2004)! advocate! that! Celebrity! sports! athletes! have! a! positive! influence! on! adolescents‟!favorable!wordEofEmouth!and!brand!loyalty.!Though!studies!are! in!disagreement!that!whether!it!is!the!physical!attractiveness!of!the!Celebrities! or!perceived!expertise!that!affect!purchase!intentions,!they!broadly!converge! in! suggesting! that! use! of! Celebrities! in! brand! endorsements! resulted! in! stronger!purchase!intention.! Celebrity! endorsements! cannot! replace! the! comprehensive! brand! building! processes.! As! branding! evolves! as! a! discipline! companies! must! be! extra! cautious!to!utilize!every!possible!channel!of!communication!rather!than!just!a! celebrity!endorsement.!When!all!steps!in!the!branding!process!is!followed!and! implemented,!then!channels!such!as!celebrity!endorsements!can!provide!the! cutting!edge!as!it!did!for!Nike!endorsement!romance!with!Tiger!woods.!What! Nike! did! was! to! use! celebrity! endorsement! as! one! of! the! main! channels! of! communicating! its! brand! to! a! highly! focused! set! of! customers.! So,! Nike’s! association! with! Tiger! Woods! was! one! of! the! parts! of! an! entire! branding!
  19. 19. 6! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! process!that!Nike!has!been!practicing!consistently.! There! are! hundreds! of! wellEknown! examples! of! celebrity! endorsements,! most! of! which! were! hugely! successful! due! to! proper! endorsement! strategy.! Italian! luxury! brand! Versace! has! used! music! icon! Madonna! and! Hollywood! stars! Demi! Moore! and! Halle! Berry! in! its! print! adverts!between!2005!and!2006.!Likewise!Julia!Roberts!appears!in!Gianfranco! Ferres!adverts,!Sharon!Stone!in!Dior!and!Jennifer!Lopez,!Scarlett!Johansson,! and! Uma! Thurman! in! Vuitton! ads.! Also,! nonEluxury! brand! Gap! has! used! television! star! Sarah! Jessica! Parker! to! promote! its! brand! in! the! recent! past.! Similarly!Catherine!Zeta!Jones!for!TEMobile,!Emmitt!Smith!for!Just!For!Men,! Jason! Alexander! for! KFC.! In! India,! probably! the! first! ad! to! cash! in! on! star! power!in!a!strategic,!longE!term,!mission!statement!kind!of!way!was!for!Lux! soap,!a!brand!which!has,!perhaps!as!a!result!of!this,!been!among!the!top!three! in!the!country!for!much!of!its!lifeEtime.!In!recent!times,!we!had!the!Indian!cine! star! Shahrukh! Khan! –! Hyundai! Santro! campaign! with! the! objective! of! mitigating! the! impediment! that! an! unknown! Korean! brand! faced! in! the! Indian!market.!Think!of!great!cricket!star!Sachin!Tendulkar.!He!means!Pepsi! in!soft!drinks,!Boost!in!malted!beverages,!MRF!in!tyres,!Fiat!Palio!in!cars,!TVS! Victor! in! twoEwheelers,! Colgate! Total! in! toothpastes,! Britannia! in! biscuits,! Visa!in!credit!cards,!Airtel!in!mobile!services!and!BandEaid.! Businesses!have!long!sought!to!distract!and!attract!the!attention!of!potential! customers!that!live!in!a!world!of!everEincreasing!commercial!bombardment.! Everyday! consumers! are! exposed! to! thousands! of! voices! and! images! in! magazines,! newspapers,! and! on! billboards,! websites,! radio! and! television.! About!20%!of!U.S.!ads!feature!celebrities!(Solomon!2009),!and!the!percent!of! ads!using!celebrities!in!other!countries,!such!as!Japan,!is!thought!to!be!even! higher.! So,! use! of! celebrities! as! part! of! marketing! communication! strategy! is! fairly! common!practice!for!major!firms!in!supporting!corporate!or!brand!imagery.! ) ) ) ) ) )
  20. 20. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!7! CELEBRITY) ENDORSEMENTS) AND$BRAND$PERSONALITY! Definition)Of)A)Brand) Kotler! and! Keller! (2006:274)! acknowledge! the! American! Marketing! Association’s!definition!of!a!brand!as!a!“name,!term,!sign,!symbol,!design,!or! a!combination!of!them,!intended!to!identify!the!goods!or!services!of!one!seller! or! group! of! sellers! and! to! differentiate! them! from! those! of! competitors”.! A! brand!is!thus!a!product!or!service!that!adds!dimensions!which!differentiate!it! in! some! way! from! other! products! or! services! designed! to! satisfy! the! same! need.! Jack) Welch,! the! former! CEO! of! General! Electric,! once! said,! “Our! most! valuable! assets! are! our! intangible! assets.”! The! intangible! asset! he! was! referring!to!is!a!brand.!The!Dictionary!of!Business!&!Management!defines!a! brand!as:!“a!name,!term,!sign,!symbol,!or!design,!or!a!combination!of!them,! intended!to!identify!goods!or!services!of!one!seller!or!a!group!of!sellers!and!to! differentiate!them!from!those!of!competitor”.! The)History)of)Brands) Branding!is!not!a!new!concept.!Branding!has!been!used!since!earliest!times!by! producers!wanting!to!identify!their!products.!According!to!Van!den!Heever! (2000:9),!the!word!brand!comes!from!the!old!German!word!“brandr”,!which! means! to! burn.! Branding! has! from! earliest! times! been! associated! with! proclaiming! ownership! of! property,! and! although! the! concept! of! branding! has!become!considerably!more!complex!in!the!last!hundred!years,!the!idea!of! ownership! still! exists.! Consumers! soon! began! to! have! preferences! for! the! goods! of! particular! manufacturers! or! began! to! develop! loyalties! to! certain! merchants!whose!wares!were!of!satisfactory!quality.! Brands! as! they! are! known! today! are! more! than! just! convenient! ways! to! distinguish!one!product!from!another.!Keller!(2003:2)!states!that!organizations! have!come!to!the!realization!that!one!of!their!most!valuable!assets!is!the!brand! associated!with!their!products!or!services.!Brands!have!become!sophisticated! marketing!tools,!as!well!as!having!considerable!monetary!value!in!their!own! right.!Brands!provide!functional,!emotional!and!selfEexpressive!benefits!and! provide!value!to!the!consumer,!as!well!as!the!reason!for!making!one!brand! choice!over!another.! ) )
  21. 21. 8! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! Brand)personality) A!set!of!human!characteristics!that!are!attributed!to!a!brand!name.!A! brand! personality! is! something! to! which! the! consumer! can! relate,! and! an! effective! brand! will! increase! its! brand! equity! by! having! a! consistent! set! of! traits.! This! is! the! addedEvalue! that! a! brand! gains,! aside! from! its! functional! benefits.! There! are! five! main! types! of! brand! personalities:! excitement,! sincerity,! ruggedness,! competence! and! sophistication.! Customers! are! more! likely!to!purchase!a!brand!if!its!personality!is!similar!to!their!own.!Examples! of!traits!for!the!different!types!of!brand!personalities:!! Excitement:!carefree,!spirited,!youthful!! Sincerity:!genuine,!kind,!familyEoriented,!thoughtful!! Ruggedness:!rough,!tough,!outdoors,!athletic!! Competence:!successful,!accomplished,!influential,!a!leader!! Sophistication:!elegant,!prestigious,!pretentious! ! Most!brands!start!a!life!without!personality.!LetVs!be!honest,!a!brand!by!itself! will!never!walk,!talk!and!get!photographed.!But!by!tying!it!with!a!celebrity,! the! name! of! a! product! or! a! company! can! take! on! instant! glitz,! glamour,! charm,!sex!appeal!and!aspiration.!D.!Reeder!(Greenlight!L.A)!said,!XPeopleVs! fascination!with!celebrities!isnVt!going!away.!The!use!of!celebrities!is!here!to! stay.!But!in!what!form!is!the!open!question.X!Now!to!derive!some!strategic! path!of!the!endorsement,!endorsing!brand!need!to!assess!the!impact!of!the! chosen!celebrity!on!the!particular!brand.! Definition)of)a)Celebrity) Per!se,!a!dictionary!meaning!of!this!word!is!“a!famous!personX.!A!person!who! has!excelled!in!his!/!her!field!of!action!or!activity.!In!our!dayEtoEday!activity,! we! perform! many! acts,! may! at! home,! at! work! place,! on! field! in! sports,! in! social!life.!But!these!acts!may!be!daily!routine!or!just!XactsX!per!say!giving!no! extraEordinary! results,! not! noticed! by! anybody! surrounding,! and! not! taken! into!notice!by!Media.! But! by! all! means! these! acts! should! be! with! good! cause,! positive! results,! morally!good!and!acceptable!results.!Eg.!A!bandit!queen!of!Chambal!valley!
