Iceberg theory

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Iceberg theory

  1. 1. Multicultural Awareness Iceberg Theory
  2. 2. You As A Culturally Diverse EntitySource: Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe, Managing diversity: A complete desk reference and planning guide, 1993
  3. 3. Who Are You? You belong to multiple circles (e.g. North American, student, etc.)Source: Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe, Managing diversity: A complete desk reference and planning guide, 1993
  4. 4. What is Culture?How would you define culture?
  5. 5. Definition of Culture Culture is “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.” (p.4)Source: Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, 2005
  6. 6. Three Levels of Uniqueness in Mental Programming Specific to Inherited and individual learned Personality Specific to group or Culture Learned category Universal Inherited Human NatureSource: Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, 2005
  7. 7. THREE CULTURES MODEL National Culture Corporate Personal Culture CultureSource: Gardenswartz, L. et.al, The global diversity desk reference, 2003
  8. 8. Iceberg Theory: Sources of Differences Between Countries and Groups Culture is like an iceberg. Most of what we know IDENTITY about people is hidden Language below the surface (their Food Rules, Laws thinking, values, etc.) Values (Software of the mind)Adapted From: Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, 2005
  9. 9. Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation IntegrationSource: M.J. Bennett, The Intercultural Communication Institute
  10. 10. Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity Ethnocentric Stages  Denial of differences  Defense against difference  Minimization of difference Ethnorelative Stages  Acceptance of difference  Adaptation of difference  Integration of differenceSource: M.J. Bennett, The Intercultural Communication Institute
  11. 11. Example:INDIA
  12. 12. INDIA FACTS Population: 1 billion  16.7% of world’s population  Median Age: 24.9 Literacy Rate: 59.5% English Speaking: 350 million
  13. 13. Religions Religions:  Hindu 80.5%  Muslim 13.4%  Christian 2.3%  Sikh 1.9%  Other 1.8%  Unspecified 0.1%
  14. 14. Food Religious value (Non-violence, halaal, caste taboos) Symbolic value (fasting) Societal value (hospitality)
  15. 15. Gujarati ThaliThis is a typicalvegetarian mealin the state ofGujarat, India.

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