Biology EOC Highlight
Review
Organic Compounds
• All living things are made of organic
compounds.
• Contain the element Carbon
• Carbohydrates, Protein...
Carbohydrates
• Monomer-
monosaccharide
• Function- energy source
and structure
• Tests: glucose-Benedicts
starch- Iodine ...
Lipids
• Made of fatty acids and glycerol
• Function- energy storage and insulation
• Tests: brown paper test
• Examples: ...
Nucleic Acids
• Monomer- nucleotide
• Function- carry
genetic information
• Ex. DNA and RNA
Proteins
• Monomer- amino acids
• Function- building and repairing cells,
communication, transport, and regulation
• Tests...
Enzymes
• Catalysts in living things
• Specific to a particular substrate
• Reusable
• Affected by temperature and pH
Cells
Prokaryotes
• Simple, no membrane
bound organelles
• Bacteria only
• One circular
chromosome
• Includes: chromosome,...
Nucleus
• “Control Center”
• Contains chromosomes
Mitochondria
Singular: Mitochondrion
• “Powerhouse” of the
cell
• Produces energy in
the form of ATP
• Site of Aerobic
res...
Chloroplast
• Site of
photosynthesis
• Plant cells ONLY
• Contains the
pigment
chlorophyll
Vacuole
• Storage of excess
materials
• Plant cells usually
contain one large
vacuole
Ribosomes
• Proteins are synthesized
• Found in both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes
Plasma Membrane
aka: Cell Membrane
• Surrounds the cell
• Regulates what
enters/leaves the
cell
• Helps maintain
homeostas...
Cell Wall
• Plant cells ONLY
• Surrounds cell and provides support and
protection.
• Made of cellulose
Eukaryotes
Plant
• Cell wall
• Chloroplast
• Large central vacuole
Animal
Cell Organization
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Individual organism
Cell Specialization
• cells develop to perform different
functions
• Regulated by genes
Cell to Cell Communication
• Chemical Signals
(hormones) can be
sent from one cell to
another
• Receptor proteins on
the p...
Diffusion
• Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY
NEEDED) across a membrane
• Solutes move from high concentration
to low c...
Osmosis
• Diffusion of water (also passive
transport)
Active Transport
• Particles moving against
the concentration
gradient which
REQUIRES ENERGY
(ATP)
• Low concentration to
...
ATP
• Energy storing
molecule
• Can be used for
quick energy by the
cell
• Energy is stored in
the phosphate bonds
Photosynthesis
• Water and Carbon
Dioxide used to produce
Glucose and Oxygen
• H2O+CO2C6H12O6+O2
• Occurs in the
chloropl...
Aerobic Respiration
• Used to release
energy (ATP) for
cellular use
• C6H12O6+O2H2O+CO2
• Occurs in the
mitochondria
Anaerobic Respiration
aka Fermentation
• Does not require Oxygen
• also used to release energy, but not as
efficient as ae...
Autotroph vs. Heterotroph
• Obtain energy from
the environment
• Photosynthesis or
chemosynthesis
• “Producers”
• Obtain e...
DNA / RNA
• Carry genetic information
• Made of a chain of nucleotides
• Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate,
and a nit...
DNA / RNA
DNA
• Double stranded
• “Double Helix”
• Four base pairs: ATGC
• Sugar is Deoxyribose
• Found in nucleus
RNA
• S...
Base Pair Rule
• In DNA,
Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
Replication
• Making of an
identical strand of
DNA
• “semi” conservative
Central Dogma
DNA  RNA  protein  trait
Transcription
• DNAmRNA
• Occurs in nucleus
• Complementary
mRNA strand is
produced from a
segment of DNA
Translation
• Connects amino acids in the correct
order to make a protein
• Occurs in the cytoplasm within the
ribosomes
A...
Codon
• Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides
that code for an amino acid
Mutations
• Change in DNA code
• May cause a change in protein
produced
• NOT always harmful
Sickle Cell
Mutation
Mitosis
• Cell division
• Produces two
identical diploid
daughter cells
• Occurs in body cells
to grow and repair
Cancer
• Error in cell growth with causes
uncontrolled cell growth
• Has environment and genetic variables
Meiosis
• Cell division
• Produces four
different haploid
daughter cells
(gametes)
• Occurs in sex cells
to form gametes
Crossing Over
• Homologous
chromosomes
exchange parts of
their DNA
• Creates variation in
gametes
Nondisjunction
• Homologous
chromosomes fail to
separate during
meiosis
• Can lead to Down
Syndrome, Turners
Syndrome, and...