  22. 22. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!9! was!very!famous,!but!was!terror!before!her!surrender!to!police.!But!she!never! becomes! celebrity.! But! an! actress! Ms! Seema! Biswas! who! acted! in! film! on! XBandit!QueenX!on!life!of!that!bandit,!became!very!famous!and!a!Celebrity.! A!celebrity!is!perceived!as!god!by!masses.!They!touch!their!feet,!create!idols! and! worship,! garland! their! photographs,! perform! XYagnyasX! for! their! idols! performance,! wait! for! their! XDarshanX! in! hot! sun! or! heavy! rains! for! hours! together,!follow!fashions!of!them!E!wear!similar!clothes!or!have!similar!hair! style!as!that!of!celebrity,!and!on!wrong!side!even!commit!suicide!if!celebrity! FAILS!to!deliver!results.! They! have! tremendous! mass! followings.! They! pull! crowds! with! their! presence! only.! If! it! is! understood! that! Amitabh! Bachchan! is! coming! for! shooting!a!film,!to!a!particular!location!on!a!particular!day,!then!there!is!big! commotion!in!that!area.! According!to!Friedman)and)Friedman,!a!“celebrity!endorser!is!an!individual! who!is!known!by!the!public!for!his!or!her!achievements!in!areas!other!than! that! of! the! product! class! endorsed”.! Compared! to! other! endorser! types,! famous!people!always!attach!a!greater!degree!of!attention,!recall!and!loyalty.! In! this! age! of! intense! competition,! where! capturing! a! position! in! the! consumers’! mind! space! is! extremely! tough,! celebrity! endorsements! give! an! extra!edge!to!the!companies!for!holding!the!viewers’!attention.!Celebrities!can! catalyze!brand!acceptance!and!provide!the!enormous!momentum!that!brands! require!by!endorsing!the!intrinsic!value!to!the!brand.!Like:! a.)Actors) (e.g.,! Amitabh! Bachchan,! Shahrukh! Khan,! Aishwarya! Rai,,! Preity! Zinta,!Aamir!Khan!and!Pierce!Brosnan).! b.)Models) (e.g.,! Mallaika! Arora,! Milind! Soman,! etc),! c.)Television) Personalities!(Husain,!Smriti!Irani),! d.)Sports) figures) (e.g.,! Sachin! Tendulkar,! Sania! Mirza,! Anna! Kournikova,! Michael!Schumacher,!Tiger!Woods,!etc),! e.)Entertainers) (e.g.,! Cyrus! Broacha,! Oprah! Winfrey,),! f.)PopOstars) (e.g.,! Madonna,!Shakira).! Basically,!celebrities!act!as!spokesEpeople!in!advertising!to!promote!products! and!services,!which!is!referred!to!celebrity!endorsement.! WHAT)IS)PRODUCT)ENDORSEMENT?! A!product!endorsement!is!a!form!of!testimonial!from!someone!which! indicates! that! they! like! or! approve! of! a! product.! Commonly,! product! endorsements!are!solicited!from!people!who!are!socially!prominent,!allowing! companies!to!advertise!their!products!with!statements!like!“as!used!by!suchE
  23. 23. 10! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! andEsuch!an!actress,”!or!“the!official!product!of!company/event!X.”!ItVs!hard! to!miss!a!product!endorsement!on!product!packaging!and!in!advertisements;! most! companies! keep! their! endorsements! front! and! center! so! that! they! are! always!in!the!public!eye.! The! concept! of! the! product! endorsement! is! quite! ancient.! In! England,! for! example,! several! companies! have! been! advertising! themselves! as! “by! appointment!to!the!Queen”!for!hundreds!of!years,!indicating!that!they!enjoy! the!patronage!of!the!British!royal!family.!Consumers!are!often!seduced!by!the! idea! of! purchasing! a! product,! which! is! endorsed! by! someone! wealthy! or! famous,! as! though! by! buying! the! product,! the! consumer! also! becomes! affiliated!with!the!person!who!endorses!it.!Modern!product!endorsements!can! come!with!contracts!worth!substantial!amounts!of!money.!For!example,!many! sports!stars!agree!to!participate!in!product!endorsement!campaigns!with!the! understanding!that!the!company!will!compensate!them!for!the!trouble;!some! stars! donate! the! proceeds! to! charities! they! support,! using! the! product! endorsement!as!a!public!relations!campaign.!In!exchange!for!an!endorsement! contract,!someone!may!agree!to!use!the!product!publicly!whenever!possible,! and!they!may!be!restricted!from!using!products!made!by!a!competitor.! A!product!endorsement!doesnVt!necessarily!mean!that!a!product!is!good.!It! just! means! that! the! company! has! managed! to! work! its! public! relations! connections!to!get!a!big!name!associated!with!it.!Some!endorsements!take!the! form! of! written! testimonials,! where! people! write! about! how! the! product! changed!their!lives.!Historically,!such!testimonials!were!often!printed!on!the! product! packaging! directly;! modern! testimonials! are! more! commonly! included! in! advertising! campaigns,! with! excerpts! only! on! the! packaging.! Many!companies!also!use!photographs!of!famous!people!on!their!products!to! create! a! visual! connection! between! the! endorser! and! the! product,! which! is! why!sports!stars!appear!on!various!sports!merchandise.! WHAT)IS)CELEBRITY)ENDORSEMENT?! The!use!of!celebrities!in!order!to!increase!the!sales!and/!or!the!recall! value!of!a!brand!is!called!celebrity)endorsement.! The!late!V80s!saw!the!beginning!of!celebrity!endorsements!in!advertising!in! India.!Hindi!film!and!TV!stars!as!well!as!sportspersons!began!encroaching!on! a!territory!that!was,!until!then,!the!exclusive!domain!of!models.!There!was!a! spurt! of! advertising,! featuring! stars! like! Tabassum! (Prestige! pressure! cookers),!Jalal!Agha!(Pan!Parag),!Kapil!Dev!(Palmolive!Shaving!Cream)!and! Sunil!Gavaskar!(Dinesh!Suitings).!Of!course,!probably!the!first!ad!to!cash!in! on!star!power!in!a!strategic,!longEterm,!mission!statement!kind!of!way!was!for! Lux!soap,!a!brand!which!has,!perhaps!as!a!result!of!this,!been!among!the!top! three!in!the!country!for!much!of!its!lifetime.!
  24. 24. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!11! Endorsements!by!celebrities!have!started!since!a!long!time.!One!of!the!first! sports! endorsements! in! India! was! when! Farokh! Engineer! became! the! first! Indian!Crickets!to!model!for!Brylcream!The!Indian!cricket!teams!now!earns! roughly! Rs.! 100! crore! through! endorsements.! There! was! a! spurt! of! advertising,! featuring! stars! like! tabassum! (Prestige! Pressure! cookers).! Jalal! Agha!(Pan!Parag).!Kapil!Dev!(Palmolive!Shaving!cream)!and!Sunil!Gavaskar! (Dinesh! Sutings).! The! very! fact! that! their! use! has! continued! for! so! long! is! proof!enough!of!its!immense!advantages,!but!they!have!several!disadvantages! too.!When!it!comes!to!celebrity!endorsement,!the!first!brand!that!comes!to!the! Indian!mind!is!that!of!Lux,!the!Beauty!Bar!of!the!Stars.!Since!its!inception,!Lux! the!brand!has!grown!positioning!itself!thus.!However,!recently!Lux!has!tried! to!change!its!positioning!from!being!a!woman’s!soap!to!being!soap!for!men!as! well.! Sticking! to! its! strategy! of! using! celebrities! to! appeal! to! its! target! audience,!this!time!around!it!has!used!Shah!Rukh!Khan!to!endorse!Lux!and! response!has!been!confusing.!! RISE)OF)CELEBRITY)CULTURE! The! modern! mass! media! has! increased! the! exposure! and! power! of! celebrity.!Often,!celebrity!carries!with!it!immense!social!capitals!that!is!highly! sought! after! by! some! individuals.! High! paying! jobs! and! other! social! perks! unavailable!to!most!people!are!readily!available!to!celebrities,!even!for!wok! not!connected!to!the!talents!or!accomplishment!that!made!them!famous.!For! example!a!retired!athletes!might!receive!high!‘speaking!fees‘!or!compensation! for! public! appearances,! despite! his! talent! having! been! sports.! Often,! celebrities! cannot! escape! the! public! eye! &! risk! being! followed! by! fans.! As! well,! child! celebrities! are! notorious! for! having! poor! emotional! health! in! adulthood,!and!often!turn!to!drug!and!alcohols!abuse!when!their!fame!fades.! In!India!today,!the!use!of!celebrity!advertising!for!companies!has!become!a! trend! and! a! perceived! winning! formula! of! corporate! image! building! and! product! marketing.! Associating! a! brand! with! a! topEnotch! celebrity! can! do! more!than!perk!up!brand!recall.!It!can!create!linkages!with!the!stars!appeal,! thereby!adding!refreshing!and!new!dimensions!to!the!brand!image.! In! a! world! filled! with! faces,! how! many! do! you! remember?! Admittedly! the! ones! that! evoke! some! kind! of! feel! in! you,! whether! it’s! humors,! acceptance,! appreciation!or!recognition.!These!are!the!faces!you’d!turn!to!look!at,!the!ones! that!would!stop!you!in!your!tracks.!And!that’s!when!you!have!more!than!just! a!face.!You!have!personality.!“Personality!that’s!reflective!of!the!brand!and! promises!to!take!it!that!extra!mile”.! As! existing! media! get! increasingly! cluttered,! the! need! to! stand! out! has! become!paramountE!and!celebrities!have!proved!to!be!the!ideal!way!to!ensure! brand! prominence.! Synergizing! personality! with! product! and! message! can! create!an!instant!breakthrough.!Result?!Brand!buzz.!People!begin!to!notice,!
