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AROMATICITY AND RELATED
TOPICS
FOR CBSE,IIT,
UG & PG
CLASSES
1Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
Benzenoid and non-benzenoid aromatic compounds
• Aromatic compounds are those compounds which are planar, cyclic conjugate...
Resonating structures of benzene
According to Huckel’s rule (4n+2π) e: n= 1 6 π electrons in benzene, gives
nitration, Fri...
Distribution of pi-molecular orbital in benzene can be shown as:
Naphthalene
According to Huckel’s rule (4n+2π) electrons:...
Possibility of easy aromatization in dihydro derivatives - dihydropyridine is easily
oxidized to more stable pyridine.
Sta...
Classification on basis of Aromaticity
6Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
[14] annulene
[14] annulene is aromatic, monocyclic
ring is cyclic coplanar having conjugated double
bond which delocalize...
O
Tropone
Tropone is aromatic due to electron withdrawing
nature of carbonyl group and system will be
conjugated with posi...
Distribution of pi-electron density can be shown by resonating structure of pyridine
N N
N N
It is cyclic, coplanar, due t...
Resonating structures of five membered heterocycles
Five membered rings are coplanar, cyclic having 4π electrons but due t...
A monocyclic ring having conjugated double bonds is alled annulene.
Simplest annulene is Benzene; named as [6] annulene an...
Naphthalene and azulene are [10]annulene analogs stabilized by a transannular bond.
Although
the CH2 bridged structure to ...
Antiaromaticity
Conjugated ring systems having 4n π-electrons (e.g. 4, 8, 12 etc. electrons) not only fail to show any aro...
Aromatic Ions
Carbanions and carbocations may also show aromatic stabilization. Some
examples are:
The three-membered ring...
1. To select order of basic strength in pyrrole, pyridine and piperidine.
2. Account for aromaticity observed in following...
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Aromaticity

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Organic Chemistry : Aromaticity