Asexual vs. Sexual
Reproduction
Asexual
• One parent
• Identical offspring
• Variation only thru
mutations
• Examples: bud...
Inheritance
• Traits are specific
characteristics
inherited from parents
• Genes are the factors
that determine traits
• T...
Dominant/Recessive Alleles
• Dominant alleles are expressed, if
present, and recessive are hidden
Genotype
actual alleles an individual has for a trait
Homozygous
• Both alleles are the
same
• Ex. BB or bb
Heterozygous
•...
Phenotype
• The actual characteristic displayed by
the individual (ex. brown eyes,
Hemophiliac)
Incomplete Dominance
• Heterozygote shows a
blending of the
dominant and
recessive phenotypes
Codominance
• Heterozygote expresses BOTH
dominant and recessive traits
• Ex. Roan animals
Polygenic Traits
• Traits are influenced by more than one
gene
• Ex. skin color
Multiple Alleles
• More than two alleles for a trait (an
individual still only inherits two)
• Ex. Blood Type (IA,IB, i)
t...
Sex Linked Traits
• Sex Chromosomes
– Female = XX
– Male = XY
• Sex linked traits
are carried on the
X chromosome
• Ex. He...
Test Cross
• used to determine the phenotype of an
unknown dominant individual
• uses a homozygous recessive individual
as...
Pedigree
• similar to a family tree
• Shows pattern of inheritance of a
specific trait through a family
Karyotype
• Picture of someone's
chromosomes
• Can detect
chromosomal disorders
Ex. Down Syndrome,
Klinefelter’s Syndrome,...
Human Genome Project
• Sequencing of human
DNA
• Being used to
develop gene
therapies
Gel Electrophoresis
• Technique used to
separate molecules
(DNA or proteins)
based on their size
• Sometimes called a
DNA ...
Recombinant DNA
• Cell with DNA from
another source
• Bacteria used to
produce human
insulin
• Human gene inserted
into ba...
Transgenic Organism
• An organism with a
gene from another
source
• used to improve food
supply, research, and
healthcare
Clone
• An organism made from one cell of
another organism
• A genetically identical copy
Origin of Life
• Abiotic earth LACKED Oxygen
• Early organims anaerobic prokaryotes
Miller and Urey
Experiment recreating
...
Endosymbiotic Theory
• Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes
• Early prokaryotes engulfed other
prokaryotes and develo...
Abiogenesis
• Living from non-living or
spontaneous generation
• Disproved by Redi and
Pasteur’s experiments
Biogenesis
• ...
Natural Selection
• Theory of Evolution
• Fit organisms
survive, reproduce,
and pass on traits
Requirements:
• Variation
•...
Adaptations
• Trait that increases
survival
• For Example,
– Beaks that make it
easier to eat insects
– Bright flowers to
...
Evidence for Evolution
• Fossil Record
• Biochemical Similarities
• Shared anatomical
structures
Speciation
• Evolution of a new
species
• must be isolation
between populations
Antibiotic and Pesticide
Resistance
• Populations will
eventually
become resistant
to pesticides and
antibiotics with
over...
Coevolution
• Two organisms evolve in response to
each other
Ex. Flowering
plants and their
pollinators
Binomial Nomenclature
• Two word naming system
• Scientific name
• Uses Genus and Species names
• Ex. Dogs: Canis familiar...
Dichotomous Keys
• Used to identify organisms
• Paired set of questions with two choices
Levels of Organization
Phylogenic tree
Protists
• Unicellular Eukaryotes
• Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
• Reproduce mostly asexually
Fungi
• Multicellular
eukaryotes
(yeast are the
only unicellular
fungi)
• Heterotrophs
• Reproduce
asexually and
sexually
Plants
• Multicelluar eukaryotes
• Autotrophs
• Reproduce sexually and
asexually
Animals
• Multicellular
eukaryotes
• Heterotrophs
• Reproduce
sexually and
asexually
Non Vascular Plants
• Also called
Bryophytes
• No true roots or
vascular tissue
causing them to be
small in size
• Must li...
