Men of African Ancestry have a Higher Risk of Developing Prostate Cancer
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Men of African Ancestry Have a Higher Risk of
Developing Prostate Cancer !!!
There are a few types of prostate cancer and the condition is often present in
different parts of the prostate. The precursor to prostate cancer is known as
prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and is also found in different locations
within the prostate.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
(BPH): This is a benign (non-cancerous)
type of tumor of the prostate. The
prostate grows larger and squeezes the
urethra. This prevents the normal flow of
urine. BPH is a very common problem.
For some men the symptoms may be
severe enough to need treatment or
Prostatic adenocarcinoma: This type of tumor is the most frequent form
of prostate cancer and accounts for 90 to 95% of prostate cancer. Prostatic
adenocarcinoma is occurring in the cells lining the glandular organ of the
prostate, the area responsible for the secretion of the chemicals that make up
a large portion of seminal fluid. The most common site of origin of prostate
cancer is the peripheral zone where two thirds of the prostate glandular tissue
is located. Typically, prostatic adenocarcinoma is a slow growing form of
cancer, and when foundearly there is a good chance of achieving cures.
Small cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is made of small roundcells. It is
a very aggressive form of prostate cancer that does not lead to a change in
prostate specific antigen (PSA). It thus can be more difficult to detect than
adenocarcinoma. The small cell carcinoma has usually reached an advanced
form upon detection.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of prostate cancer is non glandular
and like small cell carcinoma does not lead to an increase in prostate specific
antigens (PSA). Squamous cell carcinoma is a very aggressive form of cancer.
Prostatic sarcomas: This type of cancer is extremely rare and account for
less than 0.1% of primary prostate cancer. Prostatic sarcoma occurs in
relatively youngermen between the ages of 35 and 60. The tumoris made up
of prostate cancer cell types that are capable of developing into connective
tissues, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels originating from smooth muscles
of the prostate.
Twenty-five percent of cases present with metastatic disease at the time of
diagnosis. Prostatic sarcoma remains localized for a viable period of time
before it spreads locally to the bladder, rectum or perineum. Over more time
the tumor will spread to distant locations like the lungs, brain, bones or liver.
The most common sites of distant metastasis are the lungs.
Transitional cell carcinomas: This type of cancer rarely develops in the
prostate but derives from primary tumors present in the bladder or urethra.
Prostate Cancer – Causes and Risk Factors
There is not a known single cause of prostate cancer. In general, most cancers
are the result of many risk factors. However, some men with prostate cancer
do not have any identifiable risk factors.
Independent factors include:
• Men over 65: prostate cancer is not very common in men under 50.
• African ancestry: Men of African ancestry have a higher risk of developing
prostate cancer. They have about a 60% higher rate of prostate cancer than
Caucasian men. Men of African ancestry are more likely to be diagnosed at a
youngerage and with more aggressive and advanced tumor.
• Family history: the risk of developing prostate cancer is higher if a first-
degree relative (father or brother) has been diagnosed with the disease. Men
are at the most risk if more than one relative has been diagnosed and if the
relatives were diagnosed at a younger age. The risk doubles if a man’s father
had the disease, and if a brother had it, the risk triples; hereditary prostate
cancer typically begins among a cluster of relatives before age 55.
Dependent risk factors include:
• High-fat diet: a diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may increase the risk of
• Exposure to cadmium: Cadmium is a metallic element known to cause
cancer and is a possible risk factor for prostate cancer.
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