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Information systems


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information systems basics

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Information systems

  1. 1. Information Systems Meena Chauhan,Mtech CSE ABES Engg.College
  2. 2. Outline Definitions Types of Information Systems Information Systems Vs Information Technology Expanding Roles of IS Classification of IS Enterprise Resource Planning Information Systems Development IS as Discipline Information systems: Opportunities and Challenges Conclusion
  3. 3. Definitions Data Raw facts such as an employee’s name and number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers or sales orders. Information A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. Data Information $35,000 12 Units $12,000 J. Jones Western Region $100,000 100 Units 35 Units Data Processing Salesperson: J. Jones Sales Territory: Western Region Current Sales: 147 Units = $147,000
  4. 4. <ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>An information system(IS) is typically considered to be a set of interrelated elements or components that collect(input), manipulate(processes), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close System </li></ul></ul>Definitions
  5. 5. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Informal Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Information System </li></ul>
  6. 6. Computer-based Information System An Information System is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks and the data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in a organization.
  7. 7. IS Vs IT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Hardware Software Databases Networks Other related components are used to build INFORMATION SYSTEMS Payroll System Inventory System Marketing System Customer Service System
  8. 8. Expanding Roles of IS <ul><li>Data Processing: 1950s-1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Management Reporting: 1960s-1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support: 1970s-1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic and End User Support: 1980s-1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Global Internetworking: 1990s-2000s </li></ul>
  9. 9. A four level pyramid model of different types of Information Systems based on the different levels of hierarchy in an organization
  10. 10. Information Systems relationship to Information Technology, Computer Science, Information Science, and Business
  11. 12. Classification of IS Information Systems Operations Support System Management Support System Transaction processing systems Process control systems Office automation systems Management information systems Decision support systems Executive information systems
  12. 13. <ul><li>1. Operations support systems process data generated by business operations </li></ul><ul><li>Major categories are: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Process control systems </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Office automation systems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Management Support Systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers </li></ul><ul><li>Major categories are </li></ul><ul><li>Management Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Information System </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Operations Support System </li></ul><ul><li>i) Transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Process business exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain records about the exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Handle routine, yet critical, tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Perform simple calculations </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Process control systems monitor and control industrial processes. </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Office automation systems automate office procedures and enhance office communications and productivity. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>2. Management support systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers </li></ul><ul><li>Major categories are: </li></ul><ul><li>Management information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Routine information for routine decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Operational efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Use transaction data as main input </li></ul><ul><li>Databases integrate MIS in different functional areas </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>ii) Decision Support System </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive support for non-routine decisions or problems </li></ul><ul><li>End-users are more involved in creating a DSS than an MIS </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Executive information systems </li></ul><ul><li>provide critical information tailored to the information needs of executives </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Other categories </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems </li></ul><ul><li>End user computing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Business information systems </li></ul><ul><li>d) Strategic information systems </li></ul><ul><li>a) Expert Systems are knowledge-based systems that provides expert advice and act as expert consultants to the users </li></ul><ul><li>b) End user computing systems support the direct, hands on use of computers by end users for operational and managerial applications </li></ul><ul><li>c) Business information systems support the operational and managerial applications of the basic business functions of a firm </li></ul><ul><li>d) Strategic information systems provide a firm which strategic products, services, and capabilities for competitive advantage </li></ul>
  17. 18. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) <ul><li>Integrated programs that can manage a company’s entire set of business operations </li></ul><ul><li>Often coordinate planning, inventory control, production and ordering </li></ul>
  18. 19. Information Systems Development
  19. 20. IS as Discipline IS is an interdisciplinary field influenced by Computer Science, Political Science, Psychology, Operations Research, Linguistics, Sociology, and Organizational Theory.
  20. 22. Challenges <ul><li>Workforce downsizing </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Employee mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to built </li></ul><ul><li>Security breaches </li></ul>
  21. 23. Opportunities <ul><li>Enhanced global competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Capture market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Support corporate strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance worker productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improve quality of goods and services </li></ul>
  22. 24. In the past decade, the nature of IS has undergone a dramatic change, from mainframe-based IS to client / server computing to today's web-based information system, with the Internet having made the revolution. The four powerful worldwide changes that have altered the business environment are: 1. Globalization; 2. rise of the information economy; 3. transformation of the business enterprise; 4. emergence of the digital firm.
  23. 25. Conclusion Information Systems are indispensable to the business, industry, academia and any organization to meet the future challenges
  24. 26. Exercise : Search for college program in IS <ul><li>Use an Internet search engine of your choice to Find Certificate and degree programs in Information Security </li></ul><ul><li>Use an Internet search engine of your choice to Find Certificate and degree programs in Information Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Use an Internet search engine of your choice to Find Certificate and degree programs in Network Security </li></ul><ul><li>Use an Internet Search Engine of your choice to find certificate and degree programs in physical security </li></ul><ul><li>What is common among these programs ? What make each one Unique ? </li></ul>
  25. 27. Exercise : National Agency Education in Information Assurance Program <ul><li>Visit the National Security Agency Centers of Academic Excellence home page at </li></ul><ul><li>Review the criteria for measurement of educational institutions that participate in the program </li></ul><ul><li>Review the list of participating institutions and select a college or university in your region or state </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the National Security agency and Department of Homeland Security Partnership Announcement at </li></ul>
  26. 28. Distributed Information Systems
  27. 29. Distributed Information System (DIS) is seen as a collection of autonomous in­formation systems which can collaborate with each other. This collaboration can be driven by requests for knowledge needed to predict what values should replace null values in missing or incomplete attributes.
  28. 30. Distributed information system is a system that connects a number of information systems using network communication technology. It is assumed that DIS is autonomous and incomplete .
  29. 31. Distributed development of software and information systems (also named Global Software Development) becomes increasingly common, driven by the globalisation of companies and their business and enabled by new information and communication technologies.
  30. 32. Distributed Information Systems Development (DISD) promotes realisation of IS in a collaborative way where several partners, generally situated in distant places, participate in the elaboration of a common solution. The DISD consists in decomposing the IS development process into more or les autonomous phases to be realised by these partners.
  31. 33. DISD aims at increasing enterprise productivity, reducing IS development cost, and enlarging the number of human competencies and skills, which allows not only to share experiences in different cultural environments but also to extend enterprise strategy to the global market. In fact, this kind of practice allows enterprises to deal with new economic globalisation constraints that they have to undergo but it is not devoid of problems. It is clear that the distribution of processes has an impact on the way the IS products will be specified, designed, coded and delivered to the clients.