Gymnosperms
• Non-flowering vascular
plants
• Reproduce with
cones that contain
seeds
• Ex. Conifers (pine
trees)
Angiosperms
• Flowering vascular
plants
• Flower is main
reproductive organ
• Seeds are enclosed
within a fruit
• Ex. Deci...
Insects
• Transport through open
circulatory system
• Exchange gases through
spiracles and tracheal
tubes
• Most reproduce...
Annelids
(segmented worms)
• Transport through closed circulatory
system
• Exchange gases through moist skin
• Reproduce a...
Amphibians
• Transport through a closed
circulatory system involving a
three chambered heart
• Gas exchange in young with
...
Mammals
• Transport though closed circulatory
system involving a four chambered
heart
• Gas exchange through lungs
• Repro...
Viruses
• Not considered living things
• Pathogens that can mutate to resist
vaccines
• Ex. HIV, Influenza,
Smallpox
Genetic Disorders and the
Environment
• Many diseases have
both genetic and
environmental
factors
• Ex. Cancer, diabetes,
...
Immune Response
B-cells
• Fight antigens
in body fluids
• B-cells make
antibodies
• Make memory
cells after
exposure to
an...
Immunity
Passive Immunity
• Antibodies are
introduced into the
body
• Short term
• Such as mother
transfers antibodies to
...
Parasites
• Lives on or within a
host
• Benefits while
causing harm to the
host
• Ex. Plasmodium
causes malaria
(genetic i...
Toxins
• Chemical that causes
harm to the body
• Can be man-made or
produced by
microorganisms
• Ex. Mercury and
Lead
Ecosystems
• Collection of
abiotic (nonlivng)
and biotic (living)
factors in an area
• Together they
influence growth,
sur...
Symbiotic Relationships
• Relationship
between two
organisms in which
one benefits
• Types:
– Mutualism (+,+)
– Parasitism...
Predation
• Predator eats prey
• Evolve in response to
one another
Carrying Capacity
• Maximum number of
individuals that an
ecosystem can
support
• Limiting factors:
– Food availability
– ...
Carbon Cycle
Trophic Levels
• Steps in a food
chain/web
• Energy passes from
one organism to
another
• About 10% of the
energy at one l...
Human Population
• Growth= birth rate-death rate
Human Impacts
Positive
• Reforestation
• Cover Cropping
• Recycling
• Sustainable practice
Negative
• Acid Rain
• Deforest...
Global Warming
• Increase in the
average temperature
of the earth
• Caused by the release
of too much CO2 into
the atmosph...
Bioaccumulation
• An increase in
environmental
toxins at higher
tropic levels
• Ex. DDT and
birds of prey
Innate Behavior
• Behaviors an animal is
born with
• Includes suckling,
migration, hibernation
• Ex. weaving of spider
webs
Learned Behavior
• Behavior an animal
acquires during its
lifetime
• Includes
– Habituation
– Conditioning
– Trial and err...
Social Behavior
• Communication
between individuals
of the same
species
• Can be courtship,
territorial or
chemical
(phero...
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Bio EOC Key Terms Review

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Brief explanation of many key terms and concepts on the FL Bio EOC Assessment.

