Economic Aspects of e-Governance Single window system for +1 admission Meenu S. Babu Priya V. Sreekumar D
Single Window System <ul><li>It is an online mechanism introduced by the Directorate of Higher Secondary Education for the...
Objective <ul><li>Admissions are to be done purely on merit and the prevailing reservation criteria in all the Govt. Schoo...
Old system <ul><li>Students have to buy and  fill up the application for each school in which he desired to seek admission...
Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Lack of course knowledge among the students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Lack of transparency in the admission procedure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Volume of data is very high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No scope for re-o...
Need for adoption of technology  <ul><li>The volume of data is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised allotment. </li></...
An over view <ul><li>No. of students : 5 lakh </li></ul><ul><li>No. of seats available : 342005 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of s...
New system - Pilot project <ul><li>In 2007 – 2008 academic year Pilot project of Single Window system successfully impleme...
Present Admission process <ul><li>Only one application should be submitted to any one of the HSS in a district. </li></ul>...
Present Admission process <ul><li>Make trial allotment and give permission to students for a re-option. </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Nature of service <ul><li>Not a Public Good </li></ul><ul><li>The service offered through this system is excludable. Stude...
Nature of service <ul><li>Non Rival   </li></ul><ul><li>It is not rival because the application of 1 candidate does not af...
How much to Produce? <ul><li>Depends upon the no of students who successfully complete their SSLC or equivalent exams. It ...
How to produce? <ul><ul><li>As the level of technology increases use of manual labor decreases. The combination should be ...
Transaction cost <ul><li>Transaction cost is reduced (students/parents) compared to the old system </li></ul><ul><li>In th...
Transaction cost <ul><li>In the fully online system, there is no need for buying the application. The applicant has to sub...
Diffusion of technology <ul><li>Since it is mandatory to all applicants there is no question about the diffusion of techno...
Asymmetric information <ul><li>Students are aware about the different combination of courses offered in each school. Trial...
Procurement Issues <ul><li>All the H/W components purchased through open tender. Even though Keltron quoted higher (7%) it...
Soft budget constraint <ul><li>Now students have to purchase the application forms at a cost of Rs 10/- </li></ul><ul><li>...
Economies of scale <ul><li>The software that was initially developed for use in one district is now used for all districts...
Crowding <ul><li>At the time of re option and admission all the schools are trying to update/ modify the data base. In thi...
Production Externality <ul><li>Students get better option and more students get opportunity to get admitted for +1 course....
Economies of Governance <ul><li>Cost minimisation – Service provided free of cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring labour – New a...
Financial commitment - study based on students Particulars Previous Model Existing Model Technology intensive Model Applic...
Study based on parents Income lost in terms of working hours Particulars Previous Model Existing Model Technology intensiv...
Conclusion <ul><li>It is seen that proper implementation of e – governance improves the economic status of the society. </...
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  1. 1. Economic Aspects of e-Governance Single window system for +1 admission Meenu S. Babu Priya V. Sreekumar D
  2. 2. Single Window System <ul><li>It is an online mechanism introduced by the Directorate of Higher Secondary Education for the admission procedure of +1 students in the Govt. and Aided Higher Secondary Schools. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objective <ul><li>Admissions are to be done purely on merit and the prevailing reservation criteria in all the Govt. Schools and as per the norms in Aided Schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the admission process easy and transparent. It also gives scope for a social auditing to find out whether the managements were admitting students as per the norms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Old system <ul><li>Students have to buy and fill up the application for each school in which he desired to seek admission. </li></ul><ul><li>Admission will be done based on the rank list prepared in each school by the school authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Time delay in all the stages of admission procedure, since it is done manually. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Lack of course knowledge among the students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No proper way to conduct the admission procedure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admission procedure is complex and time consuming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of manual error while preparing the rank list. </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  6. 6. Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Lack of transparency in the admission procedure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political interference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No proper system to monitor weightage marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews and other formalities are held in same day. </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  7. 7. Problems identified in the old system <ul><ul><li>Volume of data is very high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No scope for re-option. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High expenditure and time for physically going to many schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacancies are not fully filled in most of the schools </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Need for adoption of technology <ul><li>The volume of data is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised allotment. </li></ul><ul><li>Directorate can monitor entire process </li></ul><ul><li>It is Frustrating, Lacked Transparency and Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>To create an efficient and transparent admission procedure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. An over view <ul><li>No. of students : 5 lakh </li></ul><ul><li>No. of seats available : 342005 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of schools : 1435 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of courses (combinations) offered : 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Science – 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Humanities – 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce – 4 </li></ul>
