EVS PROJECT ONRECYCLING AND REUSE VIDHI GAJRA ROLL NO 13 10TH D
REUSETo reuse is to use an item again after is been used. This includesconventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, andnew-life reuse where it is used for a different function. In contrast, recyclingis the breaking down of the used item into raw materials which are used tomake new items. By taking useful products and exchanging them, withoutreprocessing, reuse help save time, money, energy, and resources. Inbroader economic terms, reuse offers quality products to people andorganizations with limited means, while generating jobs and businessactivity that contribute to the economy.Current environmental awareness is gradually changing attitudes andregulations, such as the new packaging regulations, are gradually beginningto reverse the situation.One example of conventional reuse is the doorstep delivery of milk inrefillable bottles; other examples include the retreading of tires and the useof returnable/reusable plastic boxes, shipping containers, instead of single-use corrugated fiberboard boxes.
ADVANTAGES OF REUSEReuse has certain potential advantages:Energy and raw materials savings as replacingmany single use products with one reusable onereduces the number that need to bemanufactured.Reduced disposal needs and costs.Cost savings for business and consumers as areusable product is often cheaper than the manysingle use products it replaces.Some older items were better handcrafted andappreciate in valueRefurbishment can bring sophisticatedsustainable well paid jobs to underdevelopedeconomies
DISADVANTAGES OF REUSEDisadvantages are also apparent:Reuse often requires cleaning or transport, which haveenvironmental costs.Some items, such as free on appliances or infant autoseats could be hazardous or less energy efficient as theycontinue to be used.Reusable products need to be more durable than single-use products, and hence require morematerial per item. This is particularly significant if only asmall proportion of the reusable products are in factreused.Sorting and preparing items for reuse takes time, which isinconvenient for consumers and costsmoney for businesses.
RECYCLING• Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles are sorted directly from mixed waste streams and are known as kerb-side recycling, it requires the owner of the waste to separate it into various different bins (typically wheelie bins) prior to its collection.• The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, polyethylene and bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fibreboard boxes.• . The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.• The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country have different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. However, variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed.
ADVANTAGES OF REYCLEWaste recycling has some significant advantages:It leads to utilization of raw material.reduces environmental impacts arising from wastetreatment and disposal.makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier.saves on landfill space.saves money.reduces the amount of energyrequired to manufacture newproducts.
DISADVANTAGES OF RECYCLE Separate factories must be set up for the recycling of materials, and this will just cause more pollution and energy consumption for transport, sorting, cleaning and storage; Pollutants produced by the recycling process itself, including chemical stews when breaking down different products; Only the recycling of aluminum really makes any money. Reclaiming metals is feasible and fairly easy, whereas plastics and paper are expensive, wasteful and overly difficult; Like for example all the extra bins you have in your back garden, One for normal rubbish, one for tins, glass etc, paper basket, food waste and a garden waste one, and all of these extra bins means more trucks coming to pick them up.
• Recycling involves the collection of used and discarded materials processing these materials and making them into new products. It reduces the amount of waste that is thrown into the community dustbins thereby making the environment cleaner and the air more fresh to breathe.• Surveys carried out by Government and non-government agencies in the country have all recognized the importance of recycling wastes. However, the methodology for safe recycling of waste has not been standardized. Studies have revealed that 7 %-15% of the waste is recycled. If recycling is done in a proper manner, it will solve the problems of waste or garbage. At the community level, a large number of NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations) and private sector enterprises have taken an initiative in segregation and recycling of waste (EXNORA International in Chennai recycles a large part of the waste that is collected). It is being used for composting, making pellets to be used in gasifies, etc
• Some items that can be recycled or • Glass and ceramics reused Bottles Plates• Paper Cup Old copies Bowls Old books • Miscellaneous Paper bags Old cans Newspapers Utensils Old greeting cards Clothes Cardboard box Furniture• Plastic Containers Bottles Bags Sheets
• The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include a) Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc. b) Collection of waste from community dumps. c) Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites.• Most of the garbage generated in the household can be recycled and reused. Organic kitchen waste such as leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels, and spoilt or dried fruits and vegetables can be recycled by putting them in the compost pits that have been dug in the garden. Old newspapers, magazines and bottles can be sold to the kabadiwala the man who buys these items
HOW IS PAPER RECYCLED? And reused? Collection and Transportation • You may take your sorted paper to a local recycling center or recycling bin. • Often, a paper stock dealer or recycling center will collect recovered paper from your home or office. • Your local dealer can tell you the options available in your community. • At the recycling center, the collected paper is wrapped in tight bales and transported to a paper mill, • where it will be recycled into new paper.