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Bio EOC Key Terms Review

  1. 1. Biology EOC Highlight Review
  2. 2. Organic Compounds • All living things are made of organic compounds. • Contain the element Carbon • Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
  3. 3. Carbohydrates • Monomer- monosaccharide • Function- energy source and structure • Tests: glucose-Benedicts starch- Iodine fructose • Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch
  4. 4. Lipids • Made of fatty acids and glycerol • Function- energy storage and insulation • Tests: brown paper test • Examples: fats and steroids Lipid vs. water
  5. 5. Nucleic Acids • Monomer- nucleotide • Function- carry genetic information • Ex. DNA and RNA
  6. 6. Proteins • Monomer- amino acids • Function- building and repairing cells, communication, transport, and regulation • Tests- Biurets • Examples: enzymes, hemoglobin
  7. 7. Enzymes • Catalysts in living things • Specific to a particular substrate • Reusable • Affected by temperature and pH
  8. 8. Cells Prokaryotes • Simple, no membrane bound organelles • Bacteria only • One circular chromosome • Includes: chromosome, ribosomes, and plasma membrane Eukaryotes • Membrane bound organelles • Plants and Animals • True nucleus containing chromosomes
  9. 9. Nucleus • “Control Center” • Contains chromosomes
  10. 10. Mitochondria Singular: Mitochondrion • “Powerhouse” of the cell • Produces energy in the form of ATP • Site of Aerobic respiration
  11. 11. Chloroplast • Site of photosynthesis • Plant cells ONLY • Contains the pigment chlorophyll
  12. 12. Vacuole • Storage of excess materials • Plant cells usually contain one large vacuole
  13. 13. Ribosomes • Proteins are synthesized • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  14. 14. Plasma Membrane aka: Cell Membrane • Surrounds the cell • Regulates what enters/leaves the cell • Helps maintain homeostasis • Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins
  15. 15. Cell Wall • Plant cells ONLY • Surrounds cell and provides support and protection. • Made of cellulose
  16. 16. Eukaryotes Plant • Cell wall • Chloroplast • Large central vacuole Animal
  17. 17. Cell Organization Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Individual organism
  18. 18. Cell Specialization • cells develop to perform different functions • Regulated by genes
  19. 19. Cell to Cell Communication • Chemical Signals (hormones) can be sent from one cell to another • Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane receive the signal
  20. 20. Diffusion • Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY NEEDED) across a membrane • Solutes move from high concentration to low concentration
  21. 21. Osmosis • Diffusion of water (also passive transport)
  22. 22. Active Transport • Particles moving against the concentration gradient which REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP) • Low concentration to high concentration
  23. 23. ATP • Energy storing molecule • Can be used for quick energy by the cell • Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds
  24. 24. Photosynthesis • Water and Carbon Dioxide used to produce Glucose and Oxygen • H2O+CO2C6H12O6+O2 • Occurs in the chloroplast
  25. 25. Aerobic Respiration • Used to release energy (ATP) for cellular use • C6H12O6+O2H2O+CO2 • Occurs in the mitochondria
  26. 26. Anaerobic Respiration aka Fermentation • Does not require Oxygen • also used to release energy, but not as efficient as aerobic respiration (less ATP) • Products include CO2 and lactic acid or alcohol • Two Types: Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation
  27. 27. Autotroph vs. Heterotroph • Obtain energy from the environment • Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis • “Producers” • Obtain energy from other living things • “Consumers”
  28. 28. DNA / RNA • Carry genetic information • Made of a chain of nucleotides • Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base
  29. 29. DNA / RNA DNA • Double stranded • “Double Helix” • Four base pairs: ATGC • Sugar is Deoxyribose • Found in nucleus RNA • Single stranded • Four base pairs: AUCG • Sugar is Ribose
  30. 30. Base Pair Rule • In DNA, Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
  31. 31. Replication • Making of an identical strand of DNA • “semi” conservative
  32. 32. Central Dogma DNA  RNA  protein  trait
  33. 33. Transcription • DNAmRNA • Occurs in nucleus • Complementary mRNA strand is produced from a segment of DNA
  34. 34. Translation • Connects amino acids in the correct order to make a protein • Occurs in the cytoplasm within the ribosomes A- amino acid B- tRNA C- anticodon D- codon E- mRNA F- Ribosome G-polypeptide
  35. 35. Codon • Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for an amino acid
  36. 36. Mutations • Change in DNA code • May cause a change in protein produced • NOT always harmful Sickle Cell Mutation
