• Monopoly of country’s rail transport• In 1832, a proposal was made to build a railroadbetween Madras & Bangalore, but it never materialized.• In 1845, two companies formed– East Indian Railway Company operating from Calcutta– Great Indian Peninsula Railway operating fromBombay• On December 22, 1851, first train is operational in India• April 16, 1853, first passenger train introduced betweenBombay & Thana (34km) at 3.30 PM.• Railways grows in India with encouragement of theBritish Government.
• Due to Partition, India lost 40% of its existing rail network.• At independence, 42 rail systems were existing• In 1951, all systems were nationalized as one unit.• Total of 6 zones came into existence in 1952, later extended to 16zones.• In 1985, steam locomotives are phased out.• In 1987, computerisation of reservation first was carried out inBombay• In 1989, train numbers were standardized to 4 digits.• In 1995, entire reservation system was computerized.• In 1998, Konkan Railway was opened spanning difficult terrainthrough the Western Ghats.
• Railways Zones –No. Name1 Central2 East Central3 East Coast4 Eastern5 North Central6 North Eastern7 North Western8 Northeast Frontier9 Northern10 South Central11 South East Central12 South Eastern13 South Western14 Southern15 West Central16 Western
• Passenger Services– Operates over 9000 trains and transports over 5billion annually across India.– Preferred mode of transport in most of thecountry.– Overcrowding is a widely faced problem– Ticket-less travel is also an additional problemfaced.
• Production Services• In addition, Central Organisation for Railway Electrification(CORE) headquartered at Allahabad is also headed by a GM.• Its job is to undertake electrification projects of IR & monitorName HQ PurposeDiesel Locomotive Works VaranasiManufacture mainline diesel-electric for passenger andfreight trafficChittaranjan LocomotiveWorks ChitaranjanManufacture electric locomotives using DC traction as wellas AC-AC transmissionDiesel-LocoModernisation Works Patiala Manufactures key sub-assemblies for Diesel LocomotivesIntegral Coach Factory Chennai Make coaches for the Indian RailwaysRail Coach Factory Kapurthala Modern plant and has a much more flexible automationWheel & Axle Plant Bengaluru Makes cast wheels for wagons
• Freight– Contributes to 70%of revenues– Last 2 decades,shifted to largecontainermovement.– Majority ofearnings comesfrom carrying bulkgoods like iron ore,coal, crude oil.– IntroducedCONRAJ for highpriority freight
• Suburban Rail– Many cities have dedicated suburban networks.– Cities include Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad,Kolkata, Lucknow & Pune.– Only Mumbai, Pune & Hyderabad share tracks with longdistance trains.– Trains are mostly electric multiple units.– Only in Mumbai trains run on Direct Current, rest run onAlternating Current.
• Other PSU’s under the control of Ministry of Railways– Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation– Konkan Railway Corporation– Indian Railway Finance Corporation– Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation– Railtel Corporation of India – Telecommunication Networks– RITES Ltd. – Consulting Division of Indian Railways– IRCON International Ltd. – Construction Division– Rail Vikas Nigam Limited• Centre for Railway Information Systems is an autonomoussociety under Railway Board, which is responsible fordeveloping the major software required by Indian Railwaysfor its operations.
• World’s third largest railway network• Prime movers to the nation• Approximately 65,000 km of rail tracks and over 7,151 railwaystations.• IR owns a fleet of– 2,22,379 wagons– 42,441 coaches– 7,910 locomotives• Operates 1,60,251 trains including 9,550 passenger trains,carrying about 1.6 million tonnes of freight and about 18million passengers daily
• In 2002-03, social service obligation of Indian Railwaysworked out Rs 37.87 billion.• A 2001-02 review of all "branch lines" disclosed that 115trains had become uneconomical, accounting for anannual loss of Rs 434 crore.• In 2001, the ratio of net revenue to capital declined to2.5• In 1999-2000, fund balances had touched a low of Rs.1.49 billion.• Operating ratio reached 98.8 percent in the year endingMarch 2001.
• Surplus manpower…1.6 million in FY 2001.• Poor staff productivity.• Loss of market share in the profitable freightbusiness.• Lack of flexibility in pricing.• Lack of accountability.• Politicization of the decision-making processes
• Modernization• Safety and security of passengers• Replacement and renewal of assets• Track renewal & improvement in passenger amenities• Increase in productivity and reduction in operatingratio.• Computerization of railway systems.• Induction of new technologies for signalling andtelecom.• Prevention of leakages of revenue.
• Revenue Enhancement• Focusing on low-cost high-volume operations• Revision in freight rates• Increasing number of coaches in popular trains• Reducing AC class fares• Introducing Garib Raths to attract volumes
• Change in the macro-economic conditions• Rise in demand• Change in the legal position• Changes in organisational culture• Human resources initiatives• Downsizing• Decentralising
• In FY 2006-2007, IR registered profits of Rs. 200 billion.• As of 2007, IR was Indias second largest profit making PSUafter ONGC.• Revenue per staff witnessed a rise by 68 percent (2001–2006).• Operating Ratio was brought down to 78.7 percent by 2007.• Enhanced axle load and reduction in turnaround time ofwagons increased by 14%• IR increased wagon capacity available per day by 36 %• The number of employees reduced to 1.412 million by 2006 .• The number of accidents have been more than halved from473 (2001) to 200 (2007)• Increase in the volume of passengers by approx 29 percent
S-STRENGTH• The ‘Biggest Organization’ in the world under oneroof.• Luxuries & affordable to ‘Aam adami’.• Connects different cities and states.• Technological advancement.