  25. 25. 12! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! opportunities!come!about.!People!want!to!be!part!of!the!brand.!“Touch!it.!Feel! it.!Experience!it.”! !‘Celebrities!as!brands’!is!a!conceptEselling!challenge,!as!the!current!notion!of! celebrity! management! is! far! from! ideal! –! it’s! perceived! as! a! business! that! merely!attaches!celebrity!to!the!brand!to!get!that!added!advantage.!However,! the!actual!job!is!not!mere!brokerage!EEE!it’s!about!selecting!a!celebrity!whose! characteristics’!are!congruent!with!the!brand!image.! Using!celebrities!in!advertising!dates!back!to!the!late!nineteenth!century!and! this! common! advertising! practice! has! drawn! a! considerable! amount! of! academic! and! practical! attention.! Most! academic! investigations! of! celebrity! endorsement!have!been!contextualized!in!the!realm!of!source!credibility!and! attractiveness! models,! and! suggest! that! celebrities! exert! their! influence! on! consumer! through! perceived! attributes! such! as! expertise,! trustworthiness,! attractiveness,!familiarity,!and!likeability.! Celebrities! embody! a! collection! of! culturally! relevant! images,! symbols,! and! values.!As!the!images!of!the!celebrity!become!associated!with!the!products! through!endorsement,!the!meanings!they!attach!to!the!product!are!transferred! to!consumer!through!and!consumption.!Therefore,!the!practice!for!celebrity! endorsement! should! be! closely! related! to! the! cultural! context! in! which! the! images!of!celebrities!are!formed!and!individual!celebrities!are!selected!to!be! linked!with!particular!products.! For!advertising!practitioners,!employing!an!appropriate!celebrity!endorser!to! promote!a!product!is!important!and!difficult!tasks.!Familiarity,!as!well!as!the! fit!between!celebrity!and!the!product,!as!important!factors!for!choosing!the! appropriate!endorsers.! Other! highly! ranked! decision! factors! include! celebrity/! targetE! audience! congruence,!costs!of!securing!the!celebrity,!the!celebrity’s!risk!of!controversy,! and!the!celebrity’s!prior!endorsement.!As!suggested!by!Erdogan,!Baker,!and! Tagg!(2001),!the!perceived!importance!and!the!actual!use!of!endorser!selection! criteria! may! vary! from! culture! to! culture.! Differences! in! the! entertainment! industry! and! the! agency! business,! and! more! broadly,! in! the! cultural! environments! are! likely! to! influence! the! execution! of! the! celebrity! endorsement!strategy!across!countries.! Arguing! for! standardized! advertising! across! countries,! some! contend! that! consumer!demands!and!tastes!have!become!similar!on!a!global!scale!(and!that! using! celebrities! with! world! wide! recognition! in! advertising! is! an! effective! means! of! overcoming! cultural! difficulties.! Others! claim! that! despite! some! observed! convergence! among! consumer! around! world,! fundamental! values! still! remain! divergent! across! cultures.! Therefore,! international! advertisers! cannot! assume! that! the! same! advertising! technique! should! be! uniformly!
  26. 26. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!13! applied!or!that!it!will!be!equally!effective!in!different!countries.! Celebrity! endorsements! are! very! expensive.! Therefore! their! use! in! an! ad! should!be!justified.!In!other!words,!the!message!strategy!for!a!brand!should! strongly! warrant! the! use! a! known! face! in! an! idea.! Sadly,! very! often! the! celebrity!is!hired!first!and!an!idea!is!then!weaved!around!his!or!her!presence.! The!important!thing!to!remember!is!that!putting!a!celebrity!in!an!ad!is!not!an! idea! in! itself.! Unfortunately,! this! is! how! most! celebrities! are! being! used! in! Indian!advertising,!where!they!just!become!a!prop.!Ideally,!there!should!be!an! idea!that!makes!the!celebrity!relevant!to!the!product!and!the!consumer.! A!celebrity’s!presence!in!the!ad!should!be!contextual.!When!Sachin!Tendulkar! declares,!“Boost!is!the!secret!of!my!energy,”!it!doesn’t!seem!out!of!context.! Internationally,!Nike’s!association!with!Michael!Jordan!is!legendary!and!also! logical.! Celebrity!endorsements!work!best!when!the!celebrity!is!not!introducing!the! brand.!When!the!product!already!has!a!strong!identity!and!a!USP!that!is!well! established,!then!a!celebrity!can!come!in!and!give!the!brand!an!added!fillip! and! generate! some! more! interest! value.! However,! what! is! of! paramount! importance!is!to!find!a!complete!fit!between!the!values!of!the!brand!and!the! values!of!the!celebrity.!One!needs!to!create!a!unique!situation!or!story!that! links!the!celebrity!to!the!product.! IS)IT)SMART)TO)USE)CELEBRITY)ENDORSEMENT)FOR)BRANDING?! Stars,! who! are! known! to! shape! destinies,! cast! an! enormous! influence.! No,! we’re!not!talking!about!astrology!here.!We’re!referring!to!the!powerful!effect! of!celebrities!on!destinies!of!brands.!One!approving!nod!from!a!famous!face! can!translate!into!millions!in!brand!sales.!Perhaps!that’s!why!the!world!over,! companies! have! been! using! stars! to! endorse! everything,! from! food! to! food! chains,! from! soft! and! hard! drinks! to! health! drinks,! from! clothes! and! accessories!to!cars!(and!the!tyres!on!which!they!run).!Even!political!parties!are! awestruck!by!the!charisma!of!stars.!Such!is!the!magnetism!of!celebrities!in!this! country!that!in!the!recent!general!elections,!major!political!parties!fielded!a! record! number! of! film! stars! and! cricketers! to! contest! from! important! constituencies!around!the!country.! CELEBRITY)ENDORSEMENTS)AS)A)STRATEGY! Signing! up! stars! for! endorsements! is! a! timeEtested! strategy! and! has! been! effectively!used!by!some!of!the!top!brands!in!the!world!including!Nike!and! Pepsi.! In! India! too,! HLL! has! used! Hindi! film! stars! to! endorse! their! beauty! soap!Lux!since!the!fifties.!Vimal,!Thums!Up,!Gwalior!and!Dinesh!are!some!of! the!other!brands!that!used!starEappeal!in!the!early!days!of!mass!advertising.! And!who!can!forget!Kapil!‘Palmolive’!Dev?!
  27. 27. 14! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! Marketers! believe! that! star! endorsements! have! several! benefits,! key! among! them!being!building!credibility,!fostering!trust!and!drawing!attention!or!any! or!all!of!which!can!translate!into!higher!brand!sales.! So! how! does! one! decide! whether! to! put! a! celebrity! in! an! ad?! Ideally,! this! should!be!dictated!by!the!communication!idea.!MG!Parmeswaran,!Executive! Director! of! FCB! Ulka! says,! “As! advertising! professionals,! we! recommend! celebrity!endorsements!when!the!case!is!justified.!There!are!many!cases!where! you! need! to! use! the! celebrity! to! break! out! of! a! category! clutter.! At! times! celebrity!endorsement!is!used!to!build!credibility!to!the!brand!offer.”! Most!experts!concur!that,!when!used!judiciously,!celebrity!endorsements!can! be! an! effective! strategy.! According! to! Mohammed! Khan,! Chairman! of! Enterprise!Nexus,!“Using!a!celebrity!by!itself!is!not!a!bad!idea!provided!it!is! done! intelligently.”! And! there! are! many! examples! of! good! and! bad! use! of! celebrities.! Take!Amitabh!Bachchan,!who!has!been!used!by!some!companies!like!Parker! Pens!and!ICICI!Home!Loans!remarkably!well!while!some!others!have!been! unable!to!exploit!his!Big!B!status!too!well.!Shah!Rukh!Khan’s!endorsement!of! Hyundai!i10!too!seems!to!have!worked!well.! Parmeswaran!adds,!“We!used!cricketers!like!Rahul!Dravid!for!Castrol!in!an! attempt! to! break! out! of! the! clutter,! as! well! as! have! an! image! rub! off! of! ‘dependability’!on!to!the!brand.”! Yet,!there!are!some!who!don’t!have!much!conviction!in!star!endorsements.! Adrian!Mendonza,!Executive!VP!and!Creative!Director!of!Rediffusion!DY&R! does! not! recommend! celebrity! endorsements! because! he! thinks! that! to! be! really!successful,!a!brand!needs!to!have!a!strong!identity!of!its!own.!It!should! ideally! not! piggyback! on! the! identity! of! a! celebrity! and! hope! to! achieve! success.!Mendonza!adds,!“I!somehow!get!this!feeling!that!not!much!effort!is! put!in!to!think!through!an!ad!with!a!celebrity.!Most!times!it!seems!like!it!is! just!the!celebrity!saying!‘I!use!this!product,!so!why!don’t!you’!kind!of!thing! and!the!ad!agency!thinks!it!has!done!its!job.”! CELEBRITY)ENDORSEMENTS:)KEY)TO)MARKETING)SUCCESS! When!you!tell!people!that!a!product/service!can!help!them,!they!may!or!may! not!believe!you.!After!all,!you!have!a!vested!interest!in!selling!your!services.! But!when!celebrities!say!that!the!particular!product/service!has!helped!them,! and!it!could!help!others,!people!tend!to!listen!—!and!believe.!After!all,!most! people!assume!Xhe!wouldnVt!say!it!if!it!werenVt!true.X! As!Marketing!expert!Patrick!Bishop!—!coEauthor!of!XMoney!Tree!Marketing:! Innovative!Secrets!That!Will!Double!Your!SmallEBusiness!Profits!in!90!Days!