  37. 37. Mitosis • Cell division • Produces two identical diploid daughter cells • Occurs in body cells to grow and repair
  38. 38. Cancer • Error in cell growth with causes uncontrolled cell growth • Has environment and genetic variables
  39. 39. Meiosis • Cell division • Produces four different haploid daughter cells (gametes) • Occurs in sex cells to form gametes
  40. 40. Crossing Over • Homologous chromosomes exchange parts of their DNA • Creates variation in gametes
  41. 41. Nondisjunction • Homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis • Can lead to Down Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, and Klinefelters Syndrome
  42. 42. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual • One parent • Identical offspring • Variation only thru mutations • Examples: budding, fragmentation, fission Sexual • Two parents • Offspring different from parents • More variation • Fertilization (fusion of gametes)
  43. 43. Inheritance • Traits are specific characteristics inherited from parents • Genes are the factors that determine traits • The different forms of a gene are called alleles
  44. 44. Dominant/Recessive Alleles • Dominant alleles are expressed, if present, and recessive are hidden
  45. 45. Genotype actual alleles an individual has for a trait Homozygous • Both alleles are the same • Ex. BB or bb Heterozygous • Both alleles are different • Ex. Bb
  46. 46. Phenotype • The actual characteristic displayed by the individual (ex. brown eyes, Hemophiliac)
  47. 47. Incomplete Dominance • Heterozygote shows a blending of the dominant and recessive phenotypes
  48. 48. Codominance • Heterozygote expresses BOTH dominant and recessive traits • Ex. Roan animals
  49. 49. Polygenic Traits • Traits are influenced by more than one gene • Ex. skin color
  50. 50. Multiple Alleles • More than two alleles for a trait (an individual still only inherits two) • Ex. Blood Type (IA,IB, i) type A = IAIA or IAi type B = IBIB or IBi type AB= IAIB type O = ii
  51. 51. Sex Linked Traits • Sex Chromosomes – Female = XX – Male = XY • Sex linked traits are carried on the X chromosome • Ex. Hemophilia, red-green colorblindness
  52. 52. Test Cross • used to determine the phenotype of an unknown dominant individual • uses a homozygous recessive individual as the “test”
  53. 53. Pedigree • similar to a family tree • Shows pattern of inheritance of a specific trait through a family
  54. 54. Karyotype • Picture of someone's chromosomes • Can detect chromosomal disorders Ex. Down Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, and Turners Syndrome
  55. 55. Human Genome Project • Sequencing of human DNA • Being used to develop gene therapies
  56. 56. Gel Electrophoresis • Technique used to separate molecules (DNA or proteins) based on their size • Sometimes called a DNA fingerprint • Used to analyze and compare DNA
  57. 57. Recombinant DNA • Cell with DNA from another source • Bacteria used to produce human insulin • Human gene inserted into bacterial plasmid
  58. 58. Transgenic Organism • An organism with a gene from another source • used to improve food supply, research, and healthcare
  59. 59. Clone • An organism made from one cell of another organism • A genetically identical copy
  60. 60. Origin of Life • Abiotic earth LACKED Oxygen • Early organims anaerobic prokaryotes Miller and Urey Experiment recreating The abiotic atomospere
  61. 61. Endosymbiotic Theory • Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes • Early prokaryotes engulfed other prokaryotes and developed symbiotic relationships • Evidence includes mitochondria and chloroplast have prokaryotic type DNA
  62. 62. Abiogenesis • Living from non-living or spontaneous generation • Disproved by Redi and Pasteur’s experiments Biogenesis • Living from Living
  63. 63. Natural Selection • Theory of Evolution • Fit organisms survive, reproduce, and pass on traits Requirements: • Variation • Competition
  64. 64. Adaptations • Trait that increases survival • For Example, – Beaks that make it easier to eat insects – Bright flowers to attract pollinators – Vascular tissue in plants to adapt to life on land
  65. 65. Evidence for Evolution • Fossil Record • Biochemical Similarities • Shared anatomical structures
  66. 66. Speciation • Evolution of a new species • must be isolation between populations
  67. 67. Antibiotic and Pesticide Resistance • Populations will eventually become resistant to pesticides and antibiotics with overuse
  68. 68. Coevolution • Two organisms evolve in response to each other Ex. Flowering plants and their pollinators
  69. 69. Binomial Nomenclature • Two word naming system • Scientific name • Uses Genus and Species names • Ex. Dogs: Canis familiaris
  70. 70. Dichotomous Keys • Used to identify organisms • Paired set of questions with two choices
  71. 71. Levels of Organization