W-WEAKNESS• Lack of accident proof magnetic wheels in trains.• Corruption within department.• Non pro-active employees.• Lack of safety.• Poor infrastructure.• Delayed trains.
O-OPPORTUNITY• “Metro” in commercial city like mumbai.• Development in small cities.• Profit through privatization.
T-THREATST-THREATS• Low cost airlines.• Improvement of other infrastructure likeroadways.• Could be taken over by airlines.
• The XIIth Plan (20013-17) lays ambitioustargets for1. Freight and passenger business transportation2. Capacity augmentation3. Technological up gradation.4. Sustained improvement of services .
• Increase in market share in freight traffic, both bulk and non-bulk, was theimportant focus area.• Plan priorities for IR - building capacity for handling traffic growth• Up-gradation for heavy axle load movement• Modernization of freight and passenger terminals• Developing world class stations• Information Technology initiatives and technological up-gradations.
• Quantum increase in traffic through incrementalcapacity augmentation :• Capacity creation targets in XIIth Plan have been kept at twice/thrice.• 2000 km of new lines, convert 10000 km of Meter/Narrow gauge lines toBroad gauge, double 6000 km of single track and electrify 3500 km ofnetwork length• Manufacture/ procure 1,55,000 wagons (equivalent 4 wheeler units),17,500 coaches, 2800 EMUs.• 2200 MEMU/DEMU and 3600 Locomotives (1800 Electric and 1800 Diesel)
• Amenities• Provision of on-line coach indication display board; on-line train arrivaldeparture information board; on-line reservation availability information board.• Provision of discharge-free green toilets in all 36,000 coaches in XI Plan period ata cost of about Rs.4,000 cr.• LHB design coaches for all Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains over next few years.• Provision of LHB coaches with stainless steel bogies in Mail/Express trains.
• Concessions• Senior citizen concession for women enhanced to 50% from existing 30%.• Free Monthly Seasonal Ticket to girl students up to graduation level in place of12thstandard and for boys up to 12thstandard in place of 10thstandard.• Improvements in ticketing• Termination of queues at ticket counters targeted in two years.• Ticket booking on mobile phones; E-ticket for waitlisted passengers.• Increase in Unreserved Ticketing Systems counters to 15,000 and ATVMs to6000.
• Freight Business• Reductions & Concessions• 30% discount on entire traffic in place ofincremental traffic booked from goods shed.• Increase in discount on incremental trafficbooked from private sidings from 30% to 40%.• 6% freight concession for traffic booked fromother States for stations in North EasternStates.
• Safety & Security• Multi-pronged scheme to strengthen railway safety through variousautomatic devices like anti-collision device etc.• Rail accidents have reduced remarkably despite substantial increase ingross traffic volumes.• Fire resistant material to be used in coaches.• Unmanned level crossings at busy sections to be manned on a fast trackbasis.• Integrated security plan drawn up through installation of CCTVs, metaldetectors etc.
• Staff Welfare• A new divisional hospital at Ranchi and an OPD block at IntegralCoach Factory to be constructed.• Employees who joined Railways from other agencies/PSUs etc andare eligible for pensioner benefits, would now be eligible for postretirement complimentary passes as per the norms being set.
• Vision 2020• Aims at setting the roadmap for coming 17 years – customer centricand market responsive strategic initiatives.• Information Technology Vision 2012 aims at radical changes in ITapplications ,improvement in operational efficiency, transparency inworking ad better services to the customers.• Multi-Departmental Innovation Promotion Group at Apex Level.
• Vision 2020• Public-Private Partnership schemes to be launched for attracting aninvestment of Rs.1,00,000 cr over the next five years for developingworld class stations, rolling stock ad other logistics.• Commercial use of Railway land by Rail Land DevelopmentAuthority to give a boost to Railway Revenues.
Time for Fun: Facts and FiguresTime for Fun: Facts and Figures• IR has of more than 7,500 railway stations inits periphery and route of railway track morethan 62000 km which is 4th in the world.• IRs Fastest Train: Bhopal- Shatabdi (runs at aspeed up to 140 Km/hr)• IRs Highest Station: Ghum, Darjeeling(2,257m from M.S.L)• Longest Run (Time): Dibrugarh Town -Kanyakumari Vivek Express (4286km in 82:30hours)
• Longest Run for Daily Train: Kerala Express (3054 km in 42.5hrs)• Longest Railway Platform in the World: Kharagpur in westbengal(2,733 ft in length)• Busiest Railway Station: Lucknow (64 trains everyday)• IR Daily Runs: About 14,000 trains• Railway Station with all the Three Gauges: Siliguri RailwayStation• The total distance covered by the 14,300 trains on the IndianRailways every day , equals three & half times the distanceto moon.Time for Fun: Facts and FiguresTime for Fun: Facts and Figures
Innovations: Acceptable :P• Improve average speed of IR by Reducingspeed restriction and permitting higher speed• Improve power transmission in Electriclocomotives• Improvising in Services provided• Improvising standards of online registrationsystem• Better maintenance
Innovations: Acceptable :P• Innovation should be done in the suspensionsystem ,joints of two wagons so that comfortlevel of the passenger can be increased.• Sensors should be provided for the track atcertain distance so that problems relatedtrack should be rectify immediately.• Improving Riding Comfort by installing betterbraking system, providing more spaces,better amenities.