  28. 28. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!15! or!LessX!—!noted:!0When)you)get)a)celebrity)to)endorse)your)company)or)sign)a) licensing)agreement,)you)benefit)from)customers9)awareness)of)the)property,)[which]) could)include)the)perception)of)quality,)educational)value)or)a)certain)image.0! After!researching!the!impact!of!celebrity!endorsements,!Melissa!St.!James,!a! doctoral! fellow! and! marketing! instructor! at! The! George! Washington! University!concluded,! 0Studies) show) that) using) celebrities) can) increase) consumers9) awareness) of) the) ad,) capture) [their]) attention) and) make) ads) more) memorable0) (quoted! in! XCelebrity! Endorsements,X! by! Kimiko! L.! Martinez,! Entrepreneur9s) StartBUps) magazine,! May!2001).! If! youVre! not! convinced! yet! of! the! effectiveness! of! celebrity! endorsements,! hereVs!what!Jonathan!Gaines,!president!and!CEO!of!top!marketing!firm!DMS! Strategies!has!to!say:! 0HighBprofile)endorsements)from)athletes)and)celebrities)will)set)you)apart)from)your) competitors,) and) you) can) become) a) contender) in) the) playing) field) —a) celebrity) spokesperson)can)work)for)companies)of)all)sizes.0)) XMany! companies! have! had! considerable! success! using! celebrities! as! spokespersons,! especially! athletes,X! stated! researchers! Amy! Dyson! and! Douglas! Turco,! in! XThe! State! of! Celebrity! Endorsement! in! Sport,X! for! the! CyberBJournal)of)Sport)Marketing.)They!found!that,!in!1995,!U.S.!companies!paid! more!than!$1!billion!to!2,000!athletes!for!endorsement!deals,!and!that!sport! endorsers! were! featured! in! 11%! of! all! television! advertisements! that! same! year.!XResearch!has!indicated!that!customers!are!more!likely!to!choose!goods! and!services!endorsed!by!celebrities!than!those!without!such!endorsements,X! they!concluded.! Their!research!shows!that!one!of!the!advantages!to!celebrityEbased!marketing! campaigns!is!that:! “Famous)people)hold)the)viewer9s)attention.)In)this)era)of)soundBbytes)and)channel) surfing,)there)is)a)demand)for)people9s)time)and)focus.”) Of! course,! any! marketing! material! —! even! with) a! powerful! celebrity! endorsement!—!must!be!a!combination!of!both!education!and!sales.! CELEBRITY)BRANDING)AND)ITS)EFFECT)ON)CONSUMERS! It! is! a! known! fact! that! the! best! endorsements! achieve! an! effective! balance! between!the!product!(brand)!and!the!celebrity.!Giving!a!brand!a!VfaceV!is!more! than!just!a!marketing!strategy!to!increase!sales!or!gain!market!share,!it!is!a! decision!that!can!change!the!future!of!the!brand!forever.! Choice!of!the!celebrity,!hence,!is!of!utmost!importance!and!is!usually!done!
  29. 29. 16! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! based!on!many!different!parameters!E!appeal,!looks,!popularity!or!even!just!a! fantasy!figure!to!endorse!a!brand.! In!todayVs!highly!competitive!markets,!big!brands!are!at!loggerEheads!when!it! comes! to! products,! each! having! a! similar! product! to! that! of! a! rival.! Where! does! one! brand! gain! that! competitive! advantage! E! advertising,! service,! or! promise! of! trust.! Advertising! seems! to! be! the! best! platform! where! brands! prefer! to! compete! on! E! right! from! hiring! the! best! advertising! agencies! to! getting! the! biggest! celebrities.! What! would! be! the! formula! to! success! then?! Well,!a!good!creative!agency,!a!large!enough!promotional!budget!and!a!huge! star!to!endorse!your!brand!would!definitely!ensure!in!the!minds!of!a!brand! management! team! a! feeling! of! security,! success! and! a! triumph! over! the! competitors!brand.! The!general!belief!among!advertisers!is!that!brand!communication!messages! delivered! by! celebrities! and! famous! personalities! generate! a! higher! appeal,! attention! and! recall! than! those! executed! by! nonEcelebrities.! The! quick! messageEreach!and!impact!are!all!too!essential!in!todayVs! The!importance!of!a!celebrityEbrand!match!and!the!various!roles!played!by! them!as!brandE!associates!show!the!momentum!this!strategy!has!gained!in!the! last!decade!or!so.!India!is!a!country!where!people!are!starEstruck!by!film!stars,! cricketers,!politicians,!and!even!criminals.!Why?!Populations!of!1!billion!and! ticking,!everyday!people!need!something!or!someone!to!look!up!to.!A!sense!of! security,!admiration,!comfort,!familiarity,!and!above!all,!someone!they!aspire! to!be!at!some!hidden!level!in!their!lives.!A!clever!marketer!leverages!this!very! celebrity!appeal!and!successfully!carries!out!his!job!by!giving!the!brands!what! they!want!E!profit,!market!share!and!even!recall.!But!how!much!star!power!is! too!much?!XDoes!Salman!really!use!Wheel,X!asked!a!6!year!old!to!her!mother.! Her!mother!laughs!and!says,!XNo!way,!just!a!gimmick.X!What!does!that!do!to! the!brand?! Now,!despite!the!potential!benefits!derived!from!celebrity!endorsements,!they! increase! a! marketerVs! risk! and! should! be! treated! with! full! attention! and! aptitude.!A!brand!should!be!cautious!when!employing!celebrities!to!ensure! promise! believability! and! delivery! of! the! intended! effect.! As! the! celebrities! traverse! from! a! mere! commercial! presence! to! public! welfare! message! endorsements,!a!whole!new!dimension!is!added!to!this!process!and!helps!us! in!achieving!a!holistic!view!of!the!impact!which!celebrities!generate!in!every! sphere!and!segment!through!their!wellEversed!endorsements.! The!most!important!thing!to!remember!is!that!putting!a!celebrity!in!an!ad!is! not!an!idea!in!itself.!Unfortunately,!this!is!how!most!celebrities!are!being!used! in!Indian!advertising,!where!they!just!become!a!prop.!Ideally,!there!should!be! an!idea!that!makes!the!celebrity!relevant!to!the!product!and!the!consumer.!A!
  30. 30. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!17! celebrityVs!presence!in!the!ad!should!be!contextual.! Celebrity! endorsement! cannot! guarantee! foolEproof! success.! The! celebrity! endorsement!strategy!must!be!integrated!with!target!market!characteristics,! and! the! other! elements! of! the! marketing! mix! such! as! product! design,! branding,! packaging,! and! pricing.! The! message! execution! that! will! be! mouthed! by! the! celebrity! must! likewise! be! made! clear! and! singleEminded.! This! can! be! done! by! aligning! the! spirit! of! the! brand! to! the! product,! or! by! using!a!celebrity!because!it!ensures!that!people!will!notice!you,!and!hopefully! remember!what!the!brand!is!saying.! ! ! Relationship)between)a)Celebrity)&)a)Brand! It!is!also!important!to!view!the!consumer!in!their!social!and!cultural!setting!to! further!see!how!celebrity!endorsements!increase!sales!and!impact!brands!over! time.! Celebrities! usually! form! a! very! good! example! of! a! reference! group! appeal.!This!is!particularly!beneficial!to!a!marketer!and!a!brand!who!can!cash! in!on!the!success!of!the!star!and,!hence,!push!his!brand.!People!who!idolize! their! celebrities,! hence,! have! a! biased! affinity! to! the! brand! their! favorites! endorse.!As!time!passes!on,!they!believe!that!they!by!adopting!the!brand!that! their!celebrity!endorses!are!becoming!more!like!them.!Celebrities!can!be!used! in!four!ways!namely:!testimonial,!endorsement,!actor!and!spokesperson.! Right!now!the!current!hot!favorite!in!India!is!roping!in!celebrities!for!social! causes!like!AIDS,!polio!etc.!This!has!shown!to!be!having!a!positive!effect!on! the!people.!In!India,!Bollywood!and!sport!personalities!rule!the!mindEspace! and!airwaves.! THE)SCOPE)OF)A)CELEBRITY)ON)THE)INCUMBENT)BRAND! Simply! stating,! a! brand! is! a! differentiated! product! and! helps! in! identifying! your!product!and!making!it!stand!out!due!to!its!name,!design,!style,!symbol,! color!combination,!or!usually!a!mix!of!all!these:!Before!we!can!scrutinize!the! effects!of!celebrity!endorsement!on!the!overall!brand,!we!have!to!ferret!the! implicit!factors!that!act!as!sources!of!strong!brand!images!or!values:!E! Experience)of)Use:)This!encapsulates!familiarity!and!proven!reliability.!!