  72. 72. Phylogenic tree
  73. 73. Protists • Unicellular Eukaryotes • Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic • Reproduce mostly asexually
  74. 74. Fungi • Multicellular eukaryotes (yeast are the only unicellular fungi) • Heterotrophs • Reproduce asexually and sexually
  75. 75. Plants • Multicelluar eukaryotes • Autotrophs • Reproduce sexually and asexually
  76. 76. Animals • Multicellular eukaryotes • Heterotrophs • Reproduce sexually and asexually
  77. 77. Non Vascular Plants • Also called Bryophytes • No true roots or vascular tissue causing them to be small in size • Must live in moist environments • Reproduce with spores Ex. Mosses, liverworts
  78. 78. Gymnosperms • Non-flowering vascular plants • Reproduce with cones that contain seeds • Ex. Conifers (pine trees)
  79. 79. Angiosperms • Flowering vascular plants • Flower is main reproductive organ • Seeds are enclosed within a fruit • Ex. Deciduous plants
  80. 80. Insects • Transport through open circulatory system • Exchange gases through spiracles and tracheal tubes • Most reproduce sexually with internal fertilization • Develop through metamorphosis
  81. 81. Annelids (segmented worms) • Transport through closed circulatory system • Exchange gases through moist skin • Reproduce asexually and sexually with internal fertilization
  82. 82. Amphibians • Transport through a closed circulatory system involving a three chambered heart • Gas exchange in young with gills, adults lungs and moist skin • Reproduce sexually with external fertilization • Develop through metamorphosis
  83. 83. Mammals • Transport though closed circulatory system involving a four chambered heart • Gas exchange through lungs • Reproduce sexually with internal fertilization • Young develop in a uterus and exchange nutrients and oxygen through the placenta (placental mammals)
  84. 84. Viruses • Not considered living things • Pathogens that can mutate to resist vaccines • Ex. HIV, Influenza, Smallpox
  85. 85. Genetic Disorders and the Environment • Many diseases have both genetic and environmental factors • Ex. Cancer, diabetes, PKU
  86. 86. Immune Response B-cells • Fight antigens in body fluids • B-cells make antibodies • Make memory cells after exposure to antigen T-cells • Fight pathogens inside living cells • May help B- cells to make antibodies • Make memory cells after exposure to pathogen
  87. 87. Immunity Passive Immunity • Antibodies are introduced into the body • Short term • Such as mother transfers antibodies to infant through breast feeding Active Immunity • Antibodies are acquired when an immune response is activated in the body • Long term • Ex. Vaccines are weak/dead antigens that are introduced to the body
  88. 88. Parasites • Lives on or within a host • Benefits while causing harm to the host • Ex. Plasmodium causes malaria (genetic influence- carriers of sickle cell are resistant to malaria)
  89. 89. Toxins • Chemical that causes harm to the body • Can be man-made or produced by microorganisms • Ex. Mercury and Lead
  90. 90. Ecosystems • Collection of abiotic (nonlivng) and biotic (living) factors in an area • Together they influence growth, survival, and productivity of an organism
  91. 91. Symbiotic Relationships • Relationship between two organisms in which one benefits • Types: – Mutualism (+,+) – Parasitism (+,-) – Commensalism (+, o)
  92. 92. Predation • Predator eats prey • Evolve in response to one another
  93. 93. Carrying Capacity • Maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support • Limiting factors: – Food availability – Competition – Disease – Predation – Natural Disasters
  94. 94. Carbon Cycle
  95. 95. Trophic Levels • Steps in a food chain/web • Energy passes from one organism to another • About 10% of the energy at one level passes to the next
  96. 96. Human Population • Growth= birth rate-death rate
  97. 97. Human Impacts Positive • Reforestation • Cover Cropping • Recycling • Sustainable practice Negative • Acid Rain • Deforestation • Habitat Destruction • Invasive Species • Ozone depletion from the release of CFCs
  98. 98. Global Warming • Increase in the average temperature of the earth • Caused by the release of too much CO2 into the atmosphere which amplifies the greenhouse effect • Burning of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions
  99. 99. Bioaccumulation • An increase in environmental toxins at higher tropic levels • Ex. DDT and birds of prey
  100. 100. Innate Behavior • Behaviors an animal is born with • Includes suckling, migration, hibernation • Ex. weaving of spider webs
  101. 101. Learned Behavior • Behavior an animal acquires during its lifetime • Includes – Habituation – Conditioning – Trial and error
  102. 102. Social Behavior • Communication between individuals of the same species • Can be courtship, territorial or chemical (pheromones)

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