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Aromaticity

  1. 1. AROMATICITY AND RELATED TOPICS FOR CBSE,IIT, UG & PG CLASSES 1Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  2. 2. Benzenoid and non-benzenoid aromatic compounds • Aromatic compounds are those compounds which are planar, cyclic conjugated and follow Huckel’s aromaticity rule (4n+2) π electrons where n = 0, 1, 2……. • They give substitution reactions easily rather than addition reactions and retained their aromaticity. • They are stable due to resonance and have high resonance energy. • They show ring current effect in NMR spectrum, chemical shift values obtained at highly deshield area δ>6.0 ppm. • Give specific feature in UV, IR and 13C-NMR (δ value: 145-170 ppm) spectroscopy also. • Three absorption bands observed in UV-Visible spectroscopy: • λmax = 184 nm(intense), 203.5 nm(K band), 254 nm(B band) 2Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  3. 3. Resonating structures of benzene According to Huckel’s rule (4n+2π) e: n= 1 6 π electrons in benzene, gives nitration, Friedel craft reaction etc, easily. Conc.HNO3 Conc. H2SO4 CH3COCl An.AlCl3 Nitration Acetylation NO2 COCH3 Nitro benzene acetophenone First three are Dewar structures and after that are Kekule structures and last is resonance hybrid. All carbon-carbon bond lengths are equal 1.39 Ao in between double and single bond, indicates resonance of it . 3Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  4. 4. Distribution of pi-molecular orbital in benzene can be shown as: Naphthalene According to Huckel’s rule (4n+2π) electrons: n = 2 10 π electrons, ring is cyclic, coplanar, having conjugated pi- electrons and stabilized by resonance, shows ring current effect, therefore aromatic. 4Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  5. 5. Possibility of easy aromatization in dihydro derivatives - dihydropyridine is easily oxidized to more stable pyridine. Stable 5Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  6. 6. Classification on basis of Aromaticity 6Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  7. 7. [14] annulene [14] annulene is aromatic, monocyclic ring is cyclic coplanar having conjugated double bond which delocalized and follows Huckel's rule of aromaticity. H H H H H H [10] annulene It is cyclic, pi-bonds are conjugated and follows Huckel's rule having 10 pi electrons but due to junction of trans hydrogens having non-bonded repulsion more therefore it is highly unstable, hence it it not aromatic. When interacting hydrogens of the ring is replaced by bridging methylene(-CH2) group, having 10 pi-electrons and shows resonance,highly stable and it is aromatic. [10] annulene [10] annulene 7Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  8. 8. O Tropone Tropone is aromatic due to electron withdrawing nature of carbonyl group and system will be conjugated with positive charge of carbonyl carbon with 6 pi-electrons. O O O O Resonating structure of tropone Cyclopentadiene It is cyclic coplanar having 4-pi electrons in the ring and it is not conjugated because one carbon is SP3 hybridized therefore it is nonaromatic. But it behaves as acid and form salt with reaction of base to form potassium salt of cyclopentadienide which is aromatic and negative charge is involved in resonance due to conjugation. Follows Huckel’s rule of aromaticity where 4n+2 pi electrons (n=1 has 6 pi electrons). 8Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  9. 9. Distribution of pi-electron density can be shown by resonating structure of pyridine N N N N It is cyclic, coplanar, due to 6π electrons are conjugated in pyridine therefore it is aromatic like benzene. The lone pair of electron is free not involve in conjugation therefore can be easily donate to an acid, hence it acts as Lewis base and form pyridinium salt, retained their aromaticity. N N H Cl HCl Pyridine Pyridinium chloride 9Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  10. 10. Resonating structures of five membered heterocycles Five membered rings are coplanar, cyclic having 4π electrons but due to presence of lone pair of electron on hetero atom of the ring which is conjugated with pi- bonds, they are aromatic. Lone pair is donated to the ring and showing resonance, follow Huckel’s aromaticity rule, where total 6 π- electrons are involved in resonance. X X X X X Resonating structures in five membered aromatic heterocycles (X=NH, O or S) Pyrrole,furan or thiophene, respectively Like benzene they give electrophilic substitution reactions easily. Benzofused heterocycles like –Benzofuran, benzopyrrole Indole are also aromatic compounds. N S N H Benzo-Pyrrole O Benzo[b]furan 10Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  11. 11. A monocyclic ring having conjugated double bonds is alled annulene. Simplest annulene is Benzene; named as [6] annulene and 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene named as [8]annulene respectively. The number of pi-electrons is shown as prefix in square bracket and then written annulene. For aromaticity , annulene must obey Huckel’s (4n+2) pi electrons where n=o.,1,2……along with they must coplanar, conjugated system, showing ring current effect in nmr spectrum and show resonance. They are highly stable. Annulenes may be antiaromatic, they follow Huckel’s 4nPi electrons rule where n = 1,2,3, ….. and ring must be coplanar and conjugated. They are highly unstable. As shown in the following diagram, 1,3,5,7,9-cyclodecapentaene fails to adopt a planar conformation, either in the all cis-configuration or in its 1,5-trans-isomeric form. The transannular hydrogen crowding that destabilizes the latter may be eliminated by replacing the interior hydrogens with a bond or a short bridge (colored magenta in the diagram). As expected, the resulting 10 π-electron annulene derivatives exhibit aromatic stability and reactivity as well as characteristic ring current anisotropy in the nmr. 11Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  12. 12. Naphthalene and azulene are [10]annulene analogs stabilized by a transannular bond. Although the CH2 bridged structure to the right of naphthalene in the diagram is not exactly planar, the conjugated 10 π-electron ring is sufficiently close to planarity to achieve aromatic stabilization. The bridged [14]annulene compound on the far right, also has aromatic properties. 12Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  13. 13. Antiaromaticity Conjugated ring systems having 4n π-electrons (e.g. 4, 8, 12 etc. electrons) not only fail to show any aromatic properties, but appear to be less stable and more reactive than expected. As noted above, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene is non-planar and adopts a tub-shaped conformation. The compound is readily prepared, and undergoes addition reactions typical of alkenes. Catalytic hydrogenation of this tetraene produces cyclooctane. Planar bridged annulenes having 4n π-electrons have proven to be relatively unstable. Examples of 8 and 12-π-electron systems are shown below, together with a similar 10 π-electron aromatic compound. Planar (antiaromatic) anti-aromatic aromatic anti-aromatic Non-planar (non-aromatic) The simple C8H6 hydrocarbon pentalene does not exist as a stable compound, and its hexaphenyl derivative is air sensitive. The 12-π-electron analog heptalene has been prepared, but is also extremely reactive (more so than cyclooctatetraene). On the other hand, azulene is a stable 10-π-electron hydrocarbon that incorporates structural features of both pentalene and heptalene. Azulene is a stable blue crystalline solid that undergoes a number of typical aromatic substitution reactions. The unexpected instability of 4n π-electron annulenes has been termed "antiaromaticity". Other examples may be cited. Thus, all attempts to isolate 1,3-cyclobutadiene have yielded its dimer, or products from reactions with other compounds introduced into the reaction system. Similarly, cyclopentadienyl cation (4 π-electrons) and cycloheptatrienyl anion (8 π-electrons) show very high reactivity when forced to form. 13Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  14. 14. Aromatic Ions Carbanions and carbocations may also show aromatic stabilization. Some examples are: The three-membered ring cation has 2 π-electrons and is surprisingly stable, considering its ring strain. Cyclopentadiene is as acidic as ethanol, reflecting the stability of its 6 π-electron conjugate base. Salts of cycloheptatrienyl cation (tropylium ion) are stable in water solution, again reflecting the stability of this 6 π-electron cation. 14Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain
  15. 15. 1. To select order of basic strength in pyrrole, pyridine and piperidine. 2. Account for aromaticity observed in following: (i) 1,3-cyclopentadienyl anion but not 1,3-cyclopentadiene. (ii) 1,3,5,-cycloheptatrienyl cation but not for 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene. (iii) Cyclophenyl cation. (iv) The heterocycles pyrrole, furan and pyridine. 3. Why cyclooctatetraene decolorizes dil KMnO4 and Br2 in CCl4 both. 4. Deduce structure when a red compound formed by reaction of 2 mol of AgBF4 with 1 mol of 1,2,3,4-teraphenyl-3,4-dibromocyclobut-1-ene. 5. A stable compound from the reaction of 2 mol of K with 1 mol of 1,3,5,7-cycloocta- tetraene with no liberation of H2. 6. Account that [18] annulene is aromatic but [16] and [20] annulenes are not. 7. Draw Pi molecular energy orbitals of cyclooctatetraene and cyclo butadiene and benzene. 8. The obs. Heat of combustion of benzene is -3301.5 KJ/mol. Experimentally obtained theoretical value from other compound are (Kj/mol) C=C (-491.5); C-C (-206.5); C-H (- 225.8). By use these data to calculate heat of combustion for benzene and the difference between this and experimental value. 9. Exp. Determined heat of combustion of cyclooctatetraene is -4580 KJ/mol, use above data calculate the resonance energy of it. 15Dr. Meenal Gupta, Vikram University, Ujjain

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