  31. 31. 18! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! User)Associations:)Brands!acquire!images!from!the!type!of!people!who!are! seen! using! them.! Images! of! prestige! or! success! are! imbibed! when! brands!are!associated!with!!glamorous!personalities.!! Celebrity)Endorsements)&)Brand)Building) Belief) in) Efficiency:) Ranking! from! consumer! associations,! newspaper! editorials,!etc.!! • Brand) Appearance:) Design! of! brand! offers! clues! to! quality! and! affect! preferences.! • Manufacturer’s) Name) &) Reputation:) A! prominent! brand! name! (Sony,! Kellogg’s,!!Bajaj,!Tata)!transfers!positive!associations.!!The!celebrity’s!role!is! the! most! explicit! and! profound! in! incarnating! user! associations! among! the! above! mentioned! points.! To! comprehend! this,! let! us! analyze! the! multiplier! effect!formula!for!a!successful!brand:!E!!S)=)E)*)D)*AV)EE!the!multiplier!effect! !Where!! S)is!a!Successful!Brand!E)is!an!Effective!Product!D)is!Distinctive!Identity!AV) is!Added!Values! The!realm!of!the!celebrity’s!impact!is!confined!to!bestow!a!distinctive!identity! and! provide! AV! to! the! brand;! the! celebrity! does! not! have! the! power! to! improve!or!debilitate!the!efficiency!and!features!of!the!core!product.!Thus,!we! are!gradually!approaching!an!evident!proposition!claiming,!XThe!health!of!a! brand! can! definitely! be! improved! up! to! some! extent! by! celebrity! endorsement.!But!one!has!to!remember!that!endorsing!a!celebrity!is!a!means! to!an!end!and!not!an!end!in!itself.X! An! appropriately! used! celebrity! can! prove! to! be! a! massively! powerful! tool! that!magnifies!the!effects!of!a!campaign.!But!the!aura!of!cautiousness!should!
  32. 32. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!19! always! be! there.! The! fact! to! be! emphasized! is! that! celebrities! alone! do! not! guarantee! success,! as! consumers! nowadays! understand! advertising,! know! what!advertising!is,!and!how!it!works.!People!realize!that!celebrities!are!being! paid!a!lot!of!money!for!endorsements!and!this!knowledge!leads!them!to!think! twice!about!celebrity!endorsements.! IS)CELEBRITY)ADVERTISING)EFFECTIVE?! What!are!the!benefits!of!representing!India!in!the!national!cricket!team?!It!is! an!opportunity!to!compete!with!the!best!in!the!world!and!pitch!oneVs!talent! against!the!best.! It!is!an!opportunity!to!travel!around!the!world.!It!is!an!opportunity!to!uphold! national!pride.!And!make!good!money!from!every!match!played.! But!there!is!more,!a!ticket!to!modelling!in!the!advertising!world!(and!a!future! perhaps!in!Bollywood).!Not!surprisingly!itVs!a!very!attractive!profession.!As! advertisers!pour!crores!of!rupees!every!year!into!celebrity!advertising.! Think!of!Sachin!Tendulkar.!He!means!Pepsi!in!soft!drinks,!Boost!in!malted! beverages,! MRF! in! tires,! Fiat! Palio! in! cars,! TVS! Victor! in! twoEwheelers,! Colgate!Total!in!toothpastes,!Britannia!in!biscuits,!Visa!in!credit!cards!&!Airtel! in!mobile!services.! Clearly,!an!overload!of!brands!and!categories!associated!with!one!star.! In! the! advertising! world,! celebrity! advertising! is! seen! as! a! substitute! for! Vabsence! of! ideasV! EE! and! actually! frowned! upon.! Yet! it! appears! again! and! again.!The!reasons)are!quite!insightful.! Celebrity!Endorsements!&!Brand!Building! ! There!is!no!doubt!that!celebrity!advertising!has!its!benefits!–! The)four)Qs:)Quick)saliency:)It!gets!cut!through!because!of!the!star!and!his! attention!getting!value.!Nerolac!has!ensured!high!saliency!for!its!brand!with! the!inclusion!of!Amitabh!Bachchan!in!its!advertising.!
  33. 33. 20! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! Quick)connect:)There!needs!to!be!no!insight!but!the!communication!connects! because! the! star! connects.! Sachin! Tendulkar! &! Shah! Rukh! Khan! ensure! an! easy!connect!for!Pepsi!with!the!youth.! Quick) shorthand) for) brand) values:) The! right! star! can! actually! telegraph! a! brand! message! fast! without! elaborate! story! telling.! Kapil! Dev! and! Sachin! Tendulkar!seem!to!have!done!that!successfully!for!Boost!in!the!early!V90s.!And! helped!to!differentiate!it!in!the!malted!beverages!market.! Quick)means)of)brand)differentiation:)In!a!category!where!no!brand!is!using! a!celebrity,!the!first!that!picks!one!up!could!use!it!to!differentiate!itself!in!the! market.!Boost!did!it!in!the!malted!beverage!category.! And!Preity!Zinta!does!all!the!above!four!for!Perk!EE!connecting!with!the!youth! and!reinforcing!the!brandVs!youthful,!spontaneous,!energetic!values.! In! general! celebrity! endorsements! are! impelled! by! virtue! of! the! following! motives:! • Instant!Brand!Awareness!and!Recall.!! • Celebrity!values!define,!and!refresh!the!brand!image.!! • Celebrities!add!new!dimensions!to!the!brand!image.!! • Instant!credibility!or!aspiration!PR!coverage.!! • Lack! of! ideas.! !An! appropriately! used! celebrity! can! prove! to! be! a! massively!powerful!tool!that!magnifies!the!effects!of!a!campaign.!But! the! aura! of! cautiousness! should! always! be! there.! The! fact! to! be! emphasized! is! that! celebrities! alone! do! not! guarantee! success,! as! consumers! nowadays! understand! advertising.! They! know! what! advertising! is! and! how! it! works.! People! realize! that! celebrities! are! being!paid!a!lot!of!money!for!endorsements!and!this!knowledge!makes! them!to!think!twice!about!celebrity!endorsements.!! Celebrity!endorsements!are!impelled!by!virtue!of!the!following!motives:! ! • Instant!Brand!Awareness!and!Recall.! • Celebrity!values!define,!and!refresh!the!brand!image.! • Celebrities!add!new!dimensions!to!the!brand!image.! • Instant!credibility!or!aspiration!PR!coverage.! • Lack!of!ideas.! • Convincing!clients.! ! Certain! parameters! that! postulate! compatibility! between! the! celebrity! and! brand!image!are:!
  34. 34. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!21! ! • Celebrity‘s!fit!with!the!brand!image.! • Celebrity!E!Target!audience!match! • Celebrity!associated!values.! • Costs!of!acquiring!the!celebrity.! • Celebrity!E!Product!match.! • Celebrity!controversy!risk.! • Celebrity!popularity.! • Celebrity!availability.! • Celebrity!physical!attractiveness.! • Celebrity!credibility.! • Celebrity!prior!endorsements.! • Whether!celebrity!is!a!brand!user.! • Celebrity!profession.! ) ! ) ) ) ) ! ! ! ! ! !
