Mr. Sunil Chamoli
Composite materials are materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different properties, that
when combined, produce a material with characteristics
different from the individual components.
Composite materials consist of two or more chemically distinct
constituent on a macro scale having a dispersed interface
separating them and having bulk performance which is
considerably different from those of any of its individual
Examples: Cement, Concrete, Fiber-reinforced polymer, etc.
Composites can be classified according to different criteria:
Metal matrix composites
eg: Carbon fibers in Aluminium matrix
Ceramic matrix composites
eg: Conventional SiC or the less expensive SiSiC
Polymer matrix composites
eg: Thermoset, Thermoplastic, Rubber
OBJECTIVE OF WORK
Fabrication of epoxy based composites reinforced
with short glass fibers and natural fibers.
Study the mechanical behavior of the composites.
Study the effect of alkali treatment on behavior of
Study the surface morphology of the composites
using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Different types like metals, ceramics and
Polymer matrices are most commonly used
matrix materials due to its advantages like cost
efficiency, light weight, high strength to weight
ratio and environmental friendly.
Most commonly used thermoset resins are epoxy,
vinyl ester, polyester resin, etc.
Epoxy resin will be used for the fabrication of
composites in the project.
Fiber is a reinforcing phase of composite
Fibers which will be used in the project:
1. Natural fibers (bamboo fiber, coir)
2. Glass fiber
Treatment of Fiber using alkali (NaOH)
Fabrication of Composite Materials
Flexural (bending) test
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
The tensile strength is determined by the tensile
test which is generally performed on flat
specimens using Universal Testing Machine
During the test a uni-axial load is applied through
both the ends of the specimen.
The test will be repeated three times on each
composite type and the mean value will be
This test measures the force required to bend a
beam under 3-point loading conditions. The data
is often used to select materials for parts that will
support loads without flexing.
The test provides values for the modulus of
elasticity in bending, flexural stress and the flexural
strain of the material.
The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy
V-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test
which determines the amount of energy absorbed
by a material during fracture.
This absorbed energy is a measure of the
material's notch toughness.
The morphological characterization of the
composite surface is done in scanning electron
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of
electron microscope that produces images of a
sample by scanning it with a focused beam of
ESTIMATED COST AND TIME
The materials required for the fabrication of
composites are not costly and can be obtained
easily from the market at a minimal cost.
Price of Epoxy Resin = Rs. 160-180 per kg, our
requirement is approx. 3 kg.
Price of NaOH alkali = Rs. 40-45 per kg.