  10. 10. New system - Pilot project <ul><li>In 2007 – 2008 academic year Pilot project of Single Window system successfully implemented in Thiruvananthapuram District. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to process 24555 merit seats in 117 HSS. </li></ul><ul><li>State level implementation from 2008 – 2009 academic year onwards. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Present Admission process <ul><li>Only one application should be submitted to any one of the HSS in a district. </li></ul><ul><li>Can choose any no. schools and courses with in the district. </li></ul><ul><li>Uploading each application details from the schools to the central server by school authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Admission process is undertaken by the Directorate. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Present Admission process <ul><li>Make trial allotment and give permission to students for a re-option. </li></ul><ul><li>Publish the allotment list and start the admission procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Allotments continues till all the seats are filled. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Nature of service <ul><li>Not a Public Good </li></ul><ul><li>The service offered through this system is excludable. Students have to buy the application forms after remitting a fee. Internet facility is required for verifying the allotment list. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. ensure that all the schools are willing to provide internet facility to avail re option and verify the status of allotment at free of cost. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Nature of service <ul><li>Non Rival </li></ul><ul><li>It is not rival because the application of 1 candidate does not affect of another candidate from applying. </li></ul>
  15. 16. How much to Produce? <ul><li>Depends upon the no of students who successfully complete their SSLC or equivalent exams. It does not depend on other external factors. Accommodate 342005 students in 1435 schools from about 5 lakh students. </li></ul>
  16. 17. How to produce? <ul><ul><li>As the level of technology increases use of manual labor decreases. The combination should be such that it minimize cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully manual Labor cost is high (Old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially online Labor + Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Current system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Technology intensive </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Transaction cost <ul><li>Transaction cost is reduced (students/parents) compared to the old system </li></ul><ul><li>In the current system students need to go only once for any one of the schools for buying the application instead of 3 – 5 schools in previous system. He can apply to any no.of schools at no extra cost which increases the possibility of getting an admission. As far as the schools are concerned the chance of vacant seats are also reduced. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Transaction cost <ul><li>In the fully online system, there is no need for buying the application. The applicant has to submit the application online and can choose as many schools and options as they wish with out any extra cost. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case transaction cost is comparatively very low compared to the other two cases. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Diffusion of technology <ul><li>Since it is mandatory to all applicants there is no question about the diffusion of technology. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Asymmetric information <ul><li>Students are aware about the different combination of courses offered in each school. Trial allotment and re option helps the students for selecting a better option. And thus it helps for getting more students to accommodate. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Procurement Issues <ul><li>All the H/W components purchased through open tender. Even though Keltron quoted higher (7%) its mandatory that even if it is 10% more, Keltron has to be selected. </li></ul><ul><li>Server is at State Data Centre which provides free hosting. </li></ul><ul><li>S/W developed by Central Govt agency – NIC AMC with Keltron for hardware maintenance. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Soft budget constraint <ul><li>Now students have to purchase the application forms at a cost of Rs 10/- </li></ul><ul><li>If it is made online, it will be free of cost </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue generation is not expected due to soft budget constraints. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Economies of scale <ul><li>The software that was initially developed for use in one district is now used for all districts in the state at minimal extra cost. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Crowding <ul><li>At the time of re option and admission all the schools are trying to update/ modify the data base. In this time there is a crowding. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Production Externality <ul><li>Students get better option and more students get opportunity to get admitted for +1 course. </li></ul><ul><li>This has an effect in the society as a whole. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Economies of Governance <ul><li>Cost minimisation – Service provided free of cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring labour – New appointments are cost incurring, so services of existing employees are utilised. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Financial commitment - study based on students Particulars Previous Model Existing Model Technology intensive Model Application cost 10 10 0 Avg.no.of Appns 5 1 1 Transaction cost per parent/student 250 50 0 Expense per parent/student 300 60 50 No. of students 500000 500000 500000 Total impact 150000000 30000000 25000000 Difference from earlier model   120000000 125000000
  28. 29. Study based on parents Income lost in terms of working hours Particulars Previous Model Existing Model Technology intensive Model Avg.no.of visit 3 3 0 No. of schools 5 1 1 Income lost per day 300 300 300 No. of students 500000 500000 500000 Total 2250000000 450000000 0 Difference   1800000000 2250000000
  29. 30. Conclusion <ul><li>It is seen that proper implementation of e – governance improves the economic status of the society. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Thank you

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