  35. 35. 22! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! RESEARCH'OBJECTIVES! Objective! of! this! study! was! to! reveal! and! reEestablish! the! positive! impact! of! celebrity! endorsement! on! brand! image! and! find! out! the! most! prominent!factors!those!play!the!key!role!in!the!success!of!an!endorsement.! The! research! objective! was! to! explore! the! link! between! brands! and! the! consumer! psyche! and! determine! a! model! which! can! help! any! brand! to! identify!the!critical!key!areas!to!concentrate!on!while!going!for!any!celebrity! endorsement.!The!newly!evolved!model!should!lead!any!brand!towards!the! success!of!strategic!branding!from!endorsement!aspect.! ) The!main!objectives!of!the!study!are:! ! ! ! • Primary! Objective:! Effects! of! celebrity! endorsement! on! brand! personality!of!Lux!soap.! • Secondary!Objective:!! 1. To! study! the! consumer! perception! of! celebrity! personality! has! an! effect! on! brand! personality! and! buying! behavior! taking! example! of! the! celebrity! endorsing! Lux! brand! have! a! positive! impact! on! the! personality! of! a! brand! and! how! it! has! helped! create!a!image!that!it!is!a!beauty!bar!of!stars.! 2. To!understand!buyer!behavior!of!Lux!soap!use.! 3. To! extract! consumers! opinion! regarding! various! in! advertisement!for!celebrity!endorsement!of!Lux!soup.! Taking!the!purpose!of!the!study!and!the!objectives!into!account,!a!qualitative! research!was!conducted,!which!was!exploratory!in!nature.!Text!data!analysis! was!the!method!used!to!analyze!the!content!and!context!of!the!data!collected! by! means! of! an! openEended! questionnaire.! The! data! was! collected! in! two! phases.!In!the!initial!part!of!the!study,!focus!groups!were!conducted!among! members!of!the!target!market!to!gain!an!initial!understanding!of!consumer! perceptions!of!the!brand.!The!focus!groups!assisted!the!author!in!developing! questions! that! were! used! in! the! openEended! questionnaire! in! the! second! phase.!In!this!way,!relevant!and!meaningful!data!was!retrieved!ensuring!that! the! research! objectives! were! met.! A! comparison! study! was! conducted! by! means! of! the! focus! groups! to! assess! whether! the! responses! were! of! similar! nature!compared!with!the!responses!derived!from!the!questionnaire.! ! ! !
  36. 36. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!23! LITERATURE(REVIEW! Discovering!the!Consumer:!Market!Research,!Product!Innovation,!and! the!Creation!of!Brand!Loyalty!in!Britain!and!the!United!States!in!the!Interwar! Years,! This! paper! discusses! the! use! of! market! and! consumer! research! at! Unilever!and!its!advertising!agency!in!Britain!and!the!United!States,!J.!Walter! Thompson!(JWT),!in!the!interwar!period.!Research!surveys!conducted!by!JWT! in! the! 1920sand! 1930s! helped! Lever! reposition! its! international! soap! brand! Lux.!The!article!also!shows!that!marketing!cultural!practices!often!predate!its! conceptualization!and!academic!theorization.! The!Brand:!Lux!Soap!Flakes!One!of!Lever‘s!earliest!product!innovations!was!a! production!technique!developed!in1889,!which!allowed!soap!to!be!produced! in!forms!of!flakes.!The!resulting!product,!soap!flakes,!made!washing!easier! and!preserved!the!garments!as!women!did!not!have!to!rub!clothes!with!the! hard! soap! bar.! In! 1900,! Lever‘s! product! came! on! the! market! as! “Lux! soap! flakes”.! Moreover,! the! product! was! positioned! as! a! problem! solver! (Levitt1960);! if! consumers! were! rich! enough! to! buy! expensive! clothes,! they! also! had! problems!which!lowEincome!groups!did!not!have,!that!is,!the!preservation!of! silk! or! other! expensive! clothes.! Lux! helped! solve! these! problems.! In! 1906,! Lever! began! to! export! Lux! soap! flakes! to! the! United! States.! There,! its! advertising!agency!JWT!suggested!that!the!traditional!positioning!of!Lux!as!a! product!to!be!used!to!wash!woolen!garments!(see!slogan!in!fig.!1:‗‗Lux!won‘t! shrink!woolens‘‘)!should!be!widened!so!that!consumers!saw!Lux!as!product! that! could! be! used! for! all! fine! fabrics.! Its! advertisements! often! followed! an! aggressive! market! expansion! strategy! for! their! products;! by! suggesting! a! wider!framework!of!possible!uses!for!a!given!product!both!the!customer!base! and!the!usage!rate!of!a!product!could!be!increased!(Ansoff!1957).!For!its!client! Lever!Brothers,!this!strategy!resulted!in!increased!sales!from!10,000!cases!in! 1915! to! over! one! million! cases! in! 1918! (The! history! of! LuxFlakes‘‘1950;! Lovett1970).! This! strategic! marketing! orientation! of! JWT‘s! advertising! is! further!exemplified!in!its!decision!to!use!advertisements!in!1922!to!promote! the!use!of!Lux!for!the!washing!of!dishes.! In!the!early!1920s,!the!Lux!advertising!campaign!in!the!American!market!took! a! crucial! turn! toward! dialogic! consumer! engagement.! In! 1924,! JWT! invited! American! housewives! to! submit! testimonials! for! Lux! soap! flakes.! These! letters,!of!which!about!53,000!arrived!at!the!JWT!headquarters‘,!were!used!by! the! agency! to! conduct! a! survey! of! consumer! habits.! It! turned! out! that! consumers!had!independently!begun!to!use!the!flakes!for!the!washing!of!their! hands,!for!baths,!for!theirbabies,!and!for!washing!their!hands!and!hair.!
  37. 37. 24! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! Source!Credibility!of!Communication! The! concept! of! celebrity! endorsement! has! its! origin! in! Psychology.! Researchers! in! psychology! have! extensively! studied! the! communicatorE messageEreceiver! relationship! and! its! sub! issues! such! as! the! impact! of! communicator/source!capabilities!on!making!the!message!credible,!effects!of! the!communicator!in!attitude!change!of!the!receiver,!communicator!message! match!etc.! One! of! the! most! studied! areas! is! that! of! Xsource! credibilityX! which! is! very! similar!to!the!XXethosX!of!Aristotle!(Hovland!and!Weiss!1952:!McCroskey!and! Young!1981).!Source!credibility!has!been!defined!as:! XAttitude! toward! a! source! of! communication! held! at! a! given! time! by! a! receiverX! (McCroskey!and!Young!1981,!24)!!Psychology!literature!has!identified!three! dimensions! of! source! credibility,! in! particular! when! the! source! is! an! individual;! trust,! expertness! and! attractiveness.! !Giffin! (1967)! defined! interpersonal!trust!in!the!communication!process!as:! “...Reliance!upon!the!communication!behavior!of!another!person!in!order!to! achieve!a!desired!but!uncertain!objective!in!a!risky!situation.X!(lOS)!llovland,! Janis,!and!Kelly!(1953)!defined!expertness!of!a!source!as:! XThe! extent! to! which! a! communicator! is! perceived! to! be! a! source! of! valid! assertionsX! (21)!Thus! the! implication! which! can! be! drawn! is! that! more! trustworthy!the!source,!or!the!more!expert!the!source!is!perceived!to!be,!the! more! impact! the! message! communicated! by! him/her! will! have! on! the! recipient.!! Though! the! dimensions! of! Trust! and! Expertness! were! simultaneously!studied!the!dimension!of!source!attractiveness!was!studied!in! isolation! but! almost! parallel! to! the! former! one.! The! concept! of! the! attractiveness!of!a!communicator!affecting!the!attitude!change!of!the!receiver! was! first! discussed! by! McGuire! (1969! ref.! 1985)! who! postulated! three! components!of!source!valence:!credibility,!attractiveness!and!power.!McGuire! argued!about!the!inclusion!of!the!attractiveness!of!the!source!as!a!component! of!source!along!with!trustworthiness!and!expertise.!He!further!argued!about! the! three! components! of! source! attractiveness;! Similarity,! Familiarity! and! Liking,!where,!similarity)referred)to)the)supposed)resemblance)between)the)source) and)the)receiver,)the)message;)familiarity)means)the)awareness)or)knowledge)about)the) source)which)comes)from)exposure)and!likeability)was)the)acceptance)of)the)source)by) virtue) of) its) attractiveness) and) appearance.) While! discussing! about! liking,! McGuire!(1969)!opined,! Xit!would!seem!unobjectionable!to!hypothesize!that!the!more!the!subject!liked! the! source! of! a! persuasive! message,! the! more! he! would! change! his! belief! toward!the!position!the!source!is!advocating.X!
  38. 38. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!25! A! literature! review! of! experimental! studies! on! attractiveness! of! the! source! (Joseph! 1982)! suggested! that! physically! attractive! sources! were! able! to! generate! 11)l0re! favorable! response! from! the! consumer! in! the! context! of! advertising.! It! is! interesting! to! note! that! studies! which! involved! the! attractiveness!construct!in!terms!of!celebrity!endorsements!in!the!later!years! (Baker! and! Churchill! 1977;! Bower! 2001;! Kamins! 1990;! Kamins! and! Gupta! 1994;!Misra!and!Beatty!1990;!Mowen!and!Brown!1981;!Till!and!Busler!1998,! 2000)!mostly!tested!the!effects!of!physical!attractiveness!rather!than!the!three! components!mentioned!by!McGuire!(1969).!In!effect,!the!research!focused!on! physical!attractiveness!instead!of!attractiveness!as!a!whole.! Definitions! Celebrity!has!been!defined!by!Friedman,!Termini,!and!Washington!(1976)!as! someone!who!is,! X.......known! to! the! public! for! his! accomplishment! In! areas! unrelated! to! the! product!class!endorsed.”! One!of!the!reasons!of!using!a!celebrity!is!his/her!wide!recognition!which!has! an! impact! on! the! credibility! of! the! product! endorsed.! According! to! McCracken!(1989),!a!celebrity!endorser!can!be!defined!as,! .....any!individual!who!enjoys!public!recognition!and!who!uses!this!on!behalf! of!a!consumer!good!by!appearing!with!it!in!an!advertisement.X!The!role!of!the! celebrity! spokesperson! can! be! multiple! and! not! necessarily! mutually! exclusive,!such!as:! Testimonial:)Here!the!individual!attests!to!the!superiority!or!excellence!of!a! product!or!service!on!the!basis!of!personal!experience!with!it.! !Endorser:) Here! the! individual! is! merely! associated! with! the! brand,! which! implies! an! endorsement.! In! this! case! the! individual! mayor! may! not! be! an! expert!in!the!field!of!the!brand.! Actor:)Here!the!individual!is!merely!a!character!in!a!dramatic!presentation.! Spokesman:)The!individual!represents!the!company!or!brand,!much!as!does!a! salesman.!(Kamen,!Azhari!and!Kragh!1975.!17)! The!celebrity!selected!for!the!endorsement!sometimes!may!be!an!expert!in!the! product/related!area,!such!as!Michael!Jordan!endorsing!basketball!shoes!for! Adidas.! However,! the! celebrity! may! not! be! an! expert.! Sometimes,! the! celebrity!may!also!have!a!longEterm!association!with!the!product!or!brand.!