Storage• Paper mill workers unload the recovered paper and put it into warehouses, where it is stored until needed.• The various paper grades, such as newspapers and corrugated boxes, are kept separate, because the paper mill uses different grades of recovered paper to make different types of recycled paper products.• When the paper mill is ready to use the paper, forklifts move the paper from the warehouse to large conveyors.
Re-pulping and Screening• The paper moves by conveyor to a big vat called a pulper, which contains water and chemicals.• The pulper chops the recovered paper into small pieces.• Heating the mixture breaks the paper down more quickly into tiny strands of cellulose (organic plant material) called fibers.• Eventually, the old paper turns into a mushy mixture called pulp.• The pulp is forced through screens containing holes and slots of various shapes and sizes.• The screens remove small contaminants such as bits of plastic and globs of glue.• This process is called screening.
Cleaning• Mills also clean pulp by spinning it around in large cone-shaped cylinders.• Heavy contaminants like staples are thrown to the outside of the cone and fall through the bottom of the cylinder.• Lighter contaminants collect in the center of the cone and are removed.• This process is called cleaning.
Deinking• Sometimes the pulp must undergo a “pulp laundering” operation called deinking (de- inking) to remove printing ink and “stickies” (sticky materials like glue residue and adhesives).• Papermakers often use a combination of two deinking processes.• Small particles of ink are rinsed from the pulp with water in a process called washing.• Larger particles and stickies are removed with air bubbles in another process called flotation.• During flotation deinking, pulp is fed into a large vat called a flotation cell, where air and soap like chemicals call surfactants are injected into the pulp.• The surfactants cause ink and stickies to loosen from the pulp and stick to the air bubbles as they float to the top of the mixture.• The inky air bubbles create foam or froth which is removed from the top, leaving the clean pulp behind.
Refining, Bleaching and Color Stripping• During refining, the pulp is beaten to make the recycled fibers swell, making them ideal for papermaking.• If the pulp contains any large bundles of fibers, refining separates them into individual fibers.• If the recovered paper is colored, color stripping chemicals remove the dyes from the paper.• Then, if white recycled paper is being made, the pulp may need to be bleached with hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, or oxygen to make it whiter and brighter.• If brown recycled paper is being made, such as that used for industrial paper towels, the pulp does not need to be bleached.
Papermaking• Now the clean pulp is ready to be made into paper.• The recycled fiber can be used alone, or blended with new wood fiber (called virgin fiber) to give it extra strength or smoothness.• The pulp is mixed with water and chemicals to make it 99.5% water.• This watery pulp mixture enters the head box, a giant metal box at the beginning of the paper machine, and then is sprayed in a continuous wide jet onto a huge flat wire screen which is moving very quickly through the paper machine.• On the screen, water starts to drain from the pulp, and the recycled fibers quickly begin to bond together to form a watery sheet. continued
• continued• The sheet moves rapidly through a series of felt-covered press rollers which squeeze out more water.• The sheet, which now resembles paper, passes through a series of heated metal rollers which dry the paper.• If coated paper is being made, a coating mixture can be applied near the end of the process, or in a separate process after the papermaking is completed.• coating gives paper a smooth, glossy surface for printing.• Finally,, the finished paper is wound into a giant roll and removed from the paper machine.• One roll can be as wide as 30 feet and weigh as much as 20 tons!• The roll of paper is cut into smaller rolls, or sometimes into sheets, before being shipped to a converting plant where it will be printed or made into products such as envelopes, paper bags, or boxes.