  39. 39. 26! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! ) The)Meaning)Transfer)Model.!Because!of!the!lack!of!explanatory!power!of! the! source! models! (both! source! credibility! and! source! attractiveness),! McCracken! (1989)! proposed! the! meaning! transfer! model.! McCracken! postulated! that! celebrities! stand! for! a! set! of! meanings! to! the! consumer.! In! addition,!they!offer!a!range!of!personality!traits!and!lifestyles!that!cannot!be! explained! by! the! source! models.! McCracken,! therefore,! suggested! that! a! general!objective!of!an!ad!should!be!to!transfer!the!meaning!from!the!celebrity! to! the! product.! The! roots! of! the! meaning! transfer! model! can! be! found! in! McCrackenVs! (1986)! work! on! cultural! movement! of! meaning! in! consumer! goods.!The!meaning!transfer!model!was!tested!in!a!derived!form!in!various! areas!in!marketing!literature!such!as!Branding!(OVReilly!2005),!Cause!Related! Marketing! (Cornwell! and! Smith! 2001),! Advertising! (Till! and! Priluck! 2001),! Consumer! Behaviour! (Hogg! and! Banister! 2000;! Roster! 2001)! and! Event! Sponsorships!(Gwinner!1997).!The!number!of!studies!related!to!the!concept!of! meaning! transfer! proposed! by! McCracken! (1989)! was! few! compared! to! the! source! credibility! and! congruence! studies.! The! early! studies! did! some! progress! in! testing! out! the! meaning! transfer! phenomenon! Langmeyer! and! Walker! 1991;! Walker,! Langemeyer,! and! Langemeyer! 1992)! but! after! that! interest! dwindled! in! that! area.! Some! of! the! later! studies! have! used! source! dimensions!to!explain!meaning!transfer!such!as!Expertise!(Peetz,!Parks,!and! Spencer! 2004)! or! Attractiveness! and! Trustworthiness! (Charbonneau! and! Garland!working!paper).! Traditional! explanations! of! celebrity! endorsement! persuasion! effects! are! based!on!the!source!effects!literature!and!find!that!1)!celebrity!endorsement! increases!the!attention!paid!to!an!ad!(Buttle,!Raymond,!and!Danziger!2000);!2)! celebrities!are!generally!attractive,!which!helps!persuasion!when!consumers! are! worried! about! social! acceptance! and! others’! opinions! (DeBono! and! Harnish! 1988)! or! when! the! product! is! attractivenessErelated! (Kahle! and! Homer!1985,!Kamins!1990);!3)!celebrities!may!be!credible!sources!if!they!have! expertise!in!a!particular!area,!such!as!an!athlete!endorsing!shoes!(Ratneshwar! and! Chiaken! 1991)! or! a! beautiful! model! endorsing! makeEup! (Baker! and! Churchill! 1983);! and! 4)! celebrities! are! often! wellEliked,! possibly! leading! to! identification! and! consumer! persuasion! in! an! attempt! to! seek! some! type! of! relationship! with! the! celebrity! (Belch! and! Belch! 2007).! In! traditional! dual! process!models!(e.g.!ELM;!Petty,!Cacioppo,!and!Schumann!1983),!celebrities! are!most!often!considered!a!peripheral!cue:!they!are!important!in!persuasion!
  40. 40. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!27! only! when! consumers! are! not! involved! in! the! product! category! or! in! processing! the! ad.! However,! celebrities! may! provide! central! information! when!an!aspect!of!the!celebrity!matches!the!product!(as!with!beauty!products! and!attractiveness;!Kahle!and!Homer1985).!Also,!as!affective!peripheral!cues,! celebrity!endorsements!may!lead!media!weight!to!have!an!impact!on!sales!in! mature!categories!(MacInnis,!Rao,!and!Weiss!2002).!The!company!makes!use! of!the!celebrityVs!characteristics!and!qualities!to!establish!an!analogy!with!the! products!specialties!with!an!aim!to!position!them!in!the!minds!of!the!target! consumers.! To! be! successful,! brands! need! to! convince! consumers! that! they! carry! a! different! image! and! value! from! other! competing! products! (Sadhu! Ramakrishna,!Santhosh!Reddy,!2005).!In!other!words,!brands!have!to!show! their!true!personality!to!the!potential!consumer(s).!It!was!not!until!the!1920s,! however,! that! advertisers! used! famous! people! for! product! endorsements.! Actresses!Joan!Crawford,!Clara!Bow!and!Janet!Gaynor!were!among!the!first! celebrities!to!promote!products!(Fox,!1984).!At!that!time,!the!rationale!given! by! advertising! agencies! for! using! celebrities! was! Xthe! spirit! of! emulationX! (Fox,! 1984,! p.90).! About! a! decade! ago,! one! in! three! television! commercials! used! celebritiesV! endorsements! (Business! Week,! 1978),! and! today! this! advertising!approach!appeared!to!be!on!the!increase!across!all!media!types! (Sherman,!1985!and!Levin,!1988).!Friedman!et!al.!(1977)!found!that!celebrities! are! featured! in! 15! percent! of! the! primeEtime! television! commercials.! In! the! United! States,! it! was! reported! that! about! 20%! of! all! television! commercials! feature! a! famous! person,! and! about! 10%! of! the! dollars! spent! on! television! advertising! are! used! in! celebrity! endorsement! advertisements! (Advertising! Age,! 1987;! Sherman,! 1985).! Thus,! celebrity! endorsement! has! become! a! prevalent!form!of!advertising!in!United!States!(Agrawal!and!Kamakura,!1995)! and! elsewhere.! Today,! the! use! of! celebrity! advertising! for! companies! has! become!a!trend!and!a!perceived!winning!formula!of!corporate!image!building! and! product! marketing! (Media,! JulyEAugust! 1997).! This! phenomenon! is! reflected! by! the! recent! market! research! findings! that! 8! out! of! 10! TV! commercials!scoring!the!highest!recall!are!those!with!celebritiesV!appearances! (Media,! Nov.! 14,! 1997).! Brands! have! become! embedded! in! the! consumer! psyche! and! offer! consumers! the! opportunity! for! selfEexpression,! selfE realization! and! selfEidentity.! This! effect! is! particularly! strong! in! fashion! categories.! Barriers! including! cynicism! and! increasing! advertising! literacy! threaten! traditional! approaches! to! brand! communications,! which! have! traditionally! relied! on! verbal! communications! and! storytelling.! Celebrity! endorsement! is! recognized! as! a! potentially! potent! tool! in! communications,! with! celebrities! viewed! as! more! powerful! than! anonymous! models! and! campaigns!tending!to!verbalize!the!meaning!of!the!celebrity!in!relation!to!the! brand! (Brian! Moeran,! 2003).! To! the! manufacturer,! brands! offer! a! means! of! identification! for! ease! of! handling! and! tracking,! legal! protection! and! the! ability!to!be!distinctive.!In!addition,!branding!is!a!sign!of!quality!and!can!be! used! for! competitive! advantage! and! increased! financial! returns! and! high! customer!loyalty.!For!consumer,!brand!functions!as!a!means!of!identification,!
  41. 41. 28! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! reduces!search!costs,!effort!and!perceived!risk,!thereby!facilitating!a!shortcut! in! decision! making,! and! represents! a! guarantee! of! quality! and! reliability.! Silvera!and!Austad!note!that!the!celebrity!system!is!primarily!an!American! cultural! enterprise! and! that! Americans! identify! especially! strongly! with! celebrities!and!are!thus!more!willing!to!accept!and!internalize!endorsement! messages.!Consumers!from!other!cultures!may!not!show!correspondent!bias,! believing! that! endorsers! like! the! product! less! than! most! people.! This! was! evident!in!a!sample!from!Norway,!where!cultural!norms!based!on!Janteloven! suggest!that!an!individual!should!never!try!to!be!different!or!consider!himself! more! valuable! than! others.! The! set! of! associations! consumers! have! about! a! brand! is! an! important! component! of! brand! equity! (Keller! 1993),! and! we! believe!that!forming!a!selfEbrand!connection!is!a!psychological!manifestation! of! such! equity! at! the! consumer! level.! When! consumers! appropriate! or! distance!themselves!from!brand!associations!based!on!celebrity!endorsement,! they!do!so!in!a!manner!that!is!consistent!with!selfErelated!needs,!such!as!selfE enhancement! (Escalas! and! Bettman! 2003).! Recent! research! indicates! that! consumers! construct! their! selfEidentity! and! present! themselves! to! others! through! their! brand! choices! based! on! the! congruency! between! brandEuser! associations! and! selfEimage! associations! (Escalas! and! Bettman! 2005,! 2003).! Brands! can! be! symbols! whose! meaning! is! used! to! create! and! define! a! consumer’s!selfEconcept!(Levy!1959).!McCracken’s!(1986)!model!of!meaning! transfer! asserts! that! such! meaning! originates! in! the! culturally! constituted! world,!moving!into!goods!via!the!fashion!system,!word!of!mouth,!reference! groups,! sub! cultural! groups,! celebrities,! and! the! media.! The! meaning! and! value!of!a!brand!is!not!just!its!ability!to!express!the!self,!but!also!its!role!in! helping! consumers! create! and! build! their! selfEidentities! (McCracken! 1989).! McCracken,!highlighting!the!limitations!of!the!VsourceV!models,!puts!forward!a! threeEstage!Meaning!Transfer!model,!which!has!been!adopted!as!the!model! that! comes! closest! to! conceptualizing! the! process.! Dwane! Hal! Dean! (1999)! studied! the! effects! of! three! extrinsic! advertisement! cues! viz.! third! party! endorsement,! event! sponsorship! and! brand! popularity! on! brand! /! manufacturer! evaluation.! It! was! observed! that! endorsement! significantly! affected! only! product! variables! (quality! and! uniqueness)! and! one! image! variable!(esteem).!The!third!party!endorsement!hence!may!be!perceived!as!a! signal! of! product! quality.! Goldsmith! et! al.(200)! assessed! the! impact! of! endorser! and! corporate! credibility! on! attitudeEtowardEtheEad,! attitudeE! towardEtheEbrand,! and! purchase! intentions.! 152! adult! consumers! were! surveyed! who! viewed! a! fictitious! advertisement! for! Mobil! Oil! Company.! They!rated!the!credibility!of!the!adVs!endorser,!the!credibility!of!the!company,! and! attitudeEtowardEtheEad! (Aad),! attitudeEtowardEtheEbrand! (AB),! and! purchase! intentions.! It! was! observed! that! endorser! credibility! had! its! strongest!impact!on!Aad!while!corporate!credibility!had!its!strongest!impact! on!AB.!The!findings!suggest!that!corporate!credibility!plays!an!important!role! in! consumersV! reactions! to! advertisements! and! brands,! independent! of! the! equally!important!role!of!endorser!credibility.!
  42. 42. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!![CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]!!!!!!!29! Advertising! is! one! of! the! major! factors! behind! the! economic! activity! of! a! country!as!it!not!only!helps!to!stimulate!consumption!but!also!give!models!for! lifestyles! and! value! orientation! (Polly! and! Mittal,! 1993).! Celebrity! ads! are! becoming! very! common! and! prominent! phenomena! in! advertising! everywhere.! Almost! 25%! of! all! American! ads! have! celebrities! in! them! (Stephens!and!Rice,!1998)!and!this!percentage!is!more!than!double,!up!to!70%! in!Japan!(Kilburn,!1998).The!effectiveness!of!a!celebrity!endorsement!strategy! may!be!mediated!by!variables!such!as!the!celebrity/product!fit,!the!product! and!usage!occasion,!societal/cultural!conditions!and!the!volume!of!repetitive! advertisements! featuring! celebrities.! While! brand! marketers! with! positive! experiences! would! tend! to! believe! that! celebrity! endorsements! work! and! some!would!disagree,!but!one!would!be!sure!that!the!magnitude!of!its!impact! is!difficult!to!measure!even!if!sales!figures!are!at!our!disposal.!As!Ajzen!and! Fishbein!(1980,!p.5)!put!it,!XHuman!beings!are!usually!quite!rational!and!make! systematic! use! of! the! information! available! to! them...! People! consider! the! implications!of!their!actions!before!they!decide!to!engage!or!not!to!engage!in!a! given! behavior.X! Celebrity! endorsement! has! a! big! impact! on! purchase! decision.!As!per!Neha!Taleja!(2005),!Markets!in!which!advertising!coordinates! consumer! purchases,! celebrity! endorsements! are! more! likely! chosen! for! products!that!have!either!of!the!following:!E! v!High!priceEcost!margins! v!Large!potential!customer!pools! v!The!need!to!coEordinate!across!diverse!sets!of!customers.! CONCEPTUALIZATION! From! the! literature! review! on! celebrity! endorsements! and! BP,! it! is! obvious!that!researchers!have!not!yet!looked!into!the!effects!of!the!celebrity! personality! on! the! brand! personality.! However,! given! the! context! of! incremental! use! of! celebrities! to! promote! brands,! this! becomes! very! important.!Both!the!congruence!studies!in!celebrity!endorsements!(Friedman! and!Friedman!1976;!Kamins!1990;!Kamins!and!Gupta!1994;!Mittelstaedt!and! Riesz! 2000)! and! the! meaning! transfers! (McCracken! 1989;! Langmeyer! and! Walker!1991;!Walker,!et!al.!1992)!studies!have!hinted!on!the!congruence!or! transfer! of! attributes! from! the! celebrity! to! the! brand! endorsed.! Even! if! we! infer! from! Misra! and! Beatty! (1990),! the! associative! network! of! a! celebrity! (which! includes! his/her! personality! attributes)! should! affect! the! brand! personality!he/she!endorses.!This!very!point!could!well!explain!the!questions,! which!were!raised!against!the!generalizability!of!the!BP!scale!(Austin,!Siguaw,! and!Mattila!2003;!Azulay!and!Kapferer!2003).!This!point!is!even!supported!by! Durgee!(1998)!that!the!researchers!need!to!delve!into!the!sources!of!BP.!Thus! we!define!the!objective!of!the!study,!which!is!to!examine!impact!of!celebrity! endorsement!on!brand!personality!of!Lux!soap.!
  43. 43. 30! [CELEBRITY!ENDORSEMENT!&!BRAND!PERSONALITY!WITH!UNILEVER’S!LUX:!RAJ!BHAMBHANI]! RESEARCH'METHODOLOGY! Questionnaire!based!sample!analysis!was!the!base!of!this!study.!The! sample! was! believed! to! be! quite! representative! of! the! population,! but! nonetheless!it!was!a!convenience!sample!which!may!be!defined!as!‘a!form!of! nonEprobabilistic!or!purposive!sample!drawn!on!a!purely!opportunistic!basis! from! a! readily! accessible! subgroup! of! the! population! (Baker! 1990).! A! well! framed! set! of! questioned! were! circulated! through! email! to! the! target! personnel!or!some!interviews!were!conducted.!The!idea!was!to!probe!and!get! deeper!insight!into!sales!promotion!scenario!of!Lux!!!and!to!tap!perceptions!of! retailers!and!consumers.!In!order!to!address!above!mentioned!objectives!,!A)! Study!of!secondary!sources!was!carried!out,!B)!Responses!of!consumers!were! taken! using! structured! questionnaire.! Data! analysis! is! done! using! software! packages!like!SPSS!&!MSEEXCEL.! ! SAMPLING)TECHNIQUE)) For! my! survey! I! used! Cluster! Sampling,! Convenience! sampling! and! Target!Sampling!technique.!I!selected!a!sample!of!200!people!around!the!area! and! either! conducted! an! online! survey! or! interviewed! them! in! person! according! to! the! questionnaire.! In! the! survey! I! tried! to! find! out! their! preferences! &! tastes,! their! purchasing! habit,! are! they! brand! loyal! or! they! consider! their! friends! advice! or! some! reference! group! during! purchasing.! I! also!tried!to!find!out!that!are!they!satisfied!with!the!quality!or!present!stature! of!product,!did!they!want!any!change!in!the!existing!product.! Cluster! sampling,! where! whole! population! was! divided! based! on! different! areas!such!as!Thane,!South!Mumbai,!NaviEMumbai!and!Mumbai!central.!And! detailed!interview!was!done!with!different!respondents!in!each!area.! Convenience! sampling,! where! respondents! were! selected! based! on! as! per! convenience!of!the!researcher.! Target! sampling,! where! target! respondents! are! identified! first! such! as! architects,!carpenters!and!company’s!different!stockiest!and!distributors!and! then!interview!was!done.! Sample)Design:) Sampling!size!=!200!Respondents!! Sampling!technique!=!Hypothesis!Method! Research!Instrument:!!Questionnaire,!Interview!personally! Types!of!Questionnaire:!―